Study English – Series 2, Episode 17: Naturopathic Medicine

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today on Study English, you’ll have the chance to practice your reading comprehension skills. These are important skills, not just for the IELTS reading test, but for general academic studies as well. Today, we’ll focus on the skills you need to answer the range of question types in the IELTS reading test. Let’s begin by taking a look at the text. So there’s our comprehension piece. It seems quite long. But let’s start at the beginning. Read the title. We know that the passage is about naturopathic medicine. Do you know anything about the subject? You know the word medicine, but maybe not naturopathic.

It’s OK if you don’t. You don’t need to understand every word. We can probably figure out the meaning by paying attention to the context the word is used in, or by looking closely at the parts of the word. We know that naturopathic is an adjective, because it qualifies medicine. Now, let’s break naturopathic down. The first part naturo- sounds like nature.

The ending is the suffix -ic. Do you know other words that end in -ic? How about photographic or historic? The suffix -ic means relating to or of. So we could guess that naturopathic means something like relating to nature. Then we can guess that the meaning of naturopathic medicine is something like medicine that heals in a natural way. Can you think of any words you know that might belong to this subject? How about: herbs plants health healing or disease Let’s look at the text again. After you’ve looked at the heading, look for some other clues as to what it is about.

Are there any illustrations or diagrams? What’s the layout like? All these things will help your understanding of the subject. What kind of text do you think this is? It doesn’t look like a newspaper article or an instruction manual. It’s not an advertisement or a timetable. It’s probably an article from a journal. We can tell by the style, the subject and the way it looks. Did you notice the asterisk near the end of the text? When an asterisk is used like this, extra information or explanation is given at the bottom of the page. What we’ve just done is to use the skills of previewing and predicting. We put together all the information we could about the text we are reading.

We looked for a title, a diagram or any other information set apart – like the asterisk at the end of the text. We also made some educated guesses about what is in the article, by predicting some common words we might expect to see. Previewing and predicting before you start reading can help you process information quickly, because you know what to expect. It can also help you to follow the author’s ideas better, because you’ve prepared yourself for the text before reading it. Let’s get back to the text. How is it organised? It’s divided into paragraphs. Here, we have 2 paragraphs: paragraph A and paragraph B. Usually, a reading passage would have an introductory paragraph, several body paragraphs and a conclusion. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence. The topic sentence will give the main idea or subject of a paragraph. The skill of skimming involves reading over a paragraph very quickly to get a general sense of what it is about.

When you skim a text, you just want to get a general idea of the content. You’re not trying to read every word. If you just read the first and last sentences, you can often get a good idea of the main subject of the paragraph. Let’s try with paragraph A. Naturopathic Medicine Since the earliest beginnings, every known culture has been treating disease with natural therapies. So what is the main subject of paragraph A? Well we read about: the early beginnings of cultures types of natural therapies and cultures and natural therapies Can you choose which one of these things tells us what the text is about most accurately? Number one talks about beginnings of cultures. The text is probably not about that. It’s a bit too broad to be the topic sentence. So you might think it’s number 2 – types of natural therapies. This choice is too narrow. The text is about more than just natural therapies.

It’s number 3 that covers the idea of the whole paragraph. It is about cultures and natural therapies. This is what the topic sentence is expressing. You will be tested on your understanding of main ideas, so it’s a good idea to practice matching headings to paragraphs. When you need to look for specific information, like a name, date or place, you can scan a text. When you scan, your eyes move across the page very quickly looking for specific information. You can then skip over less important words. Let’s try to scan over the text to find answers to some short answer questions. Here’s our question: The early books of which countries mention natural healing methods? We’re going to scan the text, looking for the key words. The first known medical books of China, India and Greece all mention formulas used in healing. So we can answer by writing: China, India and Greece Let’s try another short answer question. Who was the father of Western Medicine? Here are the key words. Let’s scan the text. Hippocrates is the father of Western Medicine.

You can also use these skills when you need to answer multiple-choice questions, label a diagram or complete a table. Let’s take a quick look back over the skills we’ve used today: We looked at using previewing skills to predict what the text was going to be about. We talked about looking at the title, diagrams and style of the layout for clues to what the text might be about. We practised predicting the topic and guessing vocabulary that might be in the text. Next, we practiced skimming to find the topic sentence of the paragraph. Finally, we talked about scanning for keywords. And that’s all for today, but you can try out these skills and more on the Study English website. I’ll see you next time. Bye bye.. “}

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Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Study English – Series 3, Episode 2: Writing Task Response

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. I’m Margot Politis. Today we’ll look at the Writing Task in the essay section of both the general and academic IELTS tests. IELTS essay topics are of general interest and relate to current issues in society. You can expect to be asked about: The media, education, environment, health, communication, technology and society. Being familiar with issues in these general areas is important. Listening to English language media will help you develop a bank of ideas on topics like this. An issue in health could be about children eating too much and not exercising enough. You could be asked to discuss a statement such as: Children’s eating habits and lifestyles today are more likely to be harmful than beneficial. You should know the essay instructions. These tell you how much time you have and how much you need to write. You are instructed to spend about 40 minutes writing the essay, which has to be at least 250 words.

