Study English – Series 3, Episode 2: Writing Task Response

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. I’m Margot Politis. Today we’ll look at the Writing Task in the essay section of both the general and academic IELTS tests. IELTS essay topics are of general interest and relate to current issues in society. You can expect to be asked about: The media, education, environment, health, communication, technology and society. Being familiar with issues in these general areas is important. Listening to English language media will help you develop a bank of ideas on topics like this. An issue in health could be about children eating too much and not exercising enough. You could be asked to discuss a statement such as: Children’s eating habits and lifestyles today are more likely to be harmful than beneficial. You should know the essay instructions. These tell you how much time you have and how much you need to write. You are instructed to spend about 40 minutes writing the essay, which has to be at least 250 words.

With practice you’ll know without counting what your 250 words look like. You will also be asked to give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is one of the instructions, so you need to follow it. Reasons are saying why you think something is true or not. You could write: An increasing number of children are becoming obese because they are eating too much junk food. Reasons are supported by examples, like this: For example, aggressive marketing of such foods towards children is one of the contributing factors. Relevant examples are examples like this that are clearly connected to the question. Now let’s look at an essay question, and how to analyse it before you write your answer. How well you do this will help with your task response, which is one of the criteria used to assess the essay. Let’s look at a question topic. Here’s a typical statement: The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation.

With this is something called the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? The essay question is always presented in this way as a statement followed by the question task. First, let’s look at the statement. Read it carefully. The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation. You should ask yourself ‘who or what must I write about?’ Here, you have to say something about ageing populations, developed countries, society in the future and the younger generation. Highlight these and any other key phrases, such as ’cause social and economic problems’. Think about what these phrases mean. Thinking of synonyms or words that mean something similar can help you do this. And you will need these synonyms later in your essay. Synonyms for ageing populations are: the elderly, retired people, the aged and pensioners.

They’re the people living longer or ageing. Developed countries – refers to modern industrial societies that have to financially support retired people. Synonyms are: western countries, first world countries and advanced economies. Social and economic problems are two kinds of problems. Social problems are problems that affect people, perhaps in areas such as health and education. Economic problems are problems to do with the economy of a country and its ability to pay for the services it provides. Society in the future means the country or nation or state in the future. And the younger generation are younger people or people who work. They’re the people who are not yet part of the ageing population. So you can rephrase or paraphrase the question like this: The younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer. The next thing to look at is the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘To what extent’ means by how much. Here you’re being asked to give your opinion about the statement. You might agree with it or you might think it is wrong.

It’s a good idea to reword this type of question into a ‘yes/no’ question like this: Do you agree that the younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer? Yes or no? You could think, yes, I agree completely or perhaps yes, I agree with some of this, but disagree with other parts of it. But keep in mind that asking how much you agree or disagree tests your ability to look at 2 sides of an issue and present a balanced argument. Even if you say yes and agree completely, you still have to look at the other side of the argument and think about why someone would disagree. You would need to write two body paragraphs in an essay of this type, one saying what you agree with and one saying what you disagree with. In the conclusion of your essay you would state your position on the topic.

Let’s look at another question. Internet access should be under government control to avoid any potential harm to children. Who or what must you write about? The internet, government and children. Now highlight other key phrases – under government control, avoid any potential harm. Let’s think of synonyms. We know what the internet is, but what other words can we use? – the net, the web, online, cyberspace.

Under government control means controlled by the government. Other words for government are the state or the administration. Potential harm means bad things that might happen. Synonyms for potential are possible or likely. And other words for harm are: damage and hurt. So we could paraphrase this statement as: The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. The same question task we looked at earlier can be used: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? You are being asked for your opinion. What you need to do here is say what you think.

The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. Yes or no? Now you should think about reasons for your point of view and why you don’t agree with the opposite view. So, to recap. The way you respond to the question and the instructions is part of what you are being marked on. The examiners call it task response. Make sure you follow the instructions and write the correct number of words.

That’s all for now. Don’t forget to visit our website at: australianetwork.com/studyenglish for more. I’ll see you next time on Study English.. “}

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Hypnotherapy in Brighton

10 Tips To Build Your Vocabulary | Ways To Learn More English Words

{“en”:”Hello! I’m Emma from mmmEnglish! What’s the best way to learn new English vocabulary? Ahh the million dollar question! If only I could give the ultimate answer to that question. It’s a question that I get asked daily – literally! There is no single best way. There is no quick solution, but I do have 10 tips or recommendations in this lesson that will help you to improve your English vocabulary. So you need to find the best way for you and to do that you need to take a few moments to think about YOU. Think about your interests. Do you like reading? The movies? Watching the news? How do you like to learn? Do you like to learn inside or outside, in a group or alone? What type of learner are you? How do you best take in information? And what’s your schedule like? When can you study? On the train or with your kids? Use this information to find the opportunities to learn and enjoy English.

The truth is that to successfully learn new vocabulary, you need to create really good study habits. You need to keep it interesting and you need to make sure that you’re having fun! It’s something that you need to be doing every day so you need to find a way to involve things that you love to do. Me? I get really bored reading grammar books and listening to words through dictionaries. I’m much more likely to stay motivated if I’m eating or drinking so I like to study around meals.

Hey, you may laugh but it works for me! Consistency is key when you’re learning new words. You can’t just learn them once and magically they’re kept inside your head forever. You need to hear them again and again. Understand how they’re used in different context or how they’re conjugated or used in different, in word families. You need to use them yourself. The truth is that we all learn differently.

So in this video I’m going to talk about 10 different tools and techniques that you can use to improve your vocabulary. You might not like all of them but you will definitely enjoy some of them and hopefully you can make them a part of your daily or your weekly routine. And if you’ve got any of your own suggestions about ways to learn vocabulary, then add them to the comments below! Share the love with everyone, people! So, the first suggestion or the first tip is get better at studying new words.

Keep a vocabulary journal. Don’t roll your eyes at me, you can do this in lots of different ways. If you think it’s dorky to carry around a notebook, then find a way that works for you. There are lots of apps that can help you to do this – apps on your smartphone. And it’s just as easy to make notes there. Your phone is great because it’s always with you but if you prefer to keep a notebook that’s just as good.

So neat ways of doing this are creating lists or by creating vocabulary maps. However, you do it you need to keep updating it and you need to keep building on this list and don’t just write the word down. Go deeper! If it’s a noun, learn whether it’s countable or uncountable. Learn the prefixes and suffixes so that you can build on those words. Learn synonyms for those words. You know, if you said “I felt angry”, there are so many other options.

Annoyed, irritated, furious, frustrated, or cranky. Learn if any of these words are used in phrasal verbs or idioms. Number two. When you do learn new words, don’t just learn them on their own. Learn them with the words that they are often used with. These are called collocations. Two or more English words that are often said together or used together. They sound right because native speakers often use them together.

For example, you throw or have or plan a party. You don’t make a party. Or instead of memorising the word, apply, learn the phrase “apply for a job” or “apply for a citizenship” or “apply for a visa”. You can learn hundreds of new individual words but you’ll be frustrated if you can’t put them together in a sentence that sounds correct and natural. When you learn words in groups, you’re learning the words with the verb, the nouns, the prepositions that they are commonly used with so you’ll sound much more natural when you speak.

Three. Learn new vocabulary through stories. Stories are full of new words, phrases and interesting expressions that show you how words come together in a really entertaining way. Just like the collocation method, you are learning new vocabulary in context. You’re not only learning what words to use but you’re learning how to use them. An important note to remember is that it’s important to challenge yourself but not feel completely overwhelmed and confused. Read stories that are fun, that are enjoyable and that help you to feel confident with English. Start with children’s books if you need to! “Emma are you serious? Start with children’s books?” Yes I’m serious! There are lots of great children’s books out there that are interesting, they’re funny, they’re full of adventure. Start with children’s books and when you’re reading them and it becomes too easy, you can try something a bit more challenging. In the description below I’ve linked to some great books that you can get started with.

In this wonderful day and age that we live in, you can also find audiobooks for almost any book that you can imagine and when you’re learning English, hearing how the words are pronounced is so important because English is not phonetic. In English, words are often not pronounced the way that you think they are, so listening and reading at the same time is even better! I use Audible to download my audiobooks and listen to them while I’m jogging, while I’m travelling, while I’m drifting off to sleep. And I’ve listed some really great books in the description box below. Plus, there’s a link down there to try your first audio book for free and I really recommend it.

Make sure you choose stories and topics that you love and that you’re interested in. On that note, TED Talks are also really great for this because there’s TED Talks on almost every topic imaginable and you can also follow the transcript as the speaker is speaking. I’ll link you to some of my favourite TED Talks in the description below too. Another great tip is to learn new vocabulary through songs. If you love listening to music, there is no doubt that learning new vocabulary through songs will help you to remember them. You need to find songs where the words are not sung too fast so that you can hear each word and how it’s pronounced. It’s more effective if you can download the lyrics and read them as you’re listening.

There are so many more benefits to learning vocabulary through songs! They get stuck in your head – if they’re good – so you’ll be singing them and practising them so often you won’t even feel like you’re doing it – in the shower, while you’re exercising, while you’re driving to work. Songs also use colloquial language or slang language that’s really common in English. You’ll also hear how words are contracted and reduced and it’s going to improve your speaking skills too.

If you’re singing out loud you’ll be improving aspects of your pronunciation. And the rhythm of music helps you to memorise new vocabulary. I’ll also link down there to some great websites where you can get lyrics for English songs and also, if you’ve got any suggestions about great English music that you like to listen to, make sure you add it to the comments. The next tip. Get better at using online dictionaries. Online dictionaries offer so many ways to practise and learn new English vocabulary. Let’s look at the word, produce, as an example.

When I look up this word in an online dictionary, I can read the definition, I can read and sometimes listen to the different verb forms, producers, produced, producing. I can read lots of example sentences that show how this word is used. I can also learn synonyms and collocations. You can also see the entire word family: produce, producer, production, productive, unproductive, productively, product, produce. You’ll also listen to the pronunciation and in this example, you’ll be surprised (maybe) to learn that the verb produce and the noun produce are pronounced differently. I recommend some online dictionaries below in the description box. I use Oxford online dictionaries and Macmillan online dictionaries. They also have really great apps for iPhone and for Android. So go and explore all of the amazing vocabulary building tools.

Plus, if you sign up to their email list you’re going to get sent a new English word every day and that’s just another way to get more practice with new vocabulary! OK, what about flashcards and labels? Flashcards have been a really favourite way of learning new vocabulary for years and years! But there are lots more options available for us today. You might prefer to hand-write English phrases on one side of a card and then translate them into your own native language on the other, but you can also use an SRS program such as Anki.

Now I downloaded Anki a few weeks ago and I think it’s amazing! It allows you to remember a large number of words in a short amount of time. And it also lets you work at your own pace so I guess it’s kind of like digital flashcards and as you practise, the program remembers what words you get wrong and it shows you them more frequently. So you get to practise some more! It’s a really efficient way of studying, I can’t recommend it highly enough! I use it while I’m studying Spanish.

Another tip – my favourite tip – is to describe the world around you, what’s happening around you. If you like using a dictionary to learn new vocabulary, getting into the habit of describing things that are happening around you in English is a really great way to study. When you’re unsure of words, look them up. It will help you to fill in the gaps in your vocabulary. So for example, when you’re at your local supermarket, ask yourself “Do I remember the names for everything that’s in the fridge?” or “How can I describe the woman waiting in line?” or “Do I know the English names of all of these vegetables?” When you can’t think of a word, you stop and you look it up.

Understand how it’s used, practise it and then use it again next time you’re at the supermarket. You can also do it on your way to work on the bus, as you’re going past things you can think of the vocabulary and try and fill in the gaps when you don’t know how to describe it or explain it. Number nine – my favourite – imitate a native speaker. Imitation and shadowing are great techniques to improve pronunciation and spoken English but they’re also awesome for learning new vocabulary, in context too. I have a huge range of imitation lessons that are available on different topics, so if you want to check them out you can go up here or I’ll link to them at the end of the video. And number ten. If you are confident enough, speak and practise being in conversations. By the time you’ve reached pre-intermediate to intermediate level, you already have enough vocabulary in you, you can communicate what you want.

The message might not be perfect but it’s enough and it’s at this point that practising real conversation is going to catapult your English skills and that means push them much further than if you just keep doing what you’re doing. In conversations, you’re developing core language skills simultaneously. You’re listening, you’re asking questions, you’re learning new vocabulary and context. You’re pushing yourself to find new ways to express your ideas. And if you’re not expressing yourself clearly enough, you have to find a new way of explaining yourself. And all of this is happening at once, there’s lots of pressure, there is no better way to build your language skills than immersing yourself inside an English conversation. There are so many different ways that you can do this. You can do it online, there are companies that connect you with people who want to study English like Cambly and Lingoda.

I’ll write a link to all of those in the description below too. Or in that link up there. I have a Facebook group that encourages conversation amongst women so if you’re a woman, you are welcome to join! It’s free and there is a link in the description below as well. So that’s it, my ten suggestions for improving your vocabulary. Try them out and let me know what you think! And if you’ve got some other suggestions about ways to improve your vocabulary, add them in the comments! Most importantly, you need to find ways to learn and practise vocabulary that will work best for you because hey, we all learn differently. We all have different priorities and different amounts of time to spend when we’re learning new languages. You need to create your own good study habits and find ways to enjoy English while you’re learning new words.

If you haven’t already subscribed to the mmmEnglish Channel, you should definitely do it! There’s always new lessons to keep you busy. Watch one of my imitation lessons right here to help you build your vocabulary and improve your pronunciation and become a better English speaker. If you want to watch some of the other mmmEnglish lessons, go right here. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you in the next lesson. Bye for now!. “}

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Hypnotherapy for anxiety

Steven Pinker: Linguistics as a Window to Understanding the Brain

{“en”:”My name is Steve Pinker, and Iu2019m Professor of Psychology at Harvard University.  And today Iu2019m going to speak to you about language.  ufeffIu2019m actually not a linguist, but a cognitive scientist.  Iu2019m not so much interested as language as an object in its own right, but as a window to the human mind.ufeff Language is one of the fundamental topics in the human sciences.

 Itu2019s the trait that most conspicuously distinguishes humans from other species, itu2019s essential to human cooperation; we accomplish amazing things by sharing our knowledge or coordinating our actions by means of words.  It poses profound scientific mysteries such as, how did language evolve in this particular species?  How does the brain compute language? But also, language has many practical applications not surprisingly given how central it is to human life. ufeff Language comes so naturally to us that weu2019re apt to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is.

 But think about what youu2019re doing for the next hour.   Youu2019re going to be listening patiently as a guy makes noise as he exhales.  Now, why would you do something like that?  Itu2019s not that I can claim that the sounds Iu2019m going to make are particularly mellifluous, but rather Iu2019ve coded information into the exact sequences of hisses and hums and squeaks and pops that Iu2019ll be making.  You have the ability to recover the information from that stream of noises allowing us to share ideas. Now, the ideas we are going to share are about this talent, language, but with a slightly different sequence of hisses and squeaks, I could cause you to be thinking thoughts about a vast array of topics, anything from the latest developments in your favorite reality show to theories of the origin of the universe.

 This is what I think of as the miracle of language, its vast expressive power, and itu2019s a phenomenon that still fills me with wonder, even after having studied language for 35 years.  And it is the prime phenomenon that the science of language aims to explain.  ufeff Not surprisingly, language is central to human life.  The Biblical story of the Tower of Babel reminds us that humans accomplish great things because they can exchange information about their knowledge and intentions via the medium of language.  Language, moreover, is not a peculiarity of one culture, but it has been found in every society ever studied by anthropologists.ufeff Thereu2019s some 6,000 languages spoken on Earth, all of them complex, and no one has ever discovered a human society that lacks complex language.  For this and other reasons, Charles Darwin wrote, u201cMan has an instinctive tendency to speak as we see in the babble of our young children while no child has an instinctive tendency to bake, brew or write.u201d ufeff Language is an intricate talent and itu2019s not surprising that the science of language should be a complex discipline.

ufeffIt includes the study of how language itself works including:  grammar, the assembly of words, phrases and sentences; phonology, the study of sound; semantics, the study of meaning; and pragmatics, the study of the use of language in conversation. ufeff ufeffScientists interested in language also study how it is processed in real time, a field called psycholinguistics; how is it acquired by children, the study of language acquisition.  And how it is computed in the brain, the discipline called neurolinguistics. ufeffu2028 Now, before we begin, itu2019s important to not to confuse language with three other things that are closely related to language.  One of them is written language.  Unlike spoken language, which is found in all human cultures throughout history, writing was invented a very small number of times in human history, about 5,000 years ago.

 ufeff And alphabetic writing where each mark on the page stands for a vowel or a consonant, appears to have been invented only once in all of human history by the Canaanites about 3,700 years ago.  And as Darwin pointed out, children have no instinctive tendency to write, but have to learn it through construction and schooling.ufeff A second thing not to confuse language with is proper grammar.

 Linguists distinguish between descriptive grammar – the rules, that characterize how people to speak – and prescriptive grammar – rules that characterize how people ought to speak if they are writing careful written prose.  ufeff A dirty secret from linguistics is that not only are these not the same kinds of rules, but many of the prescriptive rules of language make no sense whatsoever.  Take one of the most famous of these rules, the rule not to split infinitives.  ufeff According to this rule, Captain Kirk made a grievous grammatical error when he said that the mission of the Enterprise was u201cto boldly go where no man has gone before.u201d  He should have said, according to these editors, u201cto go boldly where no man has gone before,u201d which immediately clashes with the rhythm and structure of ordinary English.  In fact, this prescriptive rule was based on a clumsy analogy with Latin where you canu2019t splint an infinitive because itu2019s a single word, as in facary[ph] to do.

 Julius Caesar couldnu2019t have split an infinitive if he wanted to.  That rule was translated literally over into English where it really should not apply.  ufeff Another famous prescriptive rule is that, one should never use a so-called double negative.  Mick Jagger should not have sung, u201cI canu2019t get no satisfaction,u201d he really should have sung, u201cI canu2019t get any satisfaction.u201d  Now, this is often promoted as a rule of logical speaking, but u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201canyu201d is just as much of a double negative as u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201cno.u201d  The only reason that u201ccanu2019t get any satisfactionu201d is deemed correct and u201ccanu2019t get no satisfactionu201d is deemed ungrammatical is that the dialect of English spoken in the south of England in the 17th century used u201ccanu2019tu201d u201canyu201d rather than u201ccanu2019tu201d u201cno.u201d  ufeff If the capital of England had been in the north of the country instead of the south of the country, then u201ccanu2019t get no,u201d would have been correct and u201ccanu2019t get any,u201d would have been deemed incorrect.

ufeff Thereu2019s nothing special about a language that happens to be chosen as the standard for a given country.  In fact, if you compare the rules of languages and so-called dialects, each one is complex in different ways.  Take for example, African-American vernacular English, also called Black English or Ebonics.  There is a construction in African-American where you can say, u201cHe be workin,u201d which is not an error or bastardization or a corruption of Standard English, but in fact conveys a subtle distinction, one thatu2019s different than simply, u201cHe workin.u201d  u201cHe be workin,u201d means that he is employed; he has a job, u201cHe workin,u201d means that he happens to be working at the moment that you and I are speaking.  ufeff Now, this is a tense difference that can be made in African-American English that is not made in Standard English, one of many examples in which the dialects have their own set of rules that is just as sophisticated and complex as the one in the standard language.

 ufeff Now, a third thing, not to confuse language with is thought.  Many people report that they think in language, but commune of psychologists have shown that there are many kinds of thought that donu2019t actually take place in the form of sentences.  ufeff (1.) Babies (and other mammals) communicate without speech ufeffFor example, we know from ingenious experiments that non-linguistic creatures, such as babies before theyu2019ve learned to speak, or other kinds of animals, have sophisticated kinds of cognition, they register cause and effect and objects and the intentions of other people, all without the benefit of speech.  ufeff (2.) Types of thinking go on without language–visual thinkingufeff We also know that even in creatures that do have language, namely adults, a lot of thinking goes on in forms other than language, for example, visual imagery.  If you look at the top two three-dimensional figures in this display, and I would ask you, do they have the same shape or a different shape?  People donu2019t solve that problem by describing those strings of cubes in words, but rather by taking an image of one and mentally rotating it into the orientation of the other, a form of non-linguistic thinking.

 ufeff (3.) We use tacit knowledge to understand language and remember the gistufeff For that matter, even when you understand language, what you come away with is not in itself the actual language that you hear.  Another important finding in cognitive psychology is that long-term memory for verbal material records the gist or the meaning or the content of the words rather than the exact form of the words.  ufeff For example, I like to think that you retain some memory of what I have been saying for the last 10 minutes.