With practice you’ll know without counting what your 250 words look like. You will also be asked to give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is one of the instructions, so you need to follow it. Reasons are saying why you think something is true or not. You could write: An increasing number of children are becoming obese because they are eating too much junk food. Reasons are supported by examples, like this: For example, aggressive marketing of such foods towards children is one of the contributing factors. Relevant examples are examples like this that are clearly connected to the question. Now let’s look at an essay question, and how to analyse it before you write your answer. How well you do this will help with your task response, which is one of the criteria used to assess the essay. Let’s look at a question topic. Here’s a typical statement: The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation.

With this is something called the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? The essay question is always presented in this way as a statement followed by the question task. First, let’s look at the statement. Read it carefully. The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation. You should ask yourself ‘who or what must I write about?’ Here, you have to say something about ageing populations, developed countries, society in the future and the younger generation. Highlight these and any other key phrases, such as ’cause social and economic problems’. Think about what these phrases mean. Thinking of synonyms or words that mean something similar can help you do this. And you will need these synonyms later in your essay. Synonyms for ageing populations are: the elderly, retired people, the aged and pensioners.

They’re the people living longer or ageing. Developed countries – refers to modern industrial societies that have to financially support retired people. Synonyms are: western countries, first world countries and advanced economies. Social and economic problems are two kinds of problems. Social problems are problems that affect people, perhaps in areas such as health and education. Economic problems are problems to do with the economy of a country and its ability to pay for the services it provides. Society in the future means the country or nation or state in the future. And the younger generation are younger people or people who work. They’re the people who are not yet part of the ageing population. So you can rephrase or paraphrase the question like this: The younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer. The next thing to look at is the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘To what extent’ means by how much. Here you’re being asked to give your opinion about the statement. You might agree with it or you might think it is wrong.

It’s a good idea to reword this type of question into a ‘yes/no’ question like this: Do you agree that the younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer? Yes or no? You could think, yes, I agree completely or perhaps yes, I agree with some of this, but disagree with other parts of it. But keep in mind that asking how much you agree or disagree tests your ability to look at 2 sides of an issue and present a balanced argument. Even if you say yes and agree completely, you still have to look at the other side of the argument and think about why someone would disagree. You would need to write two body paragraphs in an essay of this type, one saying what you agree with and one saying what you disagree with. In the conclusion of your essay you would state your position on the topic.

Let’s look at another question. Internet access should be under government control to avoid any potential harm to children. Who or what must you write about? The internet, government and children. Now highlight other key phrases – under government control, avoid any potential harm. Let’s think of synonyms. We know what the internet is, but what other words can we use? – the net, the web, online, cyberspace.

Under government control means controlled by the government. Other words for government are the state or the administration. Potential harm means bad things that might happen. Synonyms for potential are possible or likely. And other words for harm are: damage and hurt. So we could paraphrase this statement as: The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. The same question task we looked at earlier can be used: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? You are being asked for your opinion. What you need to do here is say what you think.

The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. Yes or no? Now you should think about reasons for your point of view and why you don’t agree with the opposite view. So, to recap. The way you respond to the question and the instructions is part of what you are being marked on. The examiners call it task response. Make sure you follow the instructions and write the correct number of words.

That’s all for now. Don’t forget to visit our website at: australianetwork.com/studyenglish for more. I’ll see you next time on Study English.. “}

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Hypnotherapy in Brighton

Gabriella [ ForB English Teachers ]

{“en”:”Hi everyone. My name is Gabriella and I’m from England in the UK. My hometown is Durham. It’s close to Newcastle. My hobbies are yoga, photography and I love to travel. I love all Japanese food and I have been living in Japan a few years now. I’m really looking forward to teaching you all here at For B English, so please join us.. “}

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Hypnotherapy in Brighton

Study English – Series 2, Episode 6: Lasers

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to learn about lasers – what are they, and how they work. We’ll also practice structuring a description of how something works, and we’ll work on our vocabulary for describing colours. Let’s begin by listening to Imogen Jubb talk about the history and the science of lasers. Lasers are used in all sorts of settings like welding, cutting, surgery, communications, reading bar codes at the supermarket or reading the information stored on a CD or DVD. There are many types of lasers but they all have 3 main parts to them. They all have an energy source, such as a lamp, some sort of feedback mechanism, like this pair of mirrors, and also some medium, like the ruby crystal, which can amplify the light. Now the first laser was built in the 1960s. It was made from a ruby crystal, some lamps and 2 mirrors, one on either side of the crystal.

I’ve got a sort of model of it here. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. Some of this light bounces backwards and forwards between the two mirrors, and passes through the crystal each time. Each time the light goes through the crystal, it gets amplified, stimulating the same energy release in other parts of the crystal. So after many times in between the two mirrors, and many reflections passing through the crystal, you end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light that is just one colour.