 But I suspect that if I were to ask you to reproduce any sentence that I have uttered, you would be incapable of doing so.  What sticks in memory is far more abstract than the actual sentences, something that we can call meaning or content or semantics.  ufeff In fact, when it even comes to   understanding a sentence, the actual words are the tip of a vast iceberg of a very rapid, unconscious, non-linguistic processing thatu2019s necessary even to make sense of the language itself.  And Iu2019ll illustrate this with a classic bit of poetry, the lines from the shampoo bottle.

 u201cWet hair, lather, rinse, repeat.u201d  ufeff Now, in understanding that very simple snatch of language, you have to know, for example, that when you repeat, you donu2019t wet your hair a second time because its already wet, and when you get to the end of it and you see u201crepeat,u201d you donu2019t keep repeating over and over in infinite loop, repeat here means, u201crepeat just once.u201d  Now this tacit knowledge of what the writers **** of language had in mind is necessary to understand language, but it, itself, is not language. ufeff (4.) If language is thinking, then where did it come from?ufeff Finally, if language were really thought, it would raise the question of where language would come from if it were incapable of thinking without language.  After all, the English language was not designed by some committee of Martians who came down to Earth and gave it to us.  Rather, language is a grassroots phenomenon.  Itu2019s the original wiki, which aggregates the contributions of hundreds of thousands of people who invent jargon and slang and new constructions, some of them get accumulated into the language as people seek out new ways of expressing their thoughts, and thatu2019s how we get a language in the first place.

 ufeff Now, this not to deny that language can affect thought and linguistics has long been interested in what has sometimes been called, the linguistic relativity hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (note correct spelling, named after the two linguists who first formulated it, namely that language can affect thought.  Thereu2019s a lot of controversy over the status of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, but no one believes that language is the same thing as thought and that all of our mental life consists of reciting sentences.

 ufeff Now that we have set aside what language is not, letu2019s turn to what language is beginning with the question of how language works. In a nutshell, you can divide language into three topics.  ufeff There are the words that are the basic components of sentences that are stored in a part of long-term memory that we can call the mental lexicon or the mental dictionary.  There are rules, the recipes or algorithms that we use to assemble bits of language into more complex stretches of language including syntax, the rules that allow us to assemble words into phrases and sentences; Morphology, the rules that allow us to assemble bits of words, like prefixes and suffixes into complex words; Phonology, the rules that allow us to combine vowels and consonants into the smallest words.

 And then all of this knowledge of language has to connect to the world through interfaces that allow us to understand language coming from others to produce language that others can understand us, the language interfaces.ufeff Letu2019s start with words.ufeff The basic principle of a word was identified by the Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, more than 100 years ago when he called attention to the arbitrariness of the sign.  Take for example the word, u201cduck.u201d  The word, u201cducku201d doesnu2019t look like a duck or walk like a duck or quack like a duck, but I can use it to get you to think the thought of a duck because all of us at some point in our lives have memorized that brute force association between that sound and that meaning, which means that it has to be stored in memory in some format, in a very simplified form and an entry in the mental lexicon might look something like this.

 There is a symbol for the word itself, there is some kind of specification of its sound and thereu2019s some kind of specification of its meaning.  ufeff Now, one of the remarkable facts about the mental lexicon is how capacious it is.  Using dictionary sampling techniques where you say, take the top left-hand word on every 20th page of the dictionary, give it to people in a multiple choice test, correct for guessing, and multiply by the size of the dictionary, you can estimate that a typical high school graduate has a vocabulary of around 60,000 words, which works out to a rate of learning of about one new word every two hours starting from the age of one.  When you think that every one of these words is arbitrary as a telephone number of a date in history, youu2019re reminded about the remarkable capacity of human long-term memory to store the meanings and sounds of words.

 ufeff But of course, we donu2019t just blurt out individual words, we combine them into phrases and sentences.  And that brings up the second major component of language; namely, grammar.  ufeff Now the modern study of grammar is inseparable to the contributions of one linguist, the famous scholar, Noam Chomsky, who set the agenda for the field of linguistics for the last 60 years. ufeff To begin with, Chomsky noted that the main puzzle that we have to explain in understanding language is creativity or as linguists often call it productivity, the ability to produce and understand new sentences.  ufeff Except for a small number of clichu00e9d formulas, just about any sentence that you produce or understand is a brand new combination produced for the first time perhaps in your life, perhaps even in the history of the species.

 We have to explain how people are capable of doing it.  It shows that when we know a language, we havenu2019t just memorized a very long list of sentences, but rather have internalized a grammar or algorithm or recipe for combining elements into brand new assemblies.  For that reason, Chomsky has insisted that linguistics is really properly a branch of psychology and is a window into the human mind. ufeff A second insight is that languages have a syntax which canu2019t be identified with their meaning.  Now, the only quotation that I know of, of a linguist that has actually made it into Bartlettu2019s Familiar Quotations, is the following sentence from Chomsky, from 1956, u201cColorless, green ideas sleep furiously.u201d  Well, whatu2019s the point of that sentence?  The point is that it is very close to meaningless.

 On the other hand, any English speaker can instantly recognize that it conforms to the patterns of English syntax.  Compare, for example, u201cfuriously sleep ideas dream colorless,u201d which is also meaningless, but we perceive as a word salad.  ufeff A third insight is that syntax doesnu2019t consist of a string of word by word associations as in stimulus response theories in psychology where producing a word is a response which you then hear and it becomes a stimulus to producing the next word, and so on.  Again, the sentence, u201ccolorless green ideas sleep furiously,u201d can help make this point.  Because if you look at the word by word transition probabilities in that sentence, for example, colorless and then green; how often have you heard colorless and green in succession.  Probably zero times.  Green and ideas, those two words never occur together, ideas and sleep, sleep and furiously.  Every one of the transition probabilities is very close to zero, nonetheless, the sentence as a whole can be perceived as a well-formed English sentence.

 ufeff Language in general has long distance dependencies.  The word in one position in a sentence can dictate the choice of the word several positions downstream.  For example, if you begin a sentence with u201ceither,u201d somewhere down the line, there has to be an u201cor.u201d  If you have an u201cif,u201d generally, you expect somewhere down the line there to be a u201cthen.u201d  Thereu2019s a story about a child who says to his father, u201cDaddy, why did you bring that book that I donu2019t want to be read to out of, up for?u201d  Where you have a set of nested or embedded long distance dependencies.

 ufeff Indeed, one of the applications of linguistics to the study of good prose style is that sentences can be rendered difficult to understand if they have too many long distance dependencies because that could put a strain on the short-term memory of the reader or listener while trying to understand them.  ufeff Rather than a set of word by word associations, sentences are assembled in a hierarchical structure that looks like an upside down tree.  Let me give you an example of how that works in the case of English.  One of the basic rules of English is that a sentence consists of a noun phrase, the subject, followed by a verb phrase, the predicate.ufeff A second rule in turn expands the verb phrase.  A very phrase consists of a verb followed by a noun phrase, the object, followed by a sentence, the complement as, u201cI told him that it was sunny outside.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, why do linguists insist that language must be composed out of  phrase structural rules?  ufeff (1.) Rules allow for open-ended creativity ufeffWell for one thing, that helps explain the main phenomenon that we want to explain, mainly the open-ended creativity of language.

 ufeff (2.) Rules allow for expression of unfamiliar meaningufeff It allows us to express unfamiliar meanings.  Thereu2019s a clichu00e9 in journalism for example, that when a dog bites a man, that isnu2019t news, but when a man bites a dog, that is news.  The beauty of grammar is that it allows us to convey news by assembling into familiar word in brand new combinations.  Also, because of the way phrase structure rules work, they produce a vast number of possible combinations. ufeff (3.) Rules allow for production of vast numbers of combinationsufeff Moreover, the number of different thoughts that we can express through the combinatorial power of grammar is not just humongous, but in a technical sense, itu2019s infinite.  Now of course, no one lives an infinite number of years, and therefore can shell off their ability to understand an infinite number of sentences, but you can make the point in the same way that a mathematician can say that someone who understands the rules of arithmetic knows that there are an infinite number of numbers, namely if anyone ever claimed to have found the longest one, you can always come up with one thatu2019s even bigger by adding a one to it.

 And you can do the same thing with language.  ufeff Let me illustrate it in the following way.  As a matter of fact, there has been a claim that there is a worldu2019s longest sentence.  ufeff Who would make such a claim?  Well, who else?  The Guinness Book of World Records.  You can look it up.  There is an entry for the Worldu2019s Longest Sentence.  It is 1,300 words long.  And it comes from a novel by William Faulkner.  Now I wonu2019t read all 1,300 words, but Iu2019ll just tell you how it begins.

 ufeff u201cThey both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltationu2026u201d and it runs on from there. ufeff But Iu2019m here to tell you that in fact, this is not the worldu2019s longest sentence.  And Iu2019ve been tempted to obtain immortality in Guinness by submitting the following record breaker.  “Faulkner wrote, they both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltation.u201d  But sadly, this would not be immortality after all but only the proverbial 15 minutes of fame because based on what you now know, you could submit a record breaker for the record breaker namely, “Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote” or “Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote”, or “who cares that Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wroteu2026”  ufeff Take for example, the following wonderfully ambiguous sentence that appeared in TV Guide.

 u201cOn tonightu2019s program, Conan will discuss sex with Dr. Ruth.u201d  ufeff Now this has a perfectly innocent meaning in which the verb, u201cdiscussu201d involves two things, namely the topic of discussion, u201csexu201d and the person with who itu2019s being discussed, in this case, with Dr. Ruth.  But is has a somewhat naughtier meaning if you rearrange the words into phrases according to a different structure in which case u201csex with Dr. Ruthu201d is the topic of conversation, and thatu2019s whatu2019s being discussed.  ufeff Now, phrase structure not only can account for our ability to produce so many sentences, but itu2019s also necessary for us to understand what they mean.  The geometry of branches in a phrase structure is essential to figuring out who did what to whom.ufeff Another important contribution of Chomsky to the science of language is the focus on language acquisition by children.

Now, children canu2019t memorize sentences because knowledge of language isnu2019t just one long list of memorized sentences, but somehow they must distill out or abstract out the rules that goes into assembling sentences based on what they hear coming out of their parentu2019s mouths when they were little.  And the talent of using rules to produce combinations is in evidence from the moment that kids begin to speak.  ufeff Children create sentences unheard from adultsufeff At the two-word stage, which you typically see in children who are 18 months or a bit older, kids are producing the smallest sentences that deserve to be counted as sentences, namely two words long.  But already itu2019s clear that they are putting them together using rules in their own mind.  To take an example, a child might say, u201cmore outside,u201d meaning, take them outside or let them stay outside.  Now, adults donu2019t say, u201cmore outside.u201d  So itu2019s not a phrase that the child simply memorized by rote, but it shows that already children are using these rules to put together new combinations.

 ufeff Another example, a child having jam washed from his fingers said to his mother ‘all gone sticky’.ufeff Again, not a phrase that you could ever have copied from a parent, but one that shows the child producing new combinations.  ufeff Past tense ruleufeff An easy way of showing that children assimilate rules of grammar unconsciously from the moment they begin to speak, is the use of the past tense rule. ufeff For example, children go through a long stage in which they make errors like, u201cWe holded the baby rabbitsu201d or u201cHe teared the paper and then he sticked it.u201d  Cases in which they over generalize the regular rule of forming the past tense, add u2018edu2019 to irregular verbs like u201chold,u201d u201csticku201d or u201ctear.u201d  And itu2019s easy to showu2026 itu2019s easy to get children to flaunt this ability to apply rules productively in a laboratory demonstration called the Wug Test.

 You bring a kid into a lab.  You show them a picture of a little bird and you say, u201cThis is a wug.u201d  And you show them another picture and you say, u201cWell, now there are two of them.u201d  There are two and children will fill in the gap by saying u201cwugs.u201d  Again, a form they could not have memorize because itu2019s invented for the experiment, but it shows that they have productive mastery of the regular plural rule in English.  ufeff And famously, Chomsky claimed that children solved the problem of language acquisition by having the general design of language already wired into them in the form of a universal grammar.  ufeff A spec sheet for what the rules of any language have to look like.  ufeff What is the evidence that children are born with a universal grammar?  Well, surprisingly, Chomsky didnu2019t propose this by actually studying kids in the lab or kids in the home, but through a more abstract argument called, u201cThe poverty of the input.u201d  Namely, if you look at what goes into the ears of a child and look at the talent they end up with as adults, there is a big chasm between them that can only be filled in by assuming that the child has a lot of knowledge of the way that language works already built in.

 ufeff Hereu2019s how the argument works.  One of the things that children have to learn when they learn English is how to form a question.  Now, children will get evidence from parentu2019s speech to how the question rule works, such as sentences like, u201cThe man is here,u201d ufeffand the corresponding question, u201cIs the man here?u201dufeff   Now, logically speaking, a child getting that kind of input could posit two different kinds of rules.

ufeffThereu2019s a simple word by word linear rule.  In this case, find the first u201cisu201d in the sentence and move it to the front.  u201cThe man is here,u201d u201cIs the man here?u201d Now thereu2019s a more complex rule that the child could posit called a structure dependent rule, one that looks at the geometry of the phrase structure tree.  In this case, the rule would be:  find the first u201cisu201d after the subject noun phrase and move that to the front of the sentence.  A diagram of what that rule would look like is as follows:  you look for the u201cisu201d that occurs after the subject noun phrase and thatu2019s what gets moved to the front of the sentence.  Now, whatu2019s the difference between the simple word-by-word rule and the more complex structured dependent rule?  Well, you can see the difference when it comes to performing the question from a slightly more complex sentence like, u201cThe man who is tall is in the room.u201d  ufeff But how is the child supposed to learn that?  How did all of us end up with the correct structured dependent of the rule rather than the far simpler word-by-word version of the rule? ufeff u201cWell,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cif you were actually to look at the kind of language that all of us hear, itu2019s actually quite rare to hear a sentence like, u201cIs the man who is tall in the room?  The kind of input that would logically inform you that the word-by-word rule is wrong and the structure dependent rule is right.

 Nonetheless, we all grow up into adults who unconsciously use the structure dependent rule rather than the word-by-word rule.  Moreover, children donu2019t make errors like, u201cis the man who tall is in the room,u201d as soon as they begin to form complex questions, they use the structure dependent rule.  And that,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cis evidence that structure dependent rules are part of the definition of universal grammar that children are born with.u201d  ufeff Now, though Chomsky has been fantastically influential in the science of language that does not mean that all language scientists agree with him.  And there have been a number of critiques of Chomsky over the years.  For one thing, the critics point out, Chomsky hasnu2019t really shown principles of universal grammar that are specific to language itself as opposed to general ways in which the human mind works across multiple domains, language and vision and control of motion and memory and so on.  We donu2019t really know that universal grammar is specific to language, according to this critique. ufeff Secondly, Chomsky and the linguists working with him have not examined all 6,000 of the worldu2019s languages and shown that the principles of universal grammar apply to all 6,000.

 Theyu2019ve posited it based on a small number of languages and the logic of the poverty of the input, but havenu2019t actually come through with the data that would be necessary to prove that universal grammar is really universal.  ufeff Finally, the critics argue, Chomsky has not shown that more general purpose learning models, such as neuro network models, are incapable of learning language together with all the other things that children learn, and therefore has not proven that there has to be specific knowledge how grammar works in order for the child to learn grammar.

  ufeff  Another component of language governs the sound pattern of language, the ways that the vowels and consonants can be assembled into the minimal units that go into words.  Phonology, as this branch of linguistics is called, consists of formation rules that capture what is a possible word in a language according to the way that it sounds.   To give you an example, the sequence, bluk, is not an English word, but you get a sense that it could be an English word that someone could coin a new formu2026 that someone could coin a new term of English that we pronounce u201cbluk.u201d  But when you hear the sound ****, you instantly know thatthat not only isnu2019t it an English word, but it really couldnu2019t be an English word.

 ****, by the way, comes from Yiddish and it means kind of to sigh or to moan.  Oi.  Thatu2019s to ****.  ufeff The reason that we recognize that itu2019s not English is because it has sounds like **** and sequences like ****, which arenu2019t part of the formation rules of English phonology.  But together with the rules that define the basic words of a language, there are also phonological rules that make adjustments to the sounds, depending on what the other words the word appears with.  Very few of us realize, for example, in English, that the past tense suffix u201cedu201d ufeffis actually pronounced in three different ways.  When we say, u201cHe walked,u201d ufeffwe pronounce the u201cedu201d like a u201cta,u201d walked.  When we say u201cjogged,u201d ufeffwe pronounce it as a u201cd,u201d jogged.

 And when we say u201cpatted,u201dufeff we stick in a vowel, pat-ted, showing that the same suffix, u201cedu201d can be readjusted in its pronunciation according to the rules of English phonology.  ufeff Now, when someone acquires English as a foreign language or acquires a foreign language in general, they carry over the rules of phonology of their first language and apply it to their second language.  We have a word for it; we call it an u201caccent.u201d  When a language user deliberately manipulates the rules of phonology, that is, when they donu2019t just speak in order to convey content, they pay attention as to what phonological structures are being used; we call it poetry and rhetoric.  ufeff So far, Iu2019ve been talking about knowledge of language, the rules that go into defining what are possible sequences of language.  But those sequences have to get into the brain during speech comprehension and they have to get out during speech production.

 And that takes us to the topic of language interfaces.  ufeff And letu2019s start with production.  ufeff This diagram here is literally a human cadaver that has been sawn in half.  An anatomist took a saw and [sound] allowing it to see in cross section the human vocal tract.  And that can illustrate how we get out knowledge of language out into the world as a sequence of sounds.  ufeff Now, each of us has at the top of our windpipe or trachea, a complex structure called the larynx or voice box; itu2019s behind your Adamu2019s Apple.  And the air coming out of your lungs have to go passed two cartilaginous flaps that vibrate and produce a rich, buzzy sound source, full of harmonics.

 Before that vibrating sound gets out to the world, it has to pass through a gauntlet or chambers of the vocal tract.  The throat behind the tongue, the cavity above the tongue, the cavity formed by the lips, and when you block off airflow through the mouth, it can come out through the nose.  ufeff Now, each one of those cavities has a shape that, thanks to the laws of physics, will amplify some of the harmonics in that buzzy sound source and suppress others.

 We can change the shape of those cavities when we move our tongue around.  When we move our tongue forward and backward, for example, as in u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d we change the shape of the cavity behind the tongue, change the frequencies that are amplified or suppressed and the listener hears them as two different vowels.  ufeff Likewise, when we raise or lower the tongue, we change the shape of the resonant cavity above the tongue as in say, u201ceh,u201d u201cah,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201cah.u201d  Once again, the change in the mixture of harmonics is perceived as a change in the nature of the vowel.  ufeff When we stop the flow of air and then release it as in, u201ct,u201d u201cca,u201d u201cba.u201d  Then we hear a consonant rather than a vowel or even when we restrict the flow of air as in u201cf,u201d u201cssu201d producing a chaotic noisy sound.  Each one of those sounds that gets sculpted by different articulators is perceived by the brain as a qualitatively different vowel or consonant.

 ufeff Now, an interesting peculiarity of the human vocal track is that it obviously co-ops structures that evolved for different purposes for breathing and for swallowing and so on.  And itu2019s anu2026 And itu2019s an interesting fact first noted by Darwin that the larynx over the course of evolution has descended in the throat so that every particle of food going from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach has to pass over the opening into the larynx with some probability of being inhaled leading to the danger of death by choking.

 And in fact, until the invention of the Heimlich Maneuver, several thousand people every year died of choking because of this maladaptive of the human vocal tract. ufeff Why did we evolve a mouth and throat that leaves us vulnerable to choking?  Well, a plausible hypothesis is that itu2019s a compromise that was made in the course of evolution to allow us to speak.  By giving range to a variety of possibilities for alternating the resonant cavities, for moving the tongue back and forth and up and down, we expanded the range of speech sounds we could make, improve the efficiency of language, but suffered the compromise of an increased risk of choking showing that language presumably had some survival advantage that compensated for the disadvantage in choking.

 ufeff What about the flow of information in the other direction, that is from the world into the brain, the process of speech comprehension?  ufeff Speech comprehension turns out to be an extraordinarily complex computational process, which we’re reminded of every time we interact with a voicemail menu on a telephone or you use a dictation on our computers.  For example, One writer, using the state-of-the-art speech-to-text systems dictated the following words into his computer.  He dictated u201cbook tour,u201d and it came out on the screen as u201cback to work.u201d  Another example, he said, u201cI truly couldnu2019t see,u201d and it came out on the screen as, u201ca cruelly good MC.u201d  Even more disconcertingly, he started a letter to his parents by saying, u201cDear mom and dad,u201d and what came out on the screen, u201cThe man is dead.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, dictation systems have gotten better and better, but they still have a way to go before they can duplicate a human stenographer.  ufeff What is it about the problem of speech understanding that makes it so easy for a human, ufeffbut so hard for a computer? Well, there are two main contributors.