One of the mirrors is only partially reflective, so some light passes out as the laser beam. Before Imogen explains the laser to us, she starts with an ‘introduction’, or ‘orientation’. That way, we know what to focus on. If you’re describing a device or a tool, it’s a good idea to introduce it by naming it and describing what it’s used for. This is useful in spoken English, and it’s also a good way to begin if you are writing in formal English. Listen to how Imogen introduces the laser. Lasers are used in all sorts of settings like welding, cutting, surgery, communications, reading bar codes at the supermarket or reading the information stored on a CD or DVD. She talks about the function of the laser and lists a few of the things we use lasers for today. In formal writing, if you were to introduce a discussion of lasers, you could structure your opening paragraph in a few ways.

One idea would be to start like this: A laser is a device designed to intensify a beam of light. Or, you might choose to write: The diagram is of a laser designed to scan barcodes. But Imogen chooses to begin by telling us what lasers are used for. She begins: Lasers are used in all sorts of settings. In your introduction, you could give some background about the device. Once the device has been introduced, you can talk about it in more detail. Let’s listen to Imogen describe the parts of the laser. How many parts are there and what are they? There are many types of lasers but they all have 3 main parts to them.

They all have an energy source, such as a lamp, some sort of feedback mechanism, like this pair of mirrors, and also some medium, like the ruby crystal, which can amplify the light. She talks about three main parts. All lasers have: an energy source, a feedback mechanism, and a medium to amplify light. In formal writing, we could structure this information in a number of ways. We might say that: A laser consists of a number of parts. Or: All lasers are comprised of three parts. Both of these sentences are structured to include a subject, a verb, and an object. You would then follow with a list or another sentence detailing exactly what the three parts are, in order: These are the energy source, the feedback mechanism and, finally, a medium to amplify the light. Imogen then explains how each part of the device functions.

Let’s listen as she describes each part. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. Some of this light bounces backwards and forwards between the two mirrors, and passes through the crystal each time. Each time the light goes through the crystal, it gets amplified, stimulating the same energy release in other parts of the crystal. So you can see how Imogen has built up a clear image of the device. In formal written English, you might finish off by explaining the ‘purpose’ of the device. You could say: The purpose of the laser is to generate an intense beam of light. Let’s hear how Imogen finishes her description. So after many times in between the two mirrors, and many reflections passing through the crystal, you end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light that is just one colour. She finishes by talking about what the purpose of the laser is, what it produces. She says: You end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light.

So let’s review how Imogen has structured her explanation. First, there was an ‘introduction’ to the object. Imogen told us that we were talking about the laser and then gave us some background. She then moved into the ‘body of the description’. She told us that it is made up of three parts, and listed those parts. In your writing, you might write three separate ‘body paragraphs’ – one for each of the parts. Then, you’d finish off with a ‘statement of purpose’ – what the object’s overall purpose is. Now let’s finish by listening to Imogen one more time, and then we’re going to talk about colours. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. When energy passes through the crystal, it gives off a particular colour of light. Light contains all the colours of the ‘spectrum’, or the ‘rainbow’. These are: red orange yellow green blue indigo violet We talk about shades of colour in different ways – most commonly by using light and dark.

For example: light blue dark blue Or sometimes we refer to nature, for example: sky blue forest green fiery red We also use precious stones to describe colour. For example: sapphire blue emerald green ruby red And that brings us to the end of Study English today. But for more information on structuring descriptions go to our website. You will find notes, exercises and quizzes to help you. Just go to abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish. And I’ll se you next time for more IETLS preparation. Bye bye.. “}

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Hypnotherapy for anxiety

10 Tips To Build Your Vocabulary | Ways To Learn More English Words

{“en”:”Hello! I’m Emma from mmmEnglish! What’s the best way to learn new English vocabulary? Ahh the million dollar question! If only I could give the ultimate answer to that question. It’s a question that I get asked daily – literally! There is no single best way. There is no quick solution, but I do have 10 tips or recommendations in this lesson that will help you to improve your English vocabulary. So you need to find the best way for you and to do that you need to take a few moments to think about YOU. Think about your interests. Do you like reading? The movies? Watching the news? How do you like to learn? Do you like to learn inside or outside, in a group or alone? What type of learner are you? How do you best take in information? And what’s your schedule like? When can you study? On the train or with your kids? Use this information to find the opportunities to learn and enjoy English.

The truth is that to successfully learn new vocabulary, you need to create really good study habits. You need to keep it interesting and you need to make sure that you’re having fun! It’s something that you need to be doing every day so you need to find a way to involve things that you love to do. Me? I get really bored reading grammar books and listening to words through dictionaries. I’m much more likely to stay motivated if I’m eating or drinking so I like to study around meals.

Hey, you may laugh but it works for me! Consistency is key when you’re learning new words. You can’t just learn them once and magically they’re kept inside your head forever. You need to hear them again and again. Understand how they’re used in different context or how they’re conjugated or used in different, in word families. You need to use them yourself. The truth is that we all learn differently.