 One of them is the fact that each phony, each vowel or consonant actually comes out very differently, depending on what comes before and what comes after.  A phenomenon sometimes called co-articulation.  ufeff Let me give you an example.  The place called Cape Cod has two u201ccu201d sounds.  ufeff u2028Each of them symbolized by the letter u201cC,u201d the hard u201cC.u201d  Nonetheless, when you pay attention to the way you pronounce them, you notice that in fact, you pronounce them in very different parts of the mouth.  Try it.  Cape Cod, Cape Codu2026 u201cc,u201d u201ccu201d.  In one case, the u201ccu201d is produced way back in the mouth; the other itu2019s produced much farther forward.

 We donu2019t notice that we pronounce u201ccu201d in two different ways depending whether it comes before an u201cau201d or an u201cah,u201d but that difference forms a difference in the shape of the resonant cavity in our mouth which produces a very different wave form.  And unless a computer is specifically programmed to take that variability into account, it will perceive those two different u201ccu2019s,u201d as a different sound that objectively speaking, they really are:  u201cc-ehu201d u201cc-oau201d.  They really are different sounds, but our brain lumps them together.  ufeff The other reason that speech recognition is such a difficult problem is because of the absence of segmentation.  Now we have an illusion when we listen to speech that consists of a sequence to sounds corresponding to words.  But if you actually were to look at the wave form of a sentence on a oscilloscope, there would not be little silences between the words the way there are little bits of white space in printed words on a page, but rather a continuous ribbon in which the end of one word leads right to the beginning of the next.

 ufeff Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware ofu2026 Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware of when we listen to speech in a foreign language when we have no idea where one word ends and the other one begins.  In our own language, we detect the word boundaries simply because in our mental lexicon, we have stretches of sound that correspond to one word that tell us where it ends.

 But you canu2019t get that information from the wave form itself.  ufeff In fact, thereu2019s a whole genre of wordplay that takes advantage of the fact that word boundaries are not physically present in the speech wave.  Novelty songs like Mairzy doats and dozy doats and liddle lamzy diveyufeff u2028A kiddley divey too, wooden shoe? ufeffu2028u2028Now, it turns out that this is actually a grammatical sequence in words in Englishu2026 Mares eat oats and does eat oats and little lambs eat ivy, a kid’ll eat ivy too, wouldnu2019t you?ufeff When it is spoken or sung normally, the boundaries between words are obliterated and so the same sequence of sounds can be perceived either as nonsense or if you know what theyu2019re meant to convey, as sentences.  ufeff Another example familiar to most children, ufeffFuzzy Wuzzy was a bear, Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair.  Fuzzy Wuzzy wasnu2019t very fuzzy, was he?  And the famous dogroll, I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.

ufeff We are generally unaware of how unambiguous language is.  In context, we effortlessly and unconsciously derive the intended meaning of a sentence, but a poor computer not equipped with all of our common sense and human abilities and just going by the words and the rules is often flabbergasted by all the different possibilities.  Take a sentence as simple as u201cMary had a little lamb,u201d ufeffyou might think that thatu2019s a perfectly simple unambiguous sentence.  But now imagine that it was continued with u201cwith mint sauce.u201d  You realize that u201chaveu201d is actually a highly ambiguous word.ufeff As a result, the computer translations can often deliver comically incorrect results.  ufeff According to legend, one of the first computer systems that was designed to translate from English to Russian and back again did the following given the sentence, u201cThe spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak,u201d it translated it back as u201cThe vodka is agreeable, but the meat is rotten.u201d ufeff So why do people understand language so much better than computers?  What is the knowledge that we have that has been so hard to program into our machines?  Well, thereu2019s a third interface between language and the rest of the mind, and that is the subject matter of the branch of linguistics called Pragmatics, namely, how people understand language in context using their knowledge of the world and their expectation about how other speakers communicate.

 ufeff The most important principle of Pragmatics is called u201cthe cooperative principle,u201d namely; assume that your conversational partner is working with you to try to get a meaning across truthfully and clearly.  And our knowledge of Pragmatics, like our knowledge of syntax and phonology and so on, is deployed effortlessly, but involves many intricate computations.  For example, if I were to say, u201cIf you could pass the guacamole, that would be awesome.u201d  You understand that as a polite request meaning, give me the guacamole.  You donu2019t interpret it literally as a rumination about a hypothetical affair, you just assume that the person wanted something and was using that string of words to convey the request politely.  ufeff Often comedies will use the absence of pragmatics in robots as a source of humor.  As in the old u201cGet Smartu201d situation comedy, which had a robot named, Hymie, and a recurring joke in the series would be that Maxwell Smart would say to Hymie, u201cHymie, can you give me a hand?u201d  And then Hymie would go, {sound}, remove his hand and pass it over to Maxwell Smart not understanding that u201cgive me a hand,u201d in context means, help me rather than literally transfer the hand over to me.

 ufeff Or take the following example of Pragmatics in action.  Consider the following dialogue, Martha says, u201cIu2019m leaving you.u201d  John says, u201cWho is he?u201d  Now, understanding language requires finding the antecedents pronouns, in this case who the u201cheu201d refers to, and any competent English speaker knows exactly who the u201cheu201d is, presumably Johnu2019s romantic rival even though it was never stated explicitly in any part of the dialogue.

 This shows how we bring to bear on language understanding a vast store of knowledge about human behavior, human interactions, human relationships.  And we often have to use that background knowledge even to solve mechanical problems like, who does a pronoun like u201cheu201d refer to.  Itu2019s that knowledge thatu2019s extraordinarily difficult, to say the least to program into a computer.  ufeff Language is a miracle of the natural world because it allows us to exchange an unlimited number of ideas using a finite set of mental tools.  Those mental tools comprise a large lexicon of memorized words and a powerful mental grammar that can combine them.  Language thought of in this way should not be confused with writing, with the prescriptive rules of proper grammar or style or with thought itself.  ufeff Modern linguistics is guided by the questions, though not always the answers suggested by the linguist known as Noam Chomsky, namely how is the unlimited creativity of language possible?  What are the abstract mental structures that relate word to one another? How do children acquire them?  ufeff What is universal across languages?  And what does that say about the human mind?  ufeff The study of language has many practical applications including computers that understand and speak, the diagnosis and treatment of language disorders, the teaching of reading, writing, and foreign languages, the interpreting of the language of law, politics and literature.ufeff But for someone like me, language is eternally fascinating because it speaks to such fundamental questions of the human condition.

 ufeff[Language] is really at the center of a number of different concerns of thought, of social relationships, of human biology, of human evolution, that all speak to whatu2019s special about the human species. ufeff Language is the most distinctively human talent.  Language is a window into human nature, and most significantly,ufeff the vast expressive power of language is one of the wonders of the natural world.  Thank you.ufeff. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

How to Study English: Four Core English Skills

{“en”:”Hello, everyone. I’m Robin and welcome to this video. In this video I’m going to talk about the four language skills Whenever we study a language, there are four very important skills, we need to know and practice. So that’s what I’m going to talk about in this video. I’m going to talk about the four skills. And I’m going to teach you how to use these for skills to improve your English language ability. Ahh, this is an introduction video, so I’m not going to go into too much detail. But I still think it’s a very important video to help you improve your English.

So the four language skills. We also call them the Four Core English skills. ‘Core’ means center. Very important. Ok these are very important skills. And I.. I think you already know these skills. The first two: speaking and writing. Now speaking and writing… these are called productive skills or output. Ok, so you have an idea or some information… and you want to give that to another person. You have to create language. Okay. You have to create English. So you’re speaking in English. Or you’re writing a letter or an email. We have to create and give that information to someone.

So we call that productive skills. The last two: listening and reading. We call these receptive skills or input. Ok. So you’re listening to someone speak English And you have to understand. Or you’re reading a book or newspaper article and you have to understand what the information is. These are the four skills. They’re called skills because with practice, we can get better. And I’m going to show you how to practice using these four skills. Now I’m going to teach you how to use the Integrated Skills Approach. ‘Approach’ means it’s a method. Ok.

And it’s a good method. ‘Skills’ – we’re talking about the four skills. And the keyword ‘integrated’ – now what this means is we’re taking the four skills – And when we study English, we’re studying all four skills together at the same time. Alright, let me explain more. So you should study a topic – practicing all four core English skills. Let me give an example of a classroom. Now a good teacher will want to use the Integrated Skills Approach. So the teacher will bring the class a topic… So let’s say the topic today is Canadian culture. So what the teacher will want to do is practice the receptive skills. So, the students might read about Canadian culture. They might watch a video and practice there listening about Canadian culture.

So they’re receiving information in English. And then the teacher will want to practice the productive skills. So, here she will ask the students to write about Canadian culture. …what they thought about Canadian culture… And…they… the teacher will also ask the students to practice speaking about Canadian culture with… with the teacher or with a classmate. So in this class, a good teacher was able to pick a topic – one topic. And practice all four core English skills This is a really good class. This is a really good way to study English. Why? Well with the receptive…ah… practicing the receptive skills, You might learn some new English expressions or vocabulary. And then when you’re we’re practicing the productive skills, you’re able to practice writing these new expressions…. and you practice speaking these new expressions… Alright this will really really help you improve your English. Ahh… so in the class, a good teacher will do this.

Let’s talk about self study – outside the class. How can you do this? Well it’s not easy… ok… you know that. So, the…ah… receptive skills: the reading and listening – That’s easy. You’re practicing your receptive skills now. You’re listening to me. You can watch videos…uh…or listen to the radio. And reading – you can read articles and books. So you can practice that alone. But the productive skills…uh…Writing… Uh…a lot of my students don’t practice that, but you should. Alright. Now you can keep a diary. Whatever you watch, you can make some comments in your diary or about your day. You’re writing. You’re practicing. Uhh…and for speaking… well… you need a partner. Ok. You need a partner to practice speaking. That’s not easy. I know. But you really need to find a club or a friend you can practice speaking English about some topics. Ok? Now I’m going to help you a little bit. Uh…I’m going to talk about Voice of America Now… and this website. Now this is a really good website to practice your…uh…listening and reading. Ok. If you go to this website, they have different levels.

So if you’re a beginner, intermediate, advanced – they have different videos… and different articles. So this will really help you to find your level and practice your listening – when you’re watching a video. And you’re reading. Alright. Right now I’m going to show you how to access this site and use this site. Let’s take a look. First open your browser. Search for Voice of America. You can see their English learning site here. Ok this is the main page. You can see up here many things to explore. They have English lessons. And three levels of news articles. Let’s click level 1. And the first article. You can practice listening with the audio. And it matches the article below. Let’s check level 3. Again, you can play the audio to practice listening. Or read the article first, and listen later. Let’s click the video. They have some good videos for studying English. And they have audio broadcasts, too. Voice of America. A great website to help you improve your English.

Alright there’s one more thing I want to talk about. That is Balanced the Skills. Now we have the four skills here. And one problem I see with my students is they are focusing or they’re st…or they’re practicing only one or two of these skills. And they’re not…they’re ignoring… they’re not practicing other skills So for example: speaking. A lot of my students they’re only practicing speaking… but they’re not practicing writing. Alright. Don’t do this. If you are studying English, you have to practice all of these. Ok. And if possible, integrate it at the same time …about a topic. This will really help you improve your English. Uh, another example…uh.. some of my students….

they…they’re only worried about taking a test. Like TOEFL or TOEIC or IELTS. Uh…so they’re more focused on listening and reading or maybe writing. And they don’t spend any time on speaking. Alright? Oh this is terrible too. Again to really improve your English… balance the skills. Study them all, alright? Now I hope this video helped you. See you next time! If you enjoyed my video – like the video. Or subscribe to my channel. Or write a comment below. Uh…I really want to hear what you thought of my video. Ok. Thank you.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Learn English – English in Three Minutes – Asking About Names

{“en”:”Welcome to EnglishClass101.comu2019s English in Three Minutes. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, Iu2019m Alisha! This series will teach you some easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. Itu2019s really useful, and it only takes three minutes! In this lesson, youu2019re going to learn some new ways to ask someone, u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d including one that you can use when youu2019ve forgotten someoneu2019s name. Now, u201cWhat is your name?u201d was probably one of the first questions you learned when you started studying English.

I have to tell you, though, that most native speakers of English would never say this! In English, just like in other languages, it is often more polite to be a little indirect. Of course, the easiest way to avoid asking the question directly is to not ask at all! Just introduce yourself, and most people will respond by doing the same. When introducing yourself, simple is nearly always best. Just say… u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha!u201d To show that you want to know the other personu2019s name, just add, u201cAnd you?u201d at the end. u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d Just like before, take out my name, Alisha, and put your name in its place. After you say this, the other person will tell you his or her name. Okay, now letu2019s talk about an embarrassing situation that happens to EVERYBODY: youu2019ve already met this person once before, but youu2019ve forgotten their name! The most polite thing to do in this situation is to apologize and ask again.

Thereu2019s a simple way to do this thatu2019s also polite. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This sentence is very similar to u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d but it has three important differences. First, we say, u201cIu2019m sorry.u201d A small apology can go a long way. After that we say u201cWhat was your name?u201d This is just like u201cWhat is your name?u201d but instead of u201cisu201d, we use the past tense u201cwasu201d.

This is really important, as it tells the other person that you remember meeting them. You havenu2019t forgotten HIM or HER, youu2019ve just forgotten the NAME. This little word makes all the difference! u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name…? Finally, we add u201cagainu201d to the end. This is another hint that tells the other person that you remember learning his or her name before, but you just canu2019t recall it right now. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This phrase is appropriate for both formal and informal situations. Now itu2019s time for Alishau2019s Advice! In the United States, itu2019s normal to address people by name in conversation more than once. In both formal and informal situations, itu2019s a way to show respect or interest in the other person, and can help you make friends.

It is also a great way to practice someoneu2019s name so you donu2019t forget it! If you are talking to someone named Ann, for example, instead of just: u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d, you could say: u201cAnn, what do you do for fun?u201d You can also put the name at the end of the sentence: u201cWhat do you do for fun, Ann?u201d You donu2019t want to say the personu2019s name too often, or it will sound a little strange, but if you practice someoneu2019s name like this, you wonu2019t forget it. And people love to hear their own name! In this lesson, we learned what to say when we forget someoneu2019s name. In the next lesson, youu2019ll learn what to say when you want to get in touch with someone, whether by telephone, email, or even newer ways to communicate. Whatu2019s your favorite? Let us know in the comments, and join us next time for the sixth English in 3 Minutes lesson! See you next time!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

№11 How I study English

{“en”:”Welcome to Series English! Today I won’t teach you any vocabulary or grammar, I’m just going to tell you my story – how I have been studying English. So let’s start from the very beginning, I studied English at school. I started learning it when I was in the fifth grade. However as long as I am from a teeny-tiny town, you can guess that the teaching was not actually very good, to put it mildly, and I didn’t get profound knowledge of English.

However when I turned 13 or 14 my father decided to study English, and he got me and my sister involved. He did a really good job and he is a very good disciplinarian. So that’s why we studied English for like… We had been studying English for three to four hours a day! Can you imagine that? Well, yeah, that’s true. And, well, as long as you think that learning a foreign language is a piece of cake, well, it’s not actually. If you want to do it very quickly and you want to become a fluent speaker then you have to work really hard. So during our lessons, I guess, we did almost everything! We started from picking up some basic vocabulary and learning the pronunciation.

Of course it was funny, since we tried to pronounce these words and letters, I mean sound over and over again. And we sounded a little bit silly, I guess, but still. In addition we studied grammar of course. Unfortunately now I can’t recover the title, but if I find it, I will give you the title. So, what else?.. Of course we read a lot and we also listened to different tapes. For that purpose we listened ‘The voice of America’ podcasts, we read them, we listened to them, it was very useful! In addition to that we used… we read different fiction books like Harry Potter, yeah, I read all seven books in original, it was really enjoyable and useful I guess. Also we used video material, at first we watched the video course called ‘Follow me’. Maybe you have heard of it, it is a very interesting, funny course. And in addition to that we also watched different films, like ‘Pretty Woman’ and ‘Six days and seven nights’.

We watched ‘Shrek’ and ‘Alice in Wonderland’, However we didn’t just watch these films. Of course, at the beginning we watched them for a couple of times to remember the chain of events but after that my father would create mp3 files and we would listen to these parts of the film over and over again. And we would read and translate the script, we would learn and pick up some new vocabulary. It was really interesting and useful. So we studied really hard, and that is the reason why when I finished school I realized, that I want to make linguistics my profession. I want to choose it as my profession and so I did. However I had to pull up treas in order to enter the university, and… however in the end I managed to do that. And well I studied there. At the university we also studied different aspects, However my profession is not only a linguist, but also a translator and an interpreter. So that’s why we practiced translating and interpreting a lot. But it’s also quite useful for language studies. In addition to that we did a lot of listening. We listened to BBC and translated it.

Orally, that was… we interpreted it. It was a tough assignment at first, but then we got used to it. We read a lot of texts, analyzed them, translated them. We did a lot of good stuff, which was really useful. So and I got a lot from my university, of course. And I guess that starting from the third year I started watching TV series and films in English. My first TV series was ‘Scrubs’, and to tell you the truth it was quite hard at the very beginning. I couldn’t understand a lot. However when I kept doing that I realized that it’s getting more and more understandable for me. It’s getting easier and I enjoyed the process. As you can guess I’m crazy about series, and that is actually a very good way to study a foreign language. And I should also add that, well, they say, that teaching is also a way of learning a foreign language. So as long as I teach English I practice it all the time and revise a lot of grammatical topics and issues.

And well this is also studying. OK, I guess that’s it, by the way, speaking about the university, I graduated from it with flying colours, so all excellent marks. However it’s not so important nowadays. I got some perks of course, but this video is not about that. Well actually I’m going to tell you a little bit more about the learning process. And I’m going to devote two more videos… The first one is going to be devoted to beginner and elementary, and the second is going to be devoted to intermediate and higher.

So that I could give you some pieces of advice, because here I didn’t give you anything, I just told you about my experience. And of course, there were some drawbacks, there were some advantages. However now I’m able to analyze this process, and understand what was not right, what was good. And that’s why I’m ready to give you my tips. So don’t forget to follow me, subscribe to my YouTube channel. And watch my other videos. Keep up, ask questions, as usual. I really enjoy answering… I feel really confident when I get your feedback.

So don’t forget to give me your heart as well – like my videos. And hope to see you soon! Happy English practice! Bye-bye!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Silent Letters | English Pronunciation & Vocabulary | PART 1

{“en”:”Oh my gosh guys! How annoying are silent letters in English words? What are they even doing there?! This video is all about English words with silent letters in them. When do you pronounce those letters and when don’t you pronounce those letters? I’m going to teach you a few simple rules to help you pronounce English words correctly. Don’t forget to turn on the subtitles either. The button is just down there, so you can follow along.

There are a lot of English words that have silent letters in them. And there are lots of silent letters in English! About sixty percent of all English words have a silent letter! No wonder pronunciation is so frustrating, right? And they can be silent these letters, but they’re not always silent! So you have to be careful! You need to know a few basic rules to help with the pronunciation of silent letters in English words. Okay, let’s start at the top with the letter A. Now the letter A can be silent especially in words that end in ‘-ally’. Like these: So, I’m not pronouncing: Cut the A out. Get rid of it! Now there’s a rule to remember with the letter B. It’s always silent when it follows the letter M So, practice them with me. I’m not pronouncing the B, I’m just pronouncing the M consonant sound.

And the letter B is often silent when it before the consonant T, so think of these examples: So, see in all of those examples, my lips are closing and coming together to form the B sound, I’m just pronouncing the T. Now, the letter C can cause a few problems because it’s often silent after the letter S, like in these very common examples – they are quite tricky! So that’s the silent C. So what about the letter D? Yep, it can be silent too! So, I’m not pronouncing the D in ‘sandwich’ I’m just pronouncing the consonant N sound before it. Try it with me one more time. And a D can be very quiet, not quite silent, but very quiet in front of a G, like in these examples: So in these examples the D and the G combined together produce the ‘dg’ consonant sound ‘dg’ Okay, so the letter E can often be silent at the end of a word.