So in this video I’m going to talk about 10 different tools and techniques that you can use to improve your vocabulary. You might not like all of them but you will definitely enjoy some of them and hopefully you can make them a part of your daily or your weekly routine. And if you’ve got any of your own suggestions about ways to learn vocabulary, then add them to the comments below! Share the love with everyone, people! So, the first suggestion or the first tip is get better at studying new words.

Keep a vocabulary journal. Don’t roll your eyes at me, you can do this in lots of different ways. If you think it’s dorky to carry around a notebook, then find a way that works for you. There are lots of apps that can help you to do this – apps on your smartphone. And it’s just as easy to make notes there. Your phone is great because it’s always with you but if you prefer to keep a notebook that’s just as good.

So neat ways of doing this are creating lists or by creating vocabulary maps. However, you do it you need to keep updating it and you need to keep building on this list and don’t just write the word down. Go deeper! If it’s a noun, learn whether it’s countable or uncountable. Learn the prefixes and suffixes so that you can build on those words. Learn synonyms for those words. You know, if you said “I felt angry”, there are so many other options.

Annoyed, irritated, furious, frustrated, or cranky. Learn if any of these words are used in phrasal verbs or idioms. Number two. When you do learn new words, don’t just learn them on their own. Learn them with the words that they are often used with. These are called collocations. Two or more English words that are often said together or used together. They sound right because native speakers often use them together.

For example, you throw or have or plan a party. You don’t make a party. Or instead of memorising the word, apply, learn the phrase “apply for a job” or “apply for a citizenship” or “apply for a visa”. You can learn hundreds of new individual words but you’ll be frustrated if you can’t put them together in a sentence that sounds correct and natural. When you learn words in groups, you’re learning the words with the verb, the nouns, the prepositions that they are commonly used with so you’ll sound much more natural when you speak.

Three. Learn new vocabulary through stories. Stories are full of new words, phrases and interesting expressions that show you how words come together in a really entertaining way. Just like the collocation method, you are learning new vocabulary in context. You’re not only learning what words to use but you’re learning how to use them. An important note to remember is that it’s important to challenge yourself but not feel completely overwhelmed and confused. Read stories that are fun, that are enjoyable and that help you to feel confident with English. Start with children’s books if you need to! “Emma are you serious? Start with children’s books?” Yes I’m serious! There are lots of great children’s books out there that are interesting, they’re funny, they’re full of adventure. Start with children’s books and when you’re reading them and it becomes too easy, you can try something a bit more challenging. In the description below I’ve linked to some great books that you can get started with.

In this wonderful day and age that we live in, you can also find audiobooks for almost any book that you can imagine and when you’re learning English, hearing how the words are pronounced is so important because English is not phonetic. In English, words are often not pronounced the way that you think they are, so listening and reading at the same time is even better! I use Audible to download my audiobooks and listen to them while I’m jogging, while I’m travelling, while I’m drifting off to sleep. And I’ve listed some really great books in the description box below. Plus, there’s a link down there to try your first audio book for free and I really recommend it.

Make sure you choose stories and topics that you love and that you’re interested in. On that note, TED Talks are also really great for this because there’s TED Talks on almost every topic imaginable and you can also follow the transcript as the speaker is speaking. I’ll link you to some of my favourite TED Talks in the description below too. Another great tip is to learn new vocabulary through songs. If you love listening to music, there is no doubt that learning new vocabulary through songs will help you to remember them. You need to find songs where the words are not sung too fast so that you can hear each word and how it’s pronounced. It’s more effective if you can download the lyrics and read them as you’re listening.

There are so many more benefits to learning vocabulary through songs! They get stuck in your head – if they’re good – so you’ll be singing them and practising them so often you won’t even feel like you’re doing it – in the shower, while you’re exercising, while you’re driving to work. Songs also use colloquial language or slang language that’s really common in English. You’ll also hear how words are contracted and reduced and it’s going to improve your speaking skills too.

If you’re singing out loud you’ll be improving aspects of your pronunciation. And the rhythm of music helps you to memorise new vocabulary. I’ll also link down there to some great websites where you can get lyrics for English songs and also, if you’ve got any suggestions about great English music that you like to listen to, make sure you add it to the comments. The next tip. Get better at using online dictionaries. Online dictionaries offer so many ways to practise and learn new English vocabulary. Let’s look at the word, produce, as an example.

When I look up this word in an online dictionary, I can read the definition, I can read and sometimes listen to the different verb forms, producers, produced, producing. I can read lots of example sentences that show how this word is used. I can also learn synonyms and collocations. You can also see the entire word family: produce, producer, production, productive, unproductive, productively, product, produce. You’ll also listen to the pronunciation and in this example, you’ll be surprised (maybe) to learn that the verb produce and the noun produce are pronounced differently. I recommend some online dictionaries below in the description box. I use Oxford online dictionaries and Macmillan online dictionaries. They also have really great apps for iPhone and for Android. So go and explore all of the amazing vocabulary building tools.

Plus, if you sign up to their email list you’re going to get sent a new English word every day and that’s just another way to get more practice with new vocabulary! OK, what about flashcards and labels? Flashcards have been a really favourite way of learning new vocabulary for years and years! But there are lots more options available for us today. You might prefer to hand-write English phrases on one side of a card and then translate them into your own native language on the other, but you can also use an SRS program such as Anki.

Now I downloaded Anki a few weeks ago and I think it’s amazing! It allows you to remember a large number of words in a short amount of time. And it also lets you work at your own pace so I guess it’s kind of like digital flashcards and as you practise, the program remembers what words you get wrong and it shows you them more frequently. So you get to practise some more! It’s a really efficient way of studying, I can’t recommend it highly enough! I use it while I’m studying Spanish.

Another tip – my favourite tip – is to describe the world around you, what’s happening around you. If you like using a dictionary to learn new vocabulary, getting into the habit of describing things that are happening around you in English is a really great way to study. When you’re unsure of words, look them up. It will help you to fill in the gaps in your vocabulary. So for example, when you’re at your local supermarket, ask yourself “Do I remember the names for everything that’s in the fridge?” or “How can I describe the woman waiting in line?” or “Do I know the English names of all of these vegetables?” When you can’t think of a word, you stop and you look it up.

Understand how it’s used, practise it and then use it again next time you’re at the supermarket. You can also do it on your way to work on the bus, as you’re going past things you can think of the vocabulary and try and fill in the gaps when you don’t know how to describe it or explain it. Number nine – my favourite – imitate a native speaker. Imitation and shadowing are great techniques to improve pronunciation and spoken English but they’re also awesome for learning new vocabulary, in context too. I have a huge range of imitation lessons that are available on different topics, so if you want to check them out you can go up here or I’ll link to them at the end of the video. And number ten. If you are confident enough, speak and practise being in conversations. By the time you’ve reached pre-intermediate to intermediate level, you already have enough vocabulary in you, you can communicate what you want.

The message might not be perfect but it’s enough and it’s at this point that practising real conversation is going to catapult your English skills and that means push them much further than if you just keep doing what you’re doing. In conversations, you’re developing core language skills simultaneously. You’re listening, you’re asking questions, you’re learning new vocabulary and context. You’re pushing yourself to find new ways to express your ideas. And if you’re not expressing yourself clearly enough, you have to find a new way of explaining yourself. And all of this is happening at once, there’s lots of pressure, there is no better way to build your language skills than immersing yourself inside an English conversation. There are so many different ways that you can do this. You can do it online, there are companies that connect you with people who want to study English like Cambly and Lingoda.

I’ll write a link to all of those in the description below too. Or in that link up there. I have a Facebook group that encourages conversation amongst women so if you’re a woman, you are welcome to join! It’s free and there is a link in the description below as well. So that’s it, my ten suggestions for improving your vocabulary. Try them out and let me know what you think! And if you’ve got some other suggestions about ways to improve your vocabulary, add them in the comments! Most importantly, you need to find ways to learn and practise vocabulary that will work best for you because hey, we all learn differently. We all have different priorities and different amounts of time to spend when we’re learning new languages. You need to create your own good study habits and find ways to enjoy English while you’re learning new words.

If you haven’t already subscribed to the mmmEnglish Channel, you should definitely do it! There’s always new lessons to keep you busy. Watch one of my imitation lessons right here to help you build your vocabulary and improve your pronunciation and become a better English speaker. If you want to watch some of the other mmmEnglish lessons, go right here. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you in the next lesson. Bye for now!. “}

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Hypnotherapy for anxiety

Study English – Series 3, Episode 26: Giving Advice

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis. What should you do to stay healthy? This is a possible question in IELTS. How might you reply to such a question – what language choices do you have? The language function required is “giving advice”. Today we’ll look at language choices in English for giving advice. First, let’s listen to someone giving advice about health: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure.

“Prevention is better than cure”. This is a common saying that means it’s better to avoid getting sick than trying to cure the sickness later. So what does our advisor recommend we do to prevent getting ill? There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. What sort of language does she use for giving advice? First she uses the modal verb ‘should’. Listen again: There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. The word ‘should’ is used in a number of ways. Here it indicates advisability – there are several things we should do to keep fit. Listen to another use of should with this meaning: You should try to walk a couple of kilometres every day.

The negative form “shouldn’t” is often used to give advice about what not to do. There are three things that you shouldn’t do. You shouldn’t smoke, you shouldn’t eat too much junk food and you shouldn’t drink too much alcohol. There is another modal verb that is used in the same way as should, but is a more formal choice, ought. It’s used by this man in an interview about immigration to Australia and its impact on the environment: It’s an open question whether people are applying more strain on the environment if they’re living in a flood plain in Bangladesh than if they’re living in Australia. Secondly, I think that if you’re worried about the environmental sustainability of the pattern of economic growth in Australia – and there are good reasons why you might be – then you ought to be looking at policies to reduce, say, carbon dioxide emissions, water usage, regardless of how many foreigners you let in or don’t let in.