I’m pretty sure you know this one already, like these examples: But that E on the end, although it might be silent, it can affect the pronunciation of the vowel sound before it. Let’s look at these examples: So see how the E at the end, although it’s not pronounced, is affecting the vowel sound before it. It makes it longer. So hid /i/ becomes hide /i:/ But if the E is the final letter in the word but it’s the only vowel sound then it needs to be pronounced, like in these examples E can also be silent at the end of past tense regular verbs, which all end in ED, right? But they’re not always pronounced like it is in ‘wanted’.

So, you can hear the ED sound there ‘-ed’, ‘-ed’. It’s its own syllable. But a lot of the time that E isn’t pronounced Now they could be a little bit tricky, so let’s do it again! Okay, so a G can also be silent too! Think about the word sign, champagne, design, or foreign. All of these examples have a silent G. And the combination GH can also be silent when it comes after a vowel sound Now, the letter H is often silent too, often when it’s following a W, like in the examples And sometimes it’s not pronounced at the start of a word like honest and hour.

And sometimes the H is not pronounced when it follows any of these three letters: C, G or R. Now, most of the time CH is pronounced ‘ch’ but on small occasions or rare occasions it’s not pronounce, the H is silent. Good news! The I is not usually silent, it’s usually pronounced. Except in the word business! Okay, K! Now I know you know this one! A K is not pronounced when it comes before an N. The letter L can be silent too and it’s quite common when you look at this list. But consider this rule to be a bit of a cheat because the letter L is quite difficult to pronounce in all of these words, even for a native speaker! So, this makes it easier! In these words where /l/ is really difficult to pronounce then it’s silent! Ready? Let’s try it. So, we got through quite a bit but we’re only halfway through! So, if you want to keep watching and keep practicing with silent letters in English then click the link in the description box and go to part 2 of this video. Guys, I love making these videos for you and I love hearing from you as well, so if you want to say hi come over to my facebook page at mmmEnglish and say hello, ask question, introduce yourself! I’d love to hear from you there.

Make sure you check out part 2 – the links down there! See you soon!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Don’t Study English in Vancouver…and Toronto

{“en”:”Hello, everyone. I’m Robin and welcome to my video. Don’t Study English in Vancouver Why am I making this video? Well, I’m making this video for my Korean students. Ok Now I’m Canadian and I’ve traveled through… throughout Canada and I visited many of my Korean students and I saw how they studied English in Canada. And also many of my students have gone to Canada for six months… one year… two years to study English and comeback and I’ve talked with them. So, I learned a lot about studying English in Canada. And what I learned is don’t study here. Ahh, Vancouver and Toronto. These are the bigger cities in Canada.

And I’m going to say don’t study English in Vancouver. and…don’t study English in Toronto. because…of the students…ahh… that I’ve seen, and there’s been a lot, that went to Canada and studied for six months or a year and they came back. Ahh…I’ve noticed that students that studied English in Vancouver and Toronto… their English was not as good as my students that studied in smaller Canadian cities. Ok, so I’m going to talk a little bit of maybe ‘why’ that happens. And before…uh…I talk about the ‘why’, we should understand if you plan to go to Canada… Uh…you should have a primary goal. Now up here I have an example of two goals. Improve my English speaking ability. Have a great travel experience. Ok. Both of these are good goals. There’s probably other goals but we should identify the primary goal. The first goal and the first goal I think should always be number one. When we go to Canada, we want to improve our English ok we want to go there for one year… …come back. And we speak English…uh…very well. You know it’s very embarrassing if you…your parents spend a lot of money to send you to Canada…

You go there and you come back and there’s only a little bit of improvement. So our first goal should be improve our English So every decision we make, should be to help the first goal. Of course in Canada, wherever you go in Canada, you will have a great travel experience. So understanding our first goal… do not study English in Vancouver… …or Toronto. All right, we should also think about what kind of friends we want to meet in Canada. Ahh…Toronto and Vancouver… Uh…they attract a lot of international students. ok so if you go to the language school…uh… or you’re just walking around…uh…probably you’re going to meet a lot of international students. These are going to be your friends. These are possibly going to be your roommates Again, we have some goals here. You want to go to Canada. You want to make Canadian friends. Ok, to improve your English. And you want to make international friends. This is good, too. …but again our primary goal should be – try to make Canadian friends.

Ok? Again a lot of my students… they go to Canada… they go to Vancouver for one year They come back and they say ” I have a lot of friends” and I asked them, “well “how many Canadian friends?’ …no…they have no Canadian friends. Ok… They have lots of new Korean friends. And they have lots of Japanese or Chinese friends. That’s good, but we should try to make some Canadian friends because this will really help improve our English. Ok. Study here! Here are some better cities. Victoria, Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg, Ottawa. Great cities to study English. and ‘why?’ Well problem one. There’s too many..ah…k..k..Koreans…in Canada. Like when I say Koreans… there’s a lot of koreans living in Canada. There’s also a lot of Korean students going to Canada. And there’s a lot of Korean tourists going to Canada. Now, I love Korea, and I love Koreans. But if you’re going to Canada to study English or practice English.

Ah…You don’t want to be around a lot of Koreans cause you’re just going to speak Korean more than you speak English. Ok, so it’s very important to get away from the people who speak the same language as you. Ok. It’s very tempting. After a long day, you’re tired and you’re sick of English to go play with your Korean friends. And on the weekend… play with your korean friends. Ok.You’re not practicing your English. So, here are Canadian provinces, not all the Canadian provinces. Ontario… This is…ah…the province with Toronto and Ottawa. British Columbia. Vancouver.

Victoria. So Toronto, Vancouver, don’t study English there. You can see there’s a lot of Koreans there. These are the Koreans that live there. Korean-Canadians. And again as I said, they’re students and tourists. These are the cities I recommend. Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg. So you can see not many Koreans there. Good chance to practice your English Ok, another problem…the language schools. Now when you’re in Korea, you probably go to the uc5b4ud559uc6d0 [language school helpers] first. and you… you talk about studying English in Canada. And they might recommend Vancouver or Toronto. I hope you tell them: “No, no, no, I want to go to a smaller city.” But when they recommend Vancouver or Toronto…ah… They might get some incentive, some something, you know, money from… Vancouver language schools and Toronto language schools. These are big language schools.

They have a lot of students. They have a lot of…ah…money to try to get more students. So don’t trust the [language school helpers] too much, ok? And the language schools in Vancouver, Toronto very big very professional. And they are a problem because…I put three reasons here. First reason, they make it too easy…for students. Ah… Another reason they steal your English-speaking experiences. I’ll talk about this in a moment. And they control your money. Actually they control your time and money. So… Let’s go back to the stealing. Language stealing. So if you go to the language school in Vancouver or Toronto, ahh…they’re usual going to pick you up from the airport. They’re going to help you finding housing. Ahh…they help…they help you make a bank account and they have some weekend events for Saturday, Sunday. And they offer some class trips . Ahh…and I’m going to say this is stealing your language experience.

Remember you’re going to Canada to improve your English. It’s very important that you struggle and have a difficult time. That is where you’re learning to speak English. So, for example, if you go to make a bank account by yourself,.. wow, what a learning experience. You got to go open a bank account. You have to communicate what you need to the Canadian teller. And then you have a goal to accomplish. This is a really good learning experience. Not the ud559uc6d0[language school] or the language school taking you to the bank and helping you do everything.

And actually maybe you don’t even speak any English. Same with the weekend and class trips, you’re…you’re at the language school you’re in a class… most of your class, especially Vancouver ‘n Toronto,… are going to be other Koreans. Ok. Ah…over fifty percent of your classmates are going to be other Koreans. You’re going to have some international…uh…students there. Uh…Probably from Asia, Japan, China, Taiwan. You might have some European students – very few European students.

Maybe some South American and there’s a lot of Mexican students, too. Ah…great they’re also great to improve your .English But, you know, they’re controling your time and your money by offering their programs. You go out on a trip, you’re…you’re making friends and practicing English but really, your goal is to make Canadian friends and interact with Canadians. So I don’t really like this system. Uh… It’s ok, you know, it’s ok. It works, but I want you to try a more difficult and better way to really improve your English. Alright, let’s talk about Canada in a little more detail. This is Canada. I put the red pins: Vancouver, Toronto – Don’t go there.

Uh…I recommend middle Canada …the middle area…the middle cities. So yeah. Vancouver and Victoria. Vancouver, Victoria – beautiful cities. Ok, if you go to Canada, you must visit Vancouver. There is a good reason why many Koreans go to Vancouver. It is beautiful. So, spend a week travelling in Vancouver. But again, Don’t study English in Vancouver. Victoria very close to Vancouver. A lot of Koreans, but a better place to help improve your English. Ah…Alberta. Province of Alberta. Calgary, Edmonton. Perfect. These are perfect cities to study English. Ok. They’re about a million people each. Uhm…Not many Koreans. Safe places. Ah…you would have a great experience in these cities. Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Regina. I…I’ll tell you I had a student who went to Regina for nine months. He said, he…he went to Regina. There was no Koreans. He was forced, he had to make Canadian friends. He came back his English was amazing. Ok. Just nine months in Regina.

You know he really improved his English. And he loved Regina. Of course Regina is not a perfect city. But he had a great time there. And he made Canadian friends. Winnipeg..uh..getting really interior, in the center of Canada. Another good place to study English. I’ve had some students go there. It’s a good place. Uh…Winnipeg. Uh…this area’s… I’m not going to lie. A little bit cold. So if you do go to Winnipeg, dress warm. But that’s part of the Canadian experience. Ah…this is the province of Ontario. This is where Ottawa and Toronto are. Now before I talk about Ottawa and Toronto, I’m just going to mention the East coast of Canada. There are some places… some good places to study English, but I’m sorry I don’t have much information about these places. Ok… I… I haven’t had many students that went to study out here. I haven’t traveled so much in this area. So I’m sure there’s good places in Eastern Canada, Uh…

But I can’t really recommend them today so I know about central Canada very well and I recommend this area. Alright, so, Ottawa, Toronto. Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It’s a beautiful city. I think it’s okay to study English there. But Toronto – don’t study English in Toronto. Too many… too many Koreans in this area. And Koreatown…uh… if you study in Toronto most your friends are going to be Korean and you’re you’re eating…uh…

You know Korean food and doing Korean activities almost every day you know this is not part of the Canadian experience. Alright? Alright let’s do a summary of what I’ve been telling you. Be sincere about your goals. Remember your goal should be – improve my English. That’s your first goal. Make Canadian Friends. Alright, so all of your decisions focused on those things you have to achieve those things. So do not study English in Vancouver or Toronto. Ok? these are not good places to study English.

They do not help your goals because there’s too many Koreans in these cities. You are going to have a lot of Korean friends. You are going to go to Koreatown. You are going to be speaking more Korean than English Don’t go there. They’re great places to visit, but don’t study English in Vancouver. Get out of the uc5b4ud559uc6d0 [language school helpers] language school system. Uh…this is okay at first. I can understand why people might need this. but to spend one year in this system where they’re controlling your time and money and your selection of friends… is only your classmates. Uh…you got to getaway from this all right. Uh…be brave. Be strong. You can do it. You can get out of the system and start interacting with Canadians and living in Canada. So that brings us to participate in Canadian culture. You’re going to Canada (another country) to study English, but you have to participate.

You have to live in Canada. So you have to do things Canadians do. And you have to join clubs. And join classes. Meet Canadians. Alright, this is really important to improve your English. Ah…of course you’re going to have a great experience. You do not have to go to Vancouver or Toronto to have a great experience. You can go anywhere in Canada. I promise you. You will have a great experience. Ok? So, this goal is very easy. So, you do not have to study in Vancouver or Toronto. Alright. Some final words. Abroad is not the place to study, it’s the place to practice, experiment with, and test your English. And you should think this way too. Korea…you go to the language school, you study from a course book…uhh..

You study from a teacher. But when you go to Canada, you should get away from the teachers get away from the course book this is your chance to use real English in real situations. This will make your English better. Alright? You will learn very fast if you start thinking this way. Get out of the classroom. Alright. Thank you. I hope this video helps you. And remember, don’t study English in Vancouver.

See you next time. If you enjoyed this video, let us know. Subscribe. Like the video. And I really like it when my viewers write English comments below. Take care.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

English Imitation Lessons | Speak More Clearly & Confidently

{“en”:”Hello I’m Emma from mmmEnglish, helping you to build your confidence as an English speaker. In this video I have a very special lesson for you that’s using The Imitation Technique. I also have something that’s very exciting to share at the end of this lesson so make sure you keep watching. Practicing with the imitation technique can dramatically improve your English communication skills. It’s worked for thousands of my students already and it can work for you too! Why? Because with this technique you learn to communicate with more than just words. Is clear pronunciation important when you’re speaking English? Yes, of course it is! But so is stress and intonation, so is using tone and body language to express your emotions and so is pause to create suspense or add emphasis.

It’s not just what you say but how you say it in English. With the imitation technique you’ll learn how to perform English. It’s like an actor in the movies or a pop star singing on stage. Are you ready to give it a try? In this imitation lesson, you’ll hear me telling you a story. Listen to the tone and the intonation in my voice while I’m speaking. You’ll hear that I’m being supportive and I’m encouraging a friend to do something.

Here’s how it works, you’ll hear the same story three times. The first time you hear it, you’ll just need to listen and read. Listen to the topic, the vocabulary and my expression. You’re learning the script. Then, you’ll hear the same script again but this time there will be a short pause after each clause or sentence. This is so that you can say it aloud, exactly as it was said in the recording. I want you to imitate me, to copy me, the native English speaker. The last step is the most challenging one. Try to shadow me while I’m speaking! Perform each sentence, with the same expression and intonation, while I’m speaking. If you don’t shadow me perfectly, don’t worry! It’s meant to be a challenge. But this step is really important, it helps you to practice all of these skills in a different way. OK, it’s time to give it a try! Good luck! You can do this. Ready? This is step number one, listen and read. You know what? I think you should just go for it! I mean, what have you got to lose? You’ve got plenty of experience and nobody is more passionate about this kind of work than you.

Just because you don’t have a degree shouldn’t make a difference. I mean, you’ve been doing this for real for so much longer than anyone who’s just come out of university. Besides, what’s the worst thing that can happen? They might turn you down, but who cares? It’s not like you really need this job. But imagine if you get it! Living on an island, going for a swim every morning before work, eating fresh fruit and seafood every day! I think you should just go for it! Then I can come and visit you! What if I help you? I could make you a logo or something? Or I could help you with your cover letter. You’ve got to admit it’s pretty exciting and you’re perfect for this role. Come on! What do you think?! Step Two. Great! Now you’re ready to imitate the speaker. Listen to the speaker and in the pause, repeat what they said exactly as they said it.

You know what? I think you should just go for it! I mean, what have you got to lose? You’ve got plenty of experience, and nobody is more passionate about this kind of work than you. Just because you don’t have a degree shouldn’t make a difference. I mean, you’ve been doing this for real for so much longer than anyone who’s just come out of university. Besides, what’s the worst thing that can happen? They might turn you down, but who cares? It’s not like you really need this job. But imagine if you get it! Living on an island, going for a swim every morning before work, eating fresh fruit and seafood every day! I think you should just go for it. Then I can come and visit you! What if I help you? I could make you a logo or something? Or I could help you with your cover letter? You’ve got to admit it’s pretty exciting and you’re perfect for this role. Come on! What do you think? Step Three OK, you’re ready for a new challenge now! Let’s try shadowing. Copy the speaker while they are speaking.

Remember, don’t worry about your mistakes. You know what? I think you should just go for it! I mean what have you got to lose? You’ve got plenty of experience and nobody is more passionate about this kind of work than you. Just because you don’t have a degree shouldn’t make a difference. I mean, you’ve been doing this for real for so much longer than anyone who’s just come out of university. Besides, what’s the worst thing that can happen? They might turn you down, but who cares? It’s not like you really need this job. But imagine if you get it! Living on an island, going for a swim every morning before work, eating fresh fruit and seafood every day! I think you should just go for it.

Then I can come and visit you! What if I help you? I could make you a logo or something? Or I could help you with your cover letter? You’ve got to admit it’s pretty exciting and you’re perfect for this role. Come on! What do you think? Awesome! Remember, practice makes perfect! So when you’re ready, try the next lesson. So, how did you go? Keep practicing with this lesson until you look and you sound just like a native English speaker! Before you go I want to share something super exciting with you! My students have been having so much success with The Imitation Technique that I’ve created a whole new range of imitation lessons so that you can speak more confidently too! In this new series of over 10 videos, there are different native speakers, there are different topics to talk about and there are vocabulary guides to help you study with every video lesson.

This is your chance to improve the way that you speak English as fast as possible. To find these new lessons head over to my website at www.mmmenglish.com/imitation Thank you for spending the time with me today practicing your English. I’ll see you on the next video lesson! Bye for now!. “}

As found on Youtube

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Learn Arabic – Arabic in 3 Minutes – Do you speak English?

{“en”:”Maru1e25aban u01e7amu012bu02bfan, u02beanu0101 Carole! Hi everybody! Iu2019m Carole. Welcome to ArabicPod101.comu2019s Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Arabic. In the last lesson, we learned the most common forms of greetings in Arabic. Do you remember them? We introduced maru1e25aban and Al salu0101mu u02bfalaykum , as well as u0161ukran and u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be. In this lesson weu2019re going to learn a very useful phrase: u201cDo you speak English?u201d If you find yourself in a situation where you need assistance in English, this phrase can be a lifesaver.

And because youu2019re asking it in Arabic, you can be sure that everyone will understand what youu2019re saying, even if their answer is no. Are you ready? then letu2019s start! Here’s the basic way to ask if someone speaks English: Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a male and Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a female. [slowly] Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal means “Dou201d.

u201cYouu201d and u201cSpeaku201d are merged into the same word u201ctatakallamu u201d for males and u201ctatakallamu012bnau201d for females. u02beinklu012bziyyah means “English,” This is an indirect way of asking someone to speak to you in English. There are many ways of making it clear that you’re asking the person to speak English to you, for example: Hal biu02beimku0101nika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? also means “Could you speak English?” Hal biu02beimku0101nika? means u201ccan youu201d or u201dcould youu201d, u201care you able tou201d, or u201cis it possible tou201d and can also mean the u201cabilityu201d of the person to speak English.

Again, if you are talking to a female you should change the last accent of ka to ki. So the question becomes: Hal biu02beimku0101niki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? Al-takallum is a noun that means u2018speakingu2019 and bil u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cin Englishu201d. To be more formal we could add the word u201cpleaseu201d to the request, to make it: Hal biu02beimkanika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dlika? In this case, the question cannot mean the personu2019s ability to speak English anymore, because you are obviously asking them to speak English to you. Since in Arabic the word u2018pleaseu2019 literally means u2018from your favoru2019 it should also be changed according to the personu2019s gender.

So in case of a female, we should also change the ka ending of u2018pleaseu2019 in min fau1e0dlika? to min fau1e0dliki? The question becomes Hal biu02beimkaniki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dliki? The responses you will receive could be one of these three: Nau02bfam. “Yes.” [slowly] Nau02bfam. Qalu012blan. “A little.” [slowly] Qalu012blan There are a few ways of saying u2018nou2019 in Arabic Lu0101 or Kallu0101. u201cNou201d “No, I donu2019t speak English.” is Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah [slowly] Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah It is exactly the same structure as in English. Lu0101 is u2018nou2019, u02beanu0101 is u2018Iu2019, lu0101 means u201cdonu2019tu201d, u02beatakallamu is u201cspeaku201d (me) and al-u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cEnglishu201d.

Since this last one is a negative statement, we need to say lu0101 before the verb, u02beatakallamu or speak. lu0101 literally means u2018nou2019, but when placed before a verb it negates this verb, becoming u201cdonu2019tu201d or u201cdoesnu2019tu201d. Notice also that the verb, u02beatakallamu is slightly different than tatakallamu which we learned before. Remember, the verb changes depending on the pronoun used. We are now talking about u02beanu0101 , Arabic for “I,” Thus u201cI do not speaku201d is: u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu Now itu2019s time for Caroleu2019s Tips. For those of you who are not native English speakers, you can obviously use this question with any language you need. Arab people study other languages at school depending on the country they live in, so maybe you will get lucky! Just substitute al-u02beinklu012bziyyah with al-faransiyyah for French, Al-u02beiu1e6du0101liyyah for Italian, Al-u02beispu0101niyyah for Spanish, or Al-u02bealmu0101niyyah for German.

In this lesson you learned how to ask if someone can speak English. In the next lesson weu2019ll learn how to say u201cexcuse meu201d and other ways to apologize in Arabic. I’ll see you in the next Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq lesson. u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London