“You ought to be looking at policies”. You could also say you should be looking at policies. Advice is suggesting choices, so you don’t use the word must. There is no choice when you say must – it’s an obligation or something you have to do. Sometimes you need to suggest choices in a way that doesn’t upset the person you are advising. Instead of saying ‘You shouldn’t smoke’, you can express it as a question: Shouldn’t you give up smoking? A more formal way of saying this uses the word oughtn’t: Oughtn’t you give up smoking? In the next clip, listen to another way of using should: If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. Here, should expresses the idea that this is likely to happen if the condition – having a good diet – is met. This is called a conditional.

The negative form, shouldn’t, is used in a similar way here: In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. It is a common language feature to use conditionals when giving advice, like this: If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. But you don’t always have to use ‘then’ after the ‘if’ clause: If you feel unusually sick, you need to consult a doctor. And the ‘if’ clause doesn’t need to be at the beginning of the sentence: You need to consult a doctor if you feel unusually sick. There is another structure in English using ‘should’: Should you have any questions, do not hesitate to ask. Here, should means ‘if’ – if you have any questions. It’s a polite invitation which you will often hear on planes. The cabin crew might say to passengers “Should you require any help” Now listen carefully to all the advice and concentrate on what tense is being used for the verbs: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest.

If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure. Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables for fibre, and get a good mix of proteins from fish and some meat, and reduce your intake of fatty food, sugar and salt. Exercise every day. You should try to walk a couple of kilometres daily. Playing sport, or going to the gym is an easy way to exercise your body. Exercise helps to relieve stress. You also need to rest. Health experts say we need about 8 hours sleep a night, but some people need less than this. If you feel unusually sick you need to consult a doctor. Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. Did you notice that many of the verbs were the base form, such as avoid or stay.

Listen again: Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. This is called the imperative form and it’s used for giving advice, and also to give orders. For example a teacher may say to a noisy class: Stop talking! Or Be quiet! You also use the imperative when you need to warn someone of danger: Watch out! There’s one more use for the imperative and that’s in instructions.

In the essay section of the IELTS Test you will read: ‘Write at least 250 words.’ In recipes you often see the imperative, like this: Fry the prawns. Chop the leeks. Add the noodles. The negative form of the imperative has don’t in front of it, like this: Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. You’ll hear this structure a lot in English. You might hear people, such as parents to their children, say: Don’t forget to telephone. Or Don’t get lost. Finally, you should know the difference between the words advice and advise. Listen to the way they are used by this woman talking about generation Y or gen Y: The baby boomers still like to have face-to-face meetings. They like to chat about certain things. A gen Y would be just as happy for you to send them a text message and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

Advise – spelled with an ‘s’ – is the verb form. Send them a text and advise them of a change of roster. Advice – spelled with a ‘c’ and pronounced with a shorter ‘i’ sound – advice – is the noun. They’re happy to get advice. Listen again: and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

That’s all for now. For advice on the IELTS Test, visit our Study English website. We strongly advise it. Good luck with your studies. Bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Study English – Series 3, Episode 23: Talking About Food

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis. The topic of food and the customs around preparing food come up often in the IELTS Speaking Test. It is useful to look at this topic area and think about how to select language and organise a response if you’re asked to talk about food, cooking and diet. Let’s begin by listening to someone talk about the various meals she has during the day: I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner. Let’s go over the language of meals. She mentioned breakfast, the morning meal, lunch, the meal we have in the middle of the day and dinner, which is the evening meal. So what other words are there? In the United States and Britain another word for dinner is supper. In Australia the word supper isn’t used very often and usually refers to a light meal late at night.

In Australia the other word for dinner is tea. Tea can also refer to afternoon tea or high tea, a formal English meal of small sandwiches, scones and a cup of tea. A tea break or a coffee break is a short time during the working day when people have a break with a cup of tea or coffee. Food and drink consumed between meals during the day or night are called snacks. You might hear people talk about ‘brunch’, which is a mid morning meal that combines breakfast and lunch, a bit like the Chinese yum cha. Yumcha is quite familiar to westerners these days and it would be reasonable if asked what your favourite meal is to talk about it as the speaker does here: The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yum cha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. So what might you be asked about meals? You might be asked what you usually have to eat for breakfast or whether you eat breakfast at all. Another common question is ‘What is the main meal of the day?’ How does the speaker answer that? I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner.

Her answer is dinner, but, as would be expected, she expands her answer to talk about other meals too. It is important to distinguish between meal and staple. Staple means the basic food most commonly eaten. For most people in Asia this is rice as it is with our speaker: Rice is the main staple in my diet. Staples in other countries are potatoes, and wheat in its various forms such as bread, pasta or couscous. When preparing for the IELTS Test, it is important to brainstorm a variety of topics and issues – to begin to develop your own ideas, and build up possible responses.

You should: think of examples think of reasons think of useful vocabulary To start you could divide the topic of food into various aspects such as: meat, fish, vegetables and herbs and spices. Cooking styles: boiling, frying and steaming. Cuisines: Italian, Indian and Japanese. Cooking utensils: pots, pans and woks. Eating utensils: plate, bowl, knife, fork, spoon, chopsticks. There are many things to say and ask about these things.

With food types, you might want to say that you don’t eat meat and that you are a vegetarian. You may even avoid eggs, milk and fish as well, in which case you are a vegan. You could be asked why people choose to be a vegetarian or a vegan. A good reason to be vegetarian is that it is a healthy diet, something our speaker is aware of: I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. You may be asked about what healthy food is or if junk food is bad for you and why. With utensils it’s possible that you may be asked to compare chopsticks with forks with a question like: Do you prefer to eat with chopsticks or a fork? Now let’s see if you can work out what question might have prompted our speaker’s reply. Listen to the clip, and think what question might have been asked.

Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. Perhaps she was asked: ‘Describe what you usually eat?’ That would require describing in the answer. Or ‘What do you usually eat?’, where you would have to identify what you eat. Which question is more likely? Listen again: Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. She’s identified or named the things she usually eats, so the most likely question would be: ‘What do you usually eat?’ Let’s try it again. What question? Think about the language function she uses: The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague.

What about: ‘Is it better to eat alone or with others?’ That needs you to give an opinion. She talks about eating alone, but doesn’t say that it’s better or worse than eating with others. So that’s not right. She explains who she eats with and when, so it’s more likely to be: ‘Who do you usually eat with?’ Does the answer fit? Let’s try it. The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. Let’s try one more. What might the question be? I don’t cook much.

My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite. What about ‘Can you cook?’ She doesn’t really say if she can or can’t. She just says she doesn’t cook much. It’s probably: ‘Who does the cooking where you live?’ I don’t cook much. My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite.

These questions might be asked individually in Part 1 of the Speaking Test, or joined together in Part 2. Part 2 is the long turn, where you have to talk for one to two minutes in response to a prompt card like this: Talk about what you usually eat every day. You should say: what you eat who you eat with, and who does the cooking where you live Let’s listen to the response: I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner. That often consists of some meat, maybe grilled, some steamed vegetables and rice. Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables.

The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. I don’t cook much. My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite. That’s all for now. To find more information about the IELTS Speaking Test, visit our Study English website. Good luck with your studies.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Speak English – Learn English Conversation! #9: Learn American English – Speak American English

{“en”:”Hello. Welcome. “Speak American English with Lyman Holton” My name is Lyman Holton. In this lesson you and me are going to have a conversation… as two people discussing directions to the library. Are you ready? Let’s begin. Repeat everything I say for Lyman and Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to.

My name is Kelly. And, may ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center.

Now, we’ve had our practice reading everything for both conversations. Now, what we’re going to do is begin our 1st conversation. Speak out loud as Kelly. You are Kelly. Just listen when Lyman speaks. I’m Lyman. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Kelly. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight.

Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. Let’s begin our second conversation. Let’s switch dialogues. I am still Lyman. You are still Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes.

Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Lyman. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Kelly. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Kelly. No problem, Lyman. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it.

Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. And, that concludes our conversation for this lesson. I hope you enjoyed it… and if you have any questions please feel free to post them below. Goodbye for now.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Study English – Series 1, Episode 22: Finance Report

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to another episode of Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to listen to a finance report. It’s filled with numbers and amounts, expressed in a variety of ways. It’s important to be able to understand and describe numerical data using decimals, fractions and currencies. Listen to the day’s finance report. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros.

The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. OK, first we’re going to look at decimals, and how you express them. Listen carefully again. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. In English, decimals are written with a point, not a comma. So we write 4.25, 6.1. When you say the numbers after the decimal point, you say them all separately, as individual numbers. So we have: seventy one point nine five forty seven point one eight nine thousand eight hundred and nine point seven nine Notice that a zero is often spoken as ‘oh’.

Practice saying these numbers: three hundred and twenty six point oh one four point eight nine seven nine hundred and two point three oh eight Listen again: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. You can hear that when using numbers, there are often alternatives, and many choices you can make. So conversationally, we would usually say one hundred and eleven point oh three, but will also often hear one hundred and eleven point zero three.

Here, we could say: zero point four two five nought point four two five or even just point four two five Notice that in North America, people usually say zero, not nought or ‘oh’. OK, now the other way of expressing numbers less than one is using fractions. Listen to the fractions here. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. She uses the most common fraction – a half. Listen to how we say common fractions: a half a third a quarter two thirds five eights three quarters Notice that once you understand the pattern, you can express any fraction you want. Try these: seven eighteenths 16 thirtieths 14 fortieths OK, now listen again to some of the report. Listen for different currencies: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen.

There were a number of different currencies mentioned in that clip: the pound; the euro; the yen; the greenback. Let’s have a look at them. Lots of countries use a dollar. In Australia, the Australian dollar is usually expressed with the dollar sign. But internationally, it’s written like this AUD. We read this the Australian dollar. In United States, they use the dollar as well. It’s the USD, the United States dollar. But often called the greenback, because it’s green. In Great Britain they use the pound. It is written GBP, but it’s often called the pound sterling. In the European Union, they use the euro dollar, written like this – EUR. In Japan, it’s the yen, written JPY. In China, it’s the yuan, written CNY, and the renminbi, RMB.

Notice that we write the currency before the number, but we say it after the number. So we read: two dollars. or four pounds fifteen. Notice also how we read longer numbers: three thousand, four hundred and seventy Japanese yen one hundred and ninety two Australian dollars Notice that when spoken naturally the one often becomes ‘a’ and the ‘and’ becomes squashed. We don’t say one hundred and ninety two but a hundred n ninety two. Try this one: a hundred and twenty seven thousand, three hundred and twenty two Hong Kong dollars OK, now let’s listen to the report again, and then we’ll look at another important use of numbers. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high.

Notice that she says Tuesday the 11th of November. Saying simple things like the date can be confusing in English, as the way they’re said varies. In Australia, we say the 11th of November, or November the 11th. Notice that it’s written without the words ‘the’, or ‘of’. For the 13th of February 2005, Australians would write this: 13.05.2005. But in North America, they’d write it: 02.13.2005. You’ll need to learn these to make sure you don’t turn up somewhere on the wrong day! So remember that in Australia they write the date: day dot month dot year, but in North America, they write: month dot day dot year. And there is an international standard that says the format should be: year dot month dot day. With numbers, dates, times, there are all sorts of variations. Just make sure you understand the currency, the time and the date, or you could find yourself in all sorts of trouble! And I’ll see you soon for more Study English! Bye bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Study English – Series 1, Episode 5: Global Warming

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to look at a topic you’ve probably heard a lot about – global warming and the environment. First we’re going to look at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas. Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global warming. While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is. OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip. What were some of the ideas you saw? What has caused global warming? We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down. So if you made those notes, you’d get an idea that these were the things causing global warming. Now let’s listen to someone talk about the causes. Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.

Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else? So what is global warming? It’s the result of billions of decisions. It’s caused by decisions made by individuals – like driving big cars rather than small cars. And it’s caused by decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the atmosphere. Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the atmosphere. OK, so you’ve looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and you’ve made notes about some of the causes of global warming. Now let’s look for some of the effects. So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect on weather patterns, and on nature. Listen to the speaker. Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global weather patterns. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So there’s been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave. So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from a text you’ve read, or from listening to someone speak.

This is how you can take notes. Once you’ve got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences. Let’s look at a couple of different ways. The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of statements. This can sometimes be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen. Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills. From the sequence of information, we realise that birds are laying their eggs earlier because gases are making the earth warmer. So a simple list of statements can show a cause and effect relationship. But there are other ways too. You can use the language of cause and effect. We can say: X causes Y. Driving cars causes air pollution. There are many other word choices as well. Driving cars leads to air pollution. Driving cars results in air pollution. Notice you can also turn the sentence around. Air pollution is caused by driving cars.

Air pollution is the result of driving cars. Air pollution is due to driving cars. Listen to an example here. There have been changes in global weather patterns. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. He’s talking about global warming. Global warming is the result of billions of decisions. Global warming is due to billions of decisions. And remember we can turn the sentence around, and change the phrase: Billions of decisions cause global warming. Billions of decisions result in global warming. Billions of decisions lead to global warming. When you’re writing about causes and effects, make sure you use a variety of these kinds of phrases. There are many to choose from. You should make lists of cause and effect language, and the kinds of vocabulary you can use to describe cause and effect relationships.

Now listen to another clip. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. When you’re writing up your notes using cause and effect language, you’ll need to be able to follow or track the subject of the text. Let’s look at that now. What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. The word ‘it’ here is called a referent. We use referents to identify and track subjects through a conversation or a piece of writing.

If you repeat the subject too many times, your work will sound boring. Listen to this: The woman came into the room. The woman sat down. The woman drank her tea. Look at how we use referents: The woman came into the room. She sat down. She drank her tea. When you are reading, you’ll need to be able to understand referents, and follow the subject through the text. Other referents are: this, that, these, those. Here’s the clip again. Listen to the way the referents are used. What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.

The word it here refers to global warming. What is global warming? Global warming is the result of billions of decisions. And here’s another referent: What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He says: You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He means: You can’t manage global warming at the scale of the individual. But notice how the subject changes here. What is global warming? It’s the result of billions of individual decisions.

You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. That’s why it needs international agreements. Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. The subject of this sentence is ‘managing the atmosphere’. That’s why it needs international agreement. So the ‘it’ here no longer refers to global warming. Now ‘it’ is referring to ‘managing the atmosphere’. That’s why managing the atmosphere needs international agreement. When reading and writing, you must be very careful to notice when subjects change, and to be clear about which subject is being referred to. This can be quite tricky sometime. Next time you see a paragraph, try to highlight all the referents like: it this that these those he she they Then try to work out what subject they are all referring back to.

It’s a great exercise, and it will help your reading, writing and speaking skills. And that’s all for today. Hope you keep enjoying your English studies and Study English! I’ll see you next time.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton