IELTS Writing: Numbers and Pie Charts

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As found on Youtube

Learn English Tenses: 4 ways to talk about the FUTURE

{“en”:”Hello. My name is Emma, and in today’s lesson, I’m going to teach you the four futures. Okay? A lot of you know two futures, I think. A lot of you probably know “will” and “going to”. I’m going to teach you two more futures today, and teach you how they’re different from one another. Okay? So let’s get started with the present continuous future. So the present continuous is when you have “be” verb, so “I am”, “you are”, “he is”, “she is”, “they are”, I don’t know if I said “we are”, “we are” plus the verb and “ing”. Okay? So we have “am”, the verb, “ing”. This is known as the present continuous. It’s usually one of the first things you will learn when you’re learning English.

So a lot of you know the present continuous, and you think: “Oh, present continuous, it’s taking place now.” You’re right, but we can also use it to talk about the future. We use the present continuous to talk about future that is going to happen very, very soon. So, for example, if you ask me: “Emma, what are you doing this weekend?” Well: “I’m hanging out with my friend, Josh, this weekend.” Okay? Or I might say: “I’m shopping this weekend.”, “I’m studying this weekend.” If you ask me: “What are you doing tonight?” Well, you know, I want to be a good student, so: -“I’m studying tonight. I’m studying tonight.” -“What are you doing next week?” -“Well, next week… I’m working next week.” Okay? So present continuous is very, very common for when we’re talking about the future that’s going to happen soon. Not future that’s going to happen 2,000 years from now or 50 years from now – no, no, that’s far future.

We’re talking about the future that’s going to happen in the next couple of days. Okay? So very, very soon future. We can also use the simple present to talk about the future. So, the simple present is when you take a verb and, you know, it’s in the basic form, usually you add an “s”. If it’s third-person singular, for example: “I leave”, “you leave”, “he leaves”, “she leaves”, “they leave”, “we leave”. So this is all simple present. In your classes, you probably learned we use the simple present when we talk about routine. We can also use the simple present when we’re talking about routines in the future. Okay? So, for example… And by this I mean timetables. We use this when we’re talking about a schedule event; something that is scheduled to happen in the future. So, this usually has to do with when we’re talking about transportation; trains, airplanes, we can use this tense. We can use it when we’re talking about TV shows. We can use it when we’re talking about restaurants opening and closing, or stores, when they open and close.

So we use this when we’re thinking about a schedule or a timetable. So here are some examples: “The last train leaves at 6pm today.” So 6pm hasn’t happened yet. It’s in the future, but because this is a schedule event, it’s a timetable event, it’s a schedule, we can use the simple present. Here’s another example: “The restaurant opens at 5pm today.” So this hasn’t happened yet. Right now, it is 2pm. This is going to happen in the future.

But still, I use the simple present because this is a schedule. Okay? Every day the restaurant opens at 5pm. Here’s a third example, I like watching TV, imagine I like The Big Bang Theory: “My TV show, The Big Bang Theory, starts at 4pm.” So again, it’s a routine, it’s a schedule that takes place in the future, but it’s still a schedule so we can use the simple present here. All right, so these two, even though they’re present tenses, they can be used for the future. Now let’s look at the two verbs we commonly use for the future or we commonly think of as future verbs. “Be going to” + a verb and “will”. So, “be going to” + verb: “I’m going to study.”, “I’m going to sleep.”, “You are going to watch a video.” Okay? These are examples of the “be going to” + verb future. So we use this when we’re talking about the near future. Similar to this… So it’s not a future that’s very, very far away; it’s soon, but it’s a future where we think something is going to happen, and we have evidence that something is going to happen. So, for example: “I’m going to study English next month in Canada.” This means you probably have your ticket already bought, you’re pretty sure about this.

There’s not a lot of confusion. This is almost going to happen almost certainly. So you’re pretty sure about this. “I’m going to study English next month.” Another example, imagine I watch the weather station. Okay? And the meteorologist has predicted the weather, but it’s a very good prediction because we see these clouds in the sky, there’s a lot of evidence it’s going to rain. Because there’s evidence, we could use this tense and we could say: “It’s going to rain all week.” So this is based… It’s in the near future, but it’s based on some sort of evidence. This is likely to happen, and we’re pretty sure it’s going to happen.

We have some evidence that makes us think it’s going to happen. So this is a bit different from “will”, which is one of the maybe easier futures to think about. We use “will” + a verb. For example: “I will always love you.”, “I will study hard.”, “I will do my taxes on time.” Okay? So we use “will” + a verb when we’re talking, first of all, in the far future. So this is all soon. This is very soon; whereas this, is very far. So for example: “In 50 years, everyone will speak Chinese.” We use this also when we’re not so sure about something.

This is my prediction, but I don’t have much evidence of this. I’m not very, very sure, so I will use “will” because I’m not sure; whereas if I’m very sure, there’s a lot of evidence, I know it’s going to happen, I do “be going to”. So this one, there’s not a lot of evidence, and it’s a prediction we don’t have evidence for. Another example: “Aliens will invade Earth.” Okay? In 25 years, aliens are coming, they will invade the Earth. I don’t mean to scare you. Luckily, I’m using “will”, which means I’m not really sure. If I said to you: “This week, aliens are invading the Earth”, you’d be very scared. If I said: “Aliens are going to invade the Earth. I know this. I have secret government documents.” I’d be using this, and you’d be scared, too. But with “will”, it’s “will” so you don’t have to be scared.

It might not happen. We also use “will” when we’re making promises. Okay? So if somebody ever gets down on their knee, and says: -“Emma, will you marry me?” -“I will marry you.” It means I’m promising to marry you. Okay? Or maybe I don’t really like the person, I might say: “I won’t marry you.” “Won’t” is the negative form of “will”. So I promise not to marry you. I don’t know in your culture, but in Canadian culture and many Western cultures, for New Years, we always make these resolutions. We think: “Oh…” When it’s New Years, when it’s January 1st, we make some sort of promise to our self that we’re never going to do something again, or we’re going to start doing something. We normally use “will” for these. So, for example, maybe you have had too many beers, and you’re thinking: “I don’t want to ever drink again”, you might make a promise to yourself: “I won’t drink again. I will never drink again.” Okay? Or maybe you want to stop smoking: “I will never smoke again.

I will never do this again.” Okay? Maybe your parents are angry at you because, you know, you did really bad on a test: “I promise I will work harder, I will study harder.” So these are promises. We use “will” for promise. Finally, we also use “will” for volunteering. Okay? When we want to volunteer for something, we want to offer our help. We want to help someone, we can use “will”. So, for example: -“Emma, can you clean the dishes?” -“I’ll do it.” -“Emma, can you vacuum the floor?” -“Sure. I’ll vacuum.”, “I’ll get the telephone.”, “I’ll help you with your homework.”, “I’ll help you learn English.” I’m volunteering, and so I use “I will”.

Okay? So just to recap, just to quickly go over everything: there are four futures I’m teaching you today. Present continuous can be used as the future if it’s very soon. Simple present can be used for the future if it’s a routine or schedule, something that’s like… If you look at a schedule in the future, we can use the simple present. We can use “be going to” if we’re talking about the near future and some kind of plan that… Or prediction we have evidence for. We are pretty certain it’s going to happen. And then we can use “will” and a verb for the far future for a promise or when we want to volunteer for something. Okay? So, there you have it, four futures. I invite you to come visit our website at www.engvid.com. There, you can actually practice these on our quiz. I hope you will do it soon. I hope, actually… I hope you’re doing it today or tomorrow. Okay? So until next time, take care.

I wish you the best of luck. And good day, sir.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Speak English – Learn English Conversation! #9: Learn American English – Speak American English

{“en”:”Hello. Welcome. “Speak American English with Lyman Holton” My name is Lyman Holton. In this lesson you and me are going to have a conversation… as two people discussing directions to the library. Are you ready? Let’s begin. Repeat everything I say for Lyman and Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to.

My name is Kelly. And, may ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center.

Now, we’ve had our practice reading everything for both conversations. Now, what we’re going to do is begin our 1st conversation. Speak out loud as Kelly. You are Kelly. Just listen when Lyman speaks. I’m Lyman. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Kelly. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight.

Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. Let’s begin our second conversation. Let’s switch dialogues. I am still Lyman. You are still Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes.

Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Lyman. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Kelly. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Kelly. No problem, Lyman. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it.

Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. And, that concludes our conversation for this lesson. I hope you enjoyed it… and if you have any questions please feel free to post them below. Goodbye for now.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Speak English – Learn English Conversation! #18: Learn American English – Speak American English

{“en”:”Hello. Welcome. “Speak American English with Lyman Holton” My name is Lyman Holton. In this lesson you and I… are going to have a conversation as two people… discussing how we should be more social at work. Are you ready? Let’s begin. Repeat everything I say for Lyman and Kelly . Lyman, do you mill who that woman is? Which woman are you talking about, Kelly? The tall woman over there, in the blue dress with blonde hair. Oh, that’s Jane. Haven’t you met her yet? No, I’ve never seen her before. Is she one of our clients? The words you see in red print, are words you may want to look up in your translator… to help you follow the conversation. No, I’ve never seen her before.

Is she one of our clients? Oh, come on Kelly! She works here, in our office. You’re joking, right? Is she an attorney? No. Jane is one of our new admin. secretaries. Gee, I guess I need to pay more attention to what’s going on. I’ve told you before, you spend too much time at your desk. True. I could at least eat lunch in the break room, instead of at my desk. Work is important, Kelly. But, so is socializing with the other employees. You’re right, Lyman. I don’t want to get a reputation for being anti-social. That’s right. One day you’re going to need some help from a friend. I know “And, I won’t have any friends to ask for help.” That’s exactly right, Kelly. It’s also harder to get promoted if you’re unpopular. Well, I tell you what, Lyman. I’m going to change, right now. Oh, really? And, how are you going to do that? I’m going to order pizza for everyone in the office, for lunch today.

Well, that’ll certainly make you more popular. I’ll help you spread the word. Let’s begin our first conversation! Speak out loud as Kelly. Just listen when Lyman speaks. Lyman, do you know who that woman is? Which woman are you talking about, Kelly? The tall woman over there, in the blue dress with blonde hair. Oh, that’s Jane. Haven’t you met her yet? No, I’ve never seen her before. Is she one of our clients? Oh, come on Kelly! She works here, in our office. You’re joking, right? Is she an attorney? No. Jane is one of our new admin. secretaries. Gee, I guess I need to pay more attention to what’s going on.

I’ve told you before, you spend too much time at your desk. True. I could at least eat lunch in the break room, instead of at my desk. Work is important, Kelly. But, so is socializing with the other employees. You’re right, Lyman. I don’t want to get a reputation for being anti-social. That’s right. One day you’re going to need some help from a friend. I know “And, I won’t have any friends to ask for help.” That’s exactly right, Kelly. It’s also harder to get promoted if you’re unpopular. Well, I tell you what, Lyman. I’m going to change, right now. Oh, really? And, how are you going to do that? I’m going to order pizza for everyone in the office, for lunch today. Well, that’ll certainly make you more popular. I’ll help you spread the word.

Let’s begin our 2nd conversation! Let’s switch dialogs. I am still Lyman. You’re still Kelly. Kelly, do you know who that woman is? Which woman are you talking about, Lyman? The tall woman over there, in the blue dress with blonde hair. Oh, that’s Jane. Haven’t you met her yet? No, I’ve never seen her before. Is she one of our clients? Oh, come on Lyman! She works here, in our office. You’re joking, right? Is she an attorney? No. Jane is one of our new admin. secretaries. Gee, I guess I need to pay more attention to what’s going on.

I’ve told you before, you spend too much time at your desk. True. I could at least eat lunch in the break room, instead at my desk. Work is important, Lyman. But, so is socializing with the other employees. You’re right, Kelly. I don’t want to get a reputation for being anti-social. That’s right. One day you’re going to need some help from a friend. I know “And, I won’t have any friends to ask for help.” That’s exactly right, Lyman. It’s also harder to get promoted if you’re unpopular. Well, I tell you what, Kelly. I’m going to change, right now. Oh, really? And, how are you going to do that? I’m going to order pizza for everyone in the office, for lunch today. Well, that’ll certainly make you more popular. I’ll help you spread the word. That concludes our lesson. Please post any comments that you may have below. I’m always happy to answer questions, as well. And, please if you haven’t done so, subscribe.

Thank you so much. Good-bye for now.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Speak English – Learn English Conversation! #22: Learn American English – Speak American English

{“en”:”Hello and welcome to… “Speak American English with Lyman Holton” My name is Lyman Holton. In this lesson, you and me are going to have a conversation… as two people going to the airport and leaving for a trip. Are you ready? Repeat everything I say for Lyman and Kelly. Are you ready to go, Lyman? Yes, I have my bags packed. How about you? I’m all set. How many suitcases are you bringing? Now remember, the words in “red” print are words you may want to look up in your translator. To help you better understand the conversation. I’m all set. How many suitcases are you bringing? Just two. I’ll put the larger one in checked baggage and carry-on the other. Yep, same here. I tried to get everything into one, but that didn’t work. What do you think? Should we drive to the airport? I think it’ll be cheaper to take a taxi. Then we don’t have “to” pay for parking. No, the airport’s too far away to take a taxicab. It’d cost too much.

Well, that’s true, Lyman. So, what should we do? How about this idea? We take a taxi to the bus station. And, take a bus to the airport! Now that’s a good idea. (A little later.) Wow, I didn’t know this airport was so big. Yeah, it’s huge. Where do we check-in for our flight? It looks like the ticket counter for our airline is way across the terminal. Oh yeah. I see it over there. Let’s hurry up and get checked-in. (Still later.) Okay, so we checked-in our baggage and got our boarding passes. Yeah, now we just me too get through the security checkpoint. Let’s pull out our passports, Kelly. The TSA agent has to see them. Oh, great, Lyman. Now we have to open our bags, take off our shoes … Oh, it’s no big deal, Kelly. We’ll be on our plane soon, headed for Hawaii! Let’s begin our 1st conversation! Speak out loud as Kelly.

Just listen when Lyman speaks. Are you ready to go, Lyman? Yes, I have my bags packed. How about you? I’m all set. How many suitcases are you bringing? Just two. I’ll put the larger one in checked baggage and carry-on the other. Yep, same here. I tried to get everything into one, but that didn’t work. What do you think? Should we drive to the airport? I think it’ll be cheaper to take a taxi. Then we don’t have to pay for parking. No, the airport’s too far away to take a taxicab. It’d cost too much. Well, that’s true, Lyman. So, what should we do? How about this idea? We take a taxi to the bus station. And, take a bus to the airport! Now that’s a good idea. Wow, I didn’t know this airport was so big. Yeah, it’s huge. Where do we check-in for our flight? It looks like the ticket counter for our airline is way across the terminal. Oh, yeah. I see it over there. Let’s hurry up and get checked-in. Okay, so we checked-in our baggage and got our boarding passes. Yeah, now we just need to get through the security checkpoint.

Let’s pull out our passports, Kelly. The TSA agent has to see them. Oh, great, Lyman. Now we have to open our bags, take off our shoes … Oh, it’s no big deal, Kelly. We’ll be on our plane soon, headed for Hawaii! Let’s begin our 2nd conversation! Let’s switch dialogs. I’m still Lyman. You’re still Kelly. Are you ready to go, Kelly? Yes, I have my bags packed. How about you? I’m all set. How many suitcases are you bringing? Just two. I’ll put the larger one in checked baggage and carry-on the other. Yep, same here. I tried to get everything into one, but that didn’t work. What do you think? Should we drive to the airport? I think it’ll be cheaper to take a taxi.

Then we don’t have to pay for parking. No, the airport’s to far away to take a taxicab. It’d cost too much. Well, that’s true, Kelly. So, what should we do? How about this idea? We take a taxi to the bus station. And, take a bus to the airport! Now that’s a good idea. Wow, I didn’t know this airport was so big. Yeah, it’s huge. Where do we check-in for our flight? It looks like the ticket counter for our airline is way across the terminal. Oh, yeah. I see it over there. Let’s hurry up and get checked-in. Okay, so we checked-in our baggage and got our boarding passes. Yeah, now we just need to get through the security checkpoint. Let’s pull out our passports, Lyman. The TSA agent has to see them.

Oh, great, Kelly. Now we have to open our bags, take off our shoes … Oh, it’s no big deal, Lyman. We’ll be on our plane soon, headed for Hawaii! That concludes this lesson. Thank you for watching this video. I hope you enjoyed it Please post any comments you have below. I’ll be happy to respond. And, please subscribe. Good-bye for now.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

How to write a good essay: Paraphrasing the question

{“en”:”Hi, there. My name is Emma, and in today’s video I’m going to teach you something very important for if you’re taking any type of test that has a writing component. So, if you are taking the IELTS, the TOEFL, the CELPIP, even just a university test, it can be any type of test, but if you’re asked to write something like an essay or a paragraph, this video is for you. Okay? So I’m going to teach you a very important skill that will help improve your marks when it comes to writing on tests. So, let’s get started. So, I have here an essay question. This question is actually… I’ve seen it on the IELTS. You know, you have similar types of questions on the TOEFL, sometimes in university. The question is this: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree or disagree?” Or maybe: “To what extent do you agree or disagree?” So, this is an example of a question you might be asked. Now, a problem a lot of students have is in their answer to this question.

They see this, and they think: “Okay, education is the most important factor in the development of a country, yes, I agree.” So then they… Or: “I disagree”, and they start writing. And what do they write? Usually the very first thing students will write is this: “I agree that education is the single most important factor in the development of a country because…” So, what is the problem with this? Is there any problem to start off your essay with something like this, or to start off your answer? There’s a big problem. So I want you to take a moment and think: “What could be the problem with starting your essay off with this sentence?” Okay, well, if you noticed, you have here the word: “education, education, is, is, the single most important, most important factor”.

If you notice, these are the same. They’re the exact same, except for: “I agree that” and “because”. The student, here, has used the exact same wording that is in the question. So, if you do this on the IELTS-and many students do this, same with on the TOEFL-you actually will lose marks, and same with in university, because you’re not showing your abilities; you’re just copying what somebody else has said or what the essay question is. So, in this video, I’m going to show you first off… First off, I’m going to tell you: Don’t do this, don’t copy. And I’m going to teach you ways in order to improve yourself and your answer by changing this wording. How can you change your introduction so it’s different than what the question is? Okay? So, let’s look at how to make these changes.

Okay, so what we are going to do in order to change the question into a proper answer that doesn’t just copy the question, is we are going to paraphrase. So, the word here is: “paraphrase”. This might be a new word for you. What does it mean to paraphrase something? Well, when we paraphrase, it means we take a sentence that, you know… We take somebody else’s sentence and we change it into our own words. Okay? So, we change the words of a sentence, we also change maybe the sentence structure, but we keep all the same meaning. Okay? So, the meaning from the sentence you copy, it stays the same, same meaning, but different words and different sentence structure. Okay? So it’s in your words, but this other person’s meaning. So, we are going to paraphrase this example of a question into our own words. So, first we’re going to look at how to do that using vocabulary and synonyms. So, we have here the same question: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” How can we put this into new words or our own words that keep the same meaning? Well, we can use synonyms.

So, this might be a new word for you, too. A “synonym”. “Synonyms” are words that have the same meaning, but are different words. So, for example: “big” and “large”, they have the same meaning, just like: “huge”, “enormous”, these are synonyms of each other; same meaning, but they’re different words. So, you need to use different synonyms so you don’t just copy these words. You use synonyms to have words that have the same meaning, but are different words. So, let’s look at an example. Our first word, here, is: “education”. What’s another word we can use instead of…? Instead of “education”? Well, there’s different words we can use. Maybe one could be: “schooling”. Okay? So, we could change this word to “schooling”.

“Schooling is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” What’s another word we can change? Well, maybe “most important”. Instead of using the word “most important”, maybe we could use: “most significant” or “most essential”. Okay? So: “essential”, “significant”. There are many words you can use. But the point here is: Find a word that has the same meaning, but is a different word. Okay, here’s another word: “factor”. Can you think of another word for “factor”? Well, sometimes “factor”, it can be an “aspect” or an “element”.

Okay? You can even say sometimes: “a significant role”. Okay? Or: “a part”. So, there’s different words we can use that have similar meanings. In terms of the word “development”, we can change the word “development” to “advancement”, “progression”, “evolution”. Okay? And in terms of the word “country”, another word for “country” is “nation”. Okay? So, these are all synonyms, and this is what you want to do. When you look at the question, think about some new words you can use that have the same meaning. This is also important throughout your essay, because one problem a lot of students have is they keep using the same word again, and again, and again in every sentence. This does not help you with your marks. It’s better to use different words that have the same meaning. At the same time, you have to be careful, here, because some students, they find a new word, they think it’s a great word, but there is a little bit of a difference in meaning. So, you need to be really comfortable with the word you choose, and you need to know what it actually means so it doesn’t sound strange.

Okay, so if we wanted to change this now, instead of saying: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country”, our paraphrase… Our first step in our paraphrase could be changing these words to: “Schooling is the single most significant element in the advancement of a nation.” Okay? So that’s just one example. So, now, let’s look at another thing you can do in order to paraphrase the question on a test or exam.

Okay, another way we can paraphrase is by changing the structure of the sentence. So, for example, you might have a verb and, you know, which is an action, and you might change that into its noun form. So, for example, if your verb is “developing”, you might change that into “development”. You might change, similarly, a noun into a verb. Okay? So, for example, we just said “development” is the noun, it can turn into: “develop” or “developing”. You can also change things into adjectives. So, if, for example, you’re talking about “technology”, which is a noun, you can change this into the adjective form which is “technological”. So, changing the form of the word can help you with paraphrasing.

Also changing placement of the words can help you out. So, for example, in our original sentence or the question was: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” So, I’ve now changed some of the wording, as well as the order. Okay? So, here: “Education” is at the beginning. In my sentence: “The most essential element of a nation’s development is education.” I’ve changed the order of the sentence, so now “education” is at the end, instead of at the beginning. I’ve also started out with: “The most essential”, as my beginning; whereas here, it was in the middle. You’ll also notice we have, here: “in the development of a country”, I’ve changed this to: “nation’s development”.

I could also change this to: “country’s development”, instead of “the development of a country”. So, changing the order of the sentence and changing some of the structures can really help you in terms of paraphrasing. Now let’s learn one other way in which we can improve our marks by paraphrasing. Okay, so the last tip I have about paraphrasing a question is using concessions. So, what is a concession? Well, I want you to look at what the question actually says and my new answer to it. The question, again, same question as before: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” My answer… Okay, so I’ve changed some words and I’ve also changed the structure a bit, but there’s one other thing I’ve added. “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building, I think education has a far greater impact.” So, what I’ve done here is I’ve added a concession.

A concession is where you say what the opposite opinion is, and then you say what your opinion is. So, you’re giving two opinions; you’re giving your opinion and also what other people might think. This is a great thing to do, especially in essays, and this is something you can do at the beginning of your answer. So, we use here the key word: “Although”. Okay? And you’ll notice that this has two clauses. I don’t want to get too technical with grammar on you today, but what I mean is: If you see, we have the red part: “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building,” and then we have a second part. So, we have two parts to this sentence. “…I think education has a far greater impact.” So, the first part of the sentence is in red and it’s the “Although” part, and the second part of the sentence is in purple-okay?-and that’s: “I think education has a far greater impact.” And they’re separated by a comma.

So, a concession has two parts to it. You say what the other people think first, in this case: “Although many”, “many” meaning people, we could also say: “many people”. “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building,” okay? So, this is what some people would say. Now I’m going to say what I think. “I think education has a far greater impact.” So, why is this a good idea? Well, one reason is because when you write a concession, when you’re showing what the opposite opinion of yours is, you’re showing that you’ve thought about the issue.

Okay? You’re looking at both sides. You’re not just looking at your opinion. You’re looking at both sides, and then you’re making a judgment. So this shows that you’re thinking about the question, and you’re really giving it some thought. And by representing both sides, you’re really showing critical thinking. So this is a very good idea to do. Okay, so the three things we’ve talked about today in terms of paraphrasing the question is: Changing the words using synonyms, we’ve talked about changing the sentence structure, and we’ve also talked about adding the other perspective using concessions. Okay? So, these are three things you can do in order to change the question so you’re not just copying what is on your test paper. Again, great thing to do if you’re writing a high school essay, university essay, TOEFL, IELTS, CELPIP, all of these things – this skill will really come in handy for you.

Now, you might be wondering: “Okay, this is great, but I don’t know any synonyms. Or I… You know, I don’t know much about this.” Well, what you can do is you can come check out our website at www.engvid.com. There, you can find a lot of other resources, including improving your vocabulary, we even have a video on how to make concessions, you know, we have videos on sentence structure, too. So, there’s a lot of videos you can check out and a lot of resources. You can also come visit our website where you will find a quiz, and by taking that quiz, you can actually practice your paraphrasing skills so you can see, you know: “Am I doing this right? Is this…? You know, is this the right way to do this?” and get more practice. So, I hope you’ve enjoyed this video. And until next time, take care.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

IELTS Speaking Task 1 – How to get a high score

Hi, there. My name is Emma, and in today’s lesson, we will be looking at how to do well on the speaking part of the IELTS. So the speaking part of the IELTS is divided up into three sections. Today, we’re just going to be looking at section No. 1. So first of all, I will explain how to do well — oh, sorry. First, I’ll explain what happens in Part 1 of the IELTS. And from there, we’ll look at some things you should do to do well and some things you shouldn’t do, okay? So let’s get started. So what happens in Part 1 of the IELTS? Well, first of all, the speaking Part 1 of the IELTS is for both those taking the General IELTS exam and the Academic. So whether you’re taking the Academic or the General IELTS, it’s the same test with the same questions. Okay. It lasts between four to five minutes.

It’s made up of first an introduction. So the examiner is going to introduce himself or herself. Then, you will introduce yourself. So for example, “Hi. My name is Emma. Nice to meet you.” Okay, so there’s an introduction. And then, the examiner is going to ask you some questions about yourself. So these questions aren’t that difficult. Usually, they’re about where you’re from. So for example what city you were born in, where you grew up. They might be about work. They might be about what you study, about your friends, about your hobbies, food, sports, and another thing I don’t have up here, family. Family is also common on this part of the IELTS. Okay? So usually, the examiner, after introducing himself or herself, they will talk to you about two of these topics.

Okay?” Now, the way they mark this part of the IELTS is they’re looking specifically for pronunciation, okay? So can they understand what you’re saying? Do you pronounce things well? They’re going to be looking at fluency. So what’s “fluency”? Well, do you go, “Uh, um, uh, uh” a lot during the test? Or do you speak very clearly, in a very nice rhythmic way? Do you use organizers or transitions? “First of all, secondly, finally.” Do you use words like this? “Another reason.” Or do you have problems speaking at a normal rate? So they look at that in fluency.” Then, they mark you also on vocabulary. Do you use words like “good, bad” a lot? Those are very low-level words. Or do you use high level words that really show off your vocabulary?” The final thing you’re marked on is grammar and accuracy. So for example, do you only use the present test for the whole test or are you able to correctly use the present tense, the past tense, present perfect, future? How well is your grammar? Okay? So don’t panic.

Maybe you’re weak in grammar. Maybe you make some mistakes in grammar. But you’re marked equally on these four components, okay? So now, let’s look at some tips on how to do well on Part 1 of the speaking part of the IELTS. Okay. So what are some of the things we should do to get a good mark in Part 1 of the IELTS for speaking? Well, we have a list here of dos. Okay? So these are things you want to do. So the first thing that’s very important is when you first meet the examiner, okay? If you’re very nervous, and you don’t make eye-contact, and you look at the floor the whole time, you’re not going to do well on the IELTS even if your English is pretty good.

So it’s very important to present yourself with confidence, okay? You want to go into that test and know you’re going to do well. If you think you’re going to do well, you’re going to do a lot better. Okay? If you think you’re going to do badly, you’re probably going to do badly. So think you’re going to do well, and be confident. Okay? Another important thing is be friendly. Okay. You want to smile. Body language is actually very important in the IELTS. You want to make eye-contact, okay? So don’t look at your feet. Don’t look at your hands. Look at the examiner. But you don’t have to stare at them, okay? Just look at them when you talk. Another thing a lot of students forget is they don’t act excited when they’re answering questions. So what do I mean by this? Well, they talk with a monotone. So for example, “Do you like playing sports?” This is a common question on the IELTS.

A student might respond, “I really like playing basketball. Basketball is a good sport.” Okay. If the examiner hears that, you’re probably not going to get a good mark. You should act excited about what you’re saying. Okay? “Yes. I love sports. Basketball is my favorite. It’s, you know — I love watching basketball. It’s a lot of fun to play.” If you seem excited, you will do better. Okay. The next thing that’s very important is the vocabulary you use, okay? So remember, you’re getting marked on four different things. One of these things is vocabulary. So how do you improve your vocabulary mark? Well, don’t use simple, easy, boring, low-level words like, “I like basketball because it’s good. I don’t like soccer because it’s bad.” Okay? These words, “bad, good “, they’re too easy. You need to try to find vocabulary that is higher level and practice before you do the IELTS. So for example, a good thing to do is look at the list of topics you will probably be asked about.

Food is a very common thing they will ask you about. So try to come up with vocabulary in advance and practice this vocabulary about the different topics. So for example, I know they may ask me a question about food. So I might learn some words that have to do with food. Maybe I don’t know the word “cuisine”. Well, if they ask me a question about food, I can say, “My favorite type of food — I love Indian cuisine.” Okay? And there you go. They’ve just noticed you used a higher level word. Same with friends. A common word we use when we talk about friends, we talk about “acquaintances”. Okay? So this is another good word to use. So again, try to come up with vocabulary for each of the different topics, and practice. Okay.

Now, in this part of the IELTS, the examiner may ask you about what you like. “Do you like to play sports? What hobbies do you like? What are your favorite foods?” Now, one thing a lot of students do is they overuse “I like”. “I like this. I like that. I like this. I like that.” This is not going to help you with your vocabulary mark.

So instead of using “I like” a lot, try something different. “I enjoy playing basketball. I enjoy hanging out with my friends. I really love yoga. I really love bowling.” Okay? “I prefer playing sports to doing other activities.” So “I enjoy, I really love, I prefer” — I’m sure you can come up with more, but it’s good to practice these types of expressions before you do the IELTS, okay?” Another key tip: Expand your answers. So what does this mean? Well, maybe the examiner asked you a question, “What is your favorite food?” Or — sorry. Let me think of a good example. “Do you like to play sports?” Okay? The examiner might ask you that. Some students might just say, “No.” And that’s their answer. “Do you like to play sports? Do you like to cook?” “No.” Well, the examiner is not going to be able to judge your English if you answer questions yes or no.

You have to give bigger, longer answers. So this is what I mean by expand. Don’t just say “yes” or “no”. Even if you don’t know what to say, make something up. So for example, a common question they ask, “Where are you from?” Now, I could just say, “I’m from Toronto.” Or, “Toronto.” This isn’t going to help my IELTS mark. It’s better if I expand this answer. “I’m from Toronto. It’s actually the biggest city in Canada. It’s also considered one of the most multicultural cities in the world.” I don’t have to talk too long about Toronto. I don’t want to say the whole history of Toronto. I don’t want to keep talking and talking and talking. But I don’t want a very short answer. So you need to find an answer that is not too short and not too long. You want something in the middle. Okay? So that’s what I mean by “expand”.

One way to expand your answers is by giving examples. So I asked this question earlier. You know, “What’s your favorite food?” “Oh, I love Indian cuisine.” How can I add to this? I can give examples. “My favorite dish is palak paneer. It’s made from spinach, a type of cheese they use in India, spices. You know, we often eat it at my house.” So there. Instead of just saying, “I like Indian food”, I’ve given a lot of examples. And that’s what you want to do, okay? Finally, most importantly, practice. Okay? So you know the types of questions you’re going to get. A lot about what you do for work, what do you study, how many people are in your family — these types of questions. Now, it’s important to practice your answers. Okay? Practice with your friends. Practice with a mirror. Practice, practice, practice. It’s very important that you practice answering these types of questions before you do the IELTS. Okay, so now, let’s look at some of the “don’ts”, some things you shouldn’t do in the IELTS.

Okay. So what are things you shouldn’t do? Okay, now, we’re going to look at a list of what you shouldn’t do. So “don’ts”. Okay. Don’t do this. Don’t speak with a monotone. So I already mentioned this. Don’t speak where your voice flat, okay? Don’t speak like, “I have a mother and a father.” Don’t say things like that. Speak with enthusiasm, okay? Not monotone. Okay. Don’t give yes/no answers. “Do you have a family?” “Yes.” That’s a horrible answer.” Okay? It’s more — “Have you traveled to China?” “No.” Okay.

These types of answers are not the ones you want to give. Expand. Make your answer longer, even if you have to lie. It’s okay to lie on the IELTS as long as you speak. That’s the most important thing. Okay. Do not repeat the question. Okay. So if they say, “Do you like sports?” “Yes, I like sports.” You’re wasting a sentence. Instead of repeating the question back to them, find a better way to say it.

“Do you like sports in” “Yes. There are many sports that I find very fun and interesting.” Okay, so don’t repeat the question. “Do you have a family?” “Yes, I have a family.” It’s not a good thing to do.” Don’t go off topic. So sometimes, students — they’re really actually excited, and they want to talk. And they want to show off their language skills. And so they think, “Oh, yes. I need to expand my answers.” But instead of expanding, they go and they talk about so many different things that don’t have to do with the topic. So for example, if they ask me a question on my hometown, if I start talking about Toronto, and then I start talking about education, and then I start talking about technology, this is going off on too many different topics.

Stick to what they ask you. Okay? You can give examples, but they should be about — they should refer to the question they asked you. Okay. Don’t answer, “I don’t know.” So in the first part of the IELTS, this would actually be a difficult — I can’t imagine you actually using this answer because the point of Part 1 of the IELTS is to make you feel comfortable. So the examiner asks you questions about yourself. So you should know these answers. “What are your favorite hobbies? What types of foods do you like to eat? How many members are there in your family?” You shouldn’t answer, “I don’t know” to any of these questions.

They’re about you. And if — maybe you don’t know. Maybe you’ve never thought about what’s your favorite food. Just make it up. Okay? Even if you hate sushi, even if you hate West Indian food or Canadian food. That’s okay. Just make it up. “I love West Indian food. I love Canadian food.” If you don’t know, make up your answer. Don’t speak too quickly, and don’t speak too slowly. Okay? So this is a little bit about fluency.

What often happens with students is when they get nervous, they start to talk really, really, really fast, and they go a mile a minute. They just go so fast. So if you’re the type of person that does this, practice is speaking in environments where you get nervous. So this way, you can practice maybe ways to deal with stress, ways to deal with nervousness. Try not to speak too quickly. Also, don’t speak very slowly, okay? I’ve had some students who have used a lot of “uh’s” and “ah’s”, and this is a problem. So don’t speak too slowly. Okay? Another thing: Don’t speak quietly. Okay? A lot of students, they’re nervous, and they’re shy, so they talk like this. And the examiner has to really listen. They can’t hear what they’re saying, and so you’re not going to do as well if you talk quietly.

Talk with confidence. Talk loudly so they can hear what you’re saying. Okay. Finally, the most important point: Don’t worry about being perfect. You do not have to speak perfect English to do well on the IELTS. Even if you’re aiming for a mark of nine on the IELTS, a bandwidth of 9 — sorry. If you’re looking for the mark of nine, you do not need perfect English, okay? You can make mistakes. So if you make a mistake, that’s okay. If you can correct it easily, do so. If you try to correct it and you’re going to make more mistakes or you’re going to take a lot of time, it’s okay; just leave it. If you make a mistake, continue to talk. Move on. There’s a chance that the examiner didn’t even hear that mistake.

And they expect you to make mistakes. So if you make a mistake between using “a” or “the”, if you make a mistake in terms of grammar, it’s okay. Native speakers make mistakes, too. People are used to hearing native speakers, ESL students make mistakes. So you do not have to be perfect. I can’t say that enough. Don’t worry about being perfect. Okay? So if you’re wondering the types of questions you may see on the IELTS, and if you want to practice with a friend or even in front of the mirror, I strongly recommend you visit the website www.goodluckielts.com.

On this website, there are more tips, as well as practice questions for Part 1 of the IELTS. And information, too, on the writing section, listening section, and reading section, okay? So I also invite you to come and do our quiz at www.engvid.com where you can practice some of these tips that we’ve talked about today. So until next time, take care..

As found on Youtube

Study English – Series 1, Episode 1: Electronic Crime

Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. In this series, we look at the skills you’ll need to write formal, academic English, and you’ll have the chance to listen to people talking about topics you’ll find at colleges and universities. In today’s episode were going to hear someone talking about a new type of crime – electronic crime. Listen carefully to this police officer. Then we’re going to look at word families, and do some spelling.

It is a new frontier, and there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically, and via computers and the internet, but there are also new crime types emerging. Electronic crime really does cross over a whole range of different crime types. You can imagine stalking offences that may be facilitated via email, harassment, threatening emails, small-scale fraud offences, right up through to large-scale frauds committed via the internet.

OK, so let’s have a closer look at that clip. We’re going to focus on vocabulary building, and word groups, but first, listen again to this sentence. See if you can hear the keyword, the main subject of the sentence. It is a new frontier, and there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically, and via computers and the internet. He says there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically. The keyword is crime.

That’s what the sentence is about. Crime is a noun. We say that a crime is committed, or done. To commit a crime is to do something illegal. Let’s have a closer look at the word crime. In English, many words can change to have different uses. In this way, they form word groups. Learning words groups is an excellent way to build your vocabulary. You should write them down in a table like this showing adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. Of course, there are often at least 2 different sorts of nouns – nouns for things, and nouns for people.

Let’s have a look at the crime word group. Crime is a noun. It’s a thing. A criminal is a person who commits a crime. Criminal is also the adjective. We can describe something by using the word criminal before the noun. That was a criminal act. And we have the adverb criminally. To behave criminally is to behave in an illegal way. There’s no verb from crime. We have to use the phrase to commit a crime. OK. Well come back to our table a bit later. Right now, listen to what sort of crimes are being committed these days – and listen for an -ly adverb.

It is a new frontier, and there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically, and via computers and the internet. He says there are old forms of crime being committed electronically. Electronically is an adverb. It means in an electronic way, or using electronics. Electronics is the study of electricity and the things that use electricity. Listen to the way electronic is used here It is a new frontier, and there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically, and via computers and the internet, but there are also new crime types emerging. Electronic crime really does cross over a whole range of different crime types. Electronic crime really does cross over a whole range of different crime types. He uses the phrases electronic crime, and committed electronically. Notice that electronic, the adjective, comes before the noun crime, but that the adverb electronically comes after the verb committed. Let’s look at the table again. We have electronic the adjective, electronically the adverb, and electronics, the noun.

You’ll notice that not all words take all these different forms. But where they do exist, you will be able to see patterns emerging. For example look at the adverbs criminally and electronically. They both end in -l-y, -ly. OK, so we’ve looked at electronic and its word family. These days, electronic is often used to mean relating to computers, or new technologies. It sometimes gets shortened to e. We have e-mail: electronic mail, e-business, electronic business. So we could call these electronic crimes e-crimes: crimes committed using computers and the internet. But what sorts of e-crimes are being committed? Listen for the two main types of crimes that he mentions. Electronic crime really does cross over a whole range of different crime types. You can imagine stalking offences that may be facilitated via email, harassment, threatening emails, small-scale fraud offences, right up through to large-scale frauds committed via the internet.

He mentions two main types of crimes: stalking offences and fraud offences. An offence is another word for a crime. Notice how you can build your vocabulary by looking at words on a theme. An offence is a crime, and offenders are criminals. But look at some other crime words. We’ve got robbery and robbers, burglary and burglars. And there are lots more – you should try to learn words in themes like this. See how many words you can find for different types of crimes and criminals. OK, now let’s have a quick look at some spelling. Spelling is very important in formal writing, but English spelling is very difficult.

They’re aren’t too many rules, and most of them can be broken. Notice that many words can have doubled letters, but you can’t tell by just listening to the words. In today’s story we’ve seen the words committed, electronically, different, cross, harassment and offences. They have all got doubled letters. There aren’t really any rules for spelling these words – you have to learn them all one by one.

When you come across new words, try writing them down a few times, and spelling them out loud. Notice in Australia and England, we spell doubled letters out by saying the word double before them. Double f, double s. But in the United States, they just say the letter twice – f-f, s-s. So you can choose either way, but you should learn to recognise both. Listen to this: Different: d-i-f-f-e-r-e-n-t, different Harassment: h-a-r-a-s-s-m-e-n-t, harassment Electronically: e-l-e-c-t-r-o-n-i-c-a-l-l-y, electronically Notice that even though English spelling can be very difficult, it’s very important to make sure you spell words correctly. It makes your writing look bad if you misspell words in essays. So you’ll need to work hard at it! So our lessons for today are: write down new words you find.

Check the spelling in a dictionary, to make sure you’ve spelt them correctly. See if you can find other words that belong to the same family – can the word be used as a noun or verb? Write all the word forms in your word family table. Don’t forget that it’s very useful to keep your words listed according to topics – like crime words, or business words, or computer words. And that’s all we’ve got time for today. I’ll see you for the next episode of Study English! Bye bye..

As found on Youtube

Learn English: 11 ‘mind’ expressions

Hello. My name is Emma and in today’s lesson I am going to teach you a bunch of new vocabulary expressions. These expressions are all very common and very useful. So, the expressions we’re going to learn today all have the word “mind” in them. Okay? And there are a lot. I’m not even covering all of them because there are so many expressions in English with the word “mind”, so we’re only going to cover some of them, but we’re going to cover the main ones. Okay, so, when we talk about “mind”, there are different ways we’re talking about mind. “Mind” can have to do with the brain and with thinking or thoughts. Okay? So, sometimes when we’re talking about mind we’re talking about our brain or we’re talking about our thoughts. Sometimes we’re talking about something totally different with mind. Sometimes when we’re talking about mind we’re actually talking about being polite. For example: “Do you mind?” this is something where you’re being polite. And then we also use “mind” when we’re telling somebody to pay attention to something.

For example: “Mind the gap” or “Mind the hole”. So we have these three times where we’re using “mind” and we have a lot of different expressions for each of these different categories. So we’re going to go over each of these. I’m going to teach you a bunch of expressions where “mind” has to do with thought or brain, I’ll teach you a lot of expressions where it has to do with politeness, and then I’m going to teach you a lot of “mind” expressions that have to do with paying attention. But this is pretty much one way you can look at these expressions. So let’s get started by talking about… When we’re talking about mind, and thoughts, and the brain. So, first, when we talk about “mind” one meaning of “mind” can have to do with pretty much the brain, but it’s not exactly the brain. Okay? So your brain is in your head and it’s a physical thing. You can touch the brain, you can feel the brain, you can see the brain, smell the brain, so it’s physical. Mind is not physical.

You can’t see the mind because the mind is where your thoughts are, where your memories are, and these are things you can’t really see or feel, but they’re somewhere in here; we just can’t see them because they’re not physical. So, for example: Einstein, very famous scientist: “Einstein had a brilliant mind.” Okay? So this means Einstein had brilliant thoughts, he was very smart. He had, you know, brilliant ideas. These things are all in his mind. So it’s similar to brain, although not exactly the same thing, it’s very similar to brain.

We can also say: “psychologist”. A psychologist is a job and people who are psychologists, they study the human mind, meaning they look at the brain and they look at people’s memories, they look at the way people have ideas, and they think about: “Where do these things come from?” Okay? So they study the human mind. So, a lot of the times when we use the word “mind”, we’re talking about kind of your brain and your thoughts. You know, we might say: “Oh, Beethoven had an incredible mind”, or you know: “In your opinion, which minds were the greatest of the 20th century? Who had the greatest mind?” Meaning: Who had the greatest ideas, and thoughts, and pretty much brain? Okay, so that’s “mind”. Now, let’s look at another way we use “mind” and that’s in the expression: “on someone’s mind”. So this is a very common expression. In English we often ask: “What’s on your mind?” Or we also say: “I have a lot on my mind.” So, what does: “on my mind” mean? And make sure you have “on someone’s mind”, so it can be: “on my mind”, “on your mind”, “on her mind”, “on John’s mind”, you can pretty much put any person here.

What does it mean? Well, when we talk about “on our mind” we’re usually talking about problems, so we’re usually talking about problems that we are thinking about. These are thoughts, we’re thinking about something so it’s on our mind. So, let me give you an example. If I ask you: “What’s on your mind?” I’m asking you: “What are you thinking about right now? What’s on your mind?” And you might tell me, you know, some problem you’re having. “You know, I had a fight with my brother. That’s on my mind right now, that’s what I’m thinking about.” You can also say: “I have a lot on my mind.” When somebody says this it means they’re saying: “I’m thinking about some problem I’m having”. “I have a lot on my mind”, it means I’m thinking about a lot of problems right now or a big problem I have. So you’ll see often in TV or movies somebody says: -“What’s wrong?” -“Oh, I have a lot on my mind right now, sorry.” Okay? Meaning: “I have a lot of things I’m dealing with at the moment” or “I have a lot of problems in my life”.

Okay? So: “on my mind” has to do with thoughts, often it has to do with problems and thinking about problems. Now, let’s look at some other examples with the word “mind” when we’re talking about thoughts and the brain. Okay, so our next expression also has to do with thinking, thoughts, and the brain, and that’s: “have in mind”. Okay? So: “have in mind”. So, when you have something in mind or someone in mind, what it means is that you are thinking about a person for a position…

So, for example: -“Who are you voting for?” -“I have Trudeau in mind”, so I am thinking about Trudeau for the position of Prime Minister. Or, you know, maybe if you’re following American politics, you know, if Hillary Clinton is running, you might say: -“Who are you voting for?” -“Oh, I have Hillary in mind.” This could also be for a promotion at work. Maybe you need to hire somebody for your company or promote somebody, so you want to give somebody a job. -“Who do you have in mind for the job?” -“Oh, I have my sister in mind” or -“I have George in mind. He’s a good employee.” So it’s where you’re thinking or it’s like your opinion about a person for a position. You think this person is good for this position, so you have this person in mind for this position. We can also use it with a thing also. It doesn’t always have to be a person. For example, when we are thinking about something, some sort of object that is right for a situation.

So, for example, you know, I’m pretty hungry right now, I’m thinking about dinner. So somebody might say: “Oh, what do you have in mind for dinner?” So: -“What are you thinking about for dinner? What is right for dinner?” -“In my opinion, I have pizza in mind.” That’s what I’m thinking about, I’m thinking about pizza. Pizza is right for this situation. Okay? So, again, we can use it either with a person or a thing, but you’re pretty much saying that this is right for this situation in your opinion. Okay. Our next expression is: “lose someone’s mind”. Okay? I really like this expression. When you lose your mind it means you go crazy. So, for example: “I’m losing my mind. The cat is speaking English.” Okay? So this means I’m going crazy because cats, of course, don’t speak English, so I’m losing my mind. We can also use it if somebody’s doing something very strange, you know: “I think my dad has lost his mind. He’s, you know, wearing a winter jacket and it’s summertime. I think my dad has lost his mind.

I think my dad has gone crazy.” So, we use this expression a lot, especially in conversation. All right, now let’s look at some other expressions to do with the mind. Okay, so our next expression is: “cross someone’s mind”, so this could be: “cross my mind”, “cross your mind”, “cross her mind”, “cross his mind”, and what it means is when we think of an idea very quickly. Okay? An idea comes into our head very quickly.

So, for example: “It just crossed my mind that I need to buy bread today.” It means I’ve just really quickly come up with this idea. Or: “It crossed my mind that I should bring an umbrella because it’s going to rain.” So it just means a quick idea. Okay, our next expression: “Give a piece of someone’s mind.” I really like this expression. It means when you’re giving someone an angry opinion. Okay? So, when you give a piece of your mind, you’re usually angry like this. So maybe, you know, you want to call your telephone company and you’ve been waiting, and waiting, and waiting, and nobody’s answering the phone. You might say to yourself: “I’m going to give them a piece of my mind.” It means: “I’m going to give them my angry opinion.

I’m so angry right now.” So: “She gave them a piece of her mind.” Okay? If I ever meet… You know, like, maybe there’s somebody you don’t like: “If I ever meet Johnny I’m going to give him a piece of my mind.” It means I’m going to tell him my angry opinion about him. Okay? What I don’t like about him. Okay, the next one is also an expression, I love this expression actually. When your “mind goes blank”. Okay? This happens to me all the time. What it means is when you forget everything. Okay? You forget what you’re going to say, you forget what you’re supposed to do, you forget everything, and your mind… You don’t remember what you’re supposed to do. So, for example, if you have ever taken a test and you get the piece of paper, you get the test, and you look at it and suddenly: “Oh my god, I don’t remember anything. Oh my god, I’ve forgotten everything.” That means your mind has gone blank.

Or if somebody asks you a question, you know: “Can…?” Like, you know: “What’s…? What’s your phone number?” Maybe if you’re, like, forgetful, you don’t remember. “Oh, my mind just went blank. I don’t remember. I need to, you know, memorize it.” Okay? So when your mind goes blank it’s usually because you’re nervous or tired and you forget everything. Okay? And then maybe you remember in a minute, but at that moment you don’t remember anything.

Okay, so: “My mind just went blank.” My mind always goes blank. Okay, the final example of these brain expressions with “mind” is: “Make up someone’s mind.” So, when somebody makes up their mind it means they decide something, they decide to do something. Okay? So I can say: “I have made up my mind. I’m going to university.” It means I’ve decided to go to university. We could say: “Philip made up his mind. He’s going to get pizza for dinner tonight.” Or: “Susan made up her mind. She’s going to the prom with Johnny.” Just another example. So, when you make up your mind, you decide to do something.

“I’ve made up my mind. I’m going to be an astronaut.” Another example, okay, of deciding to do something. So now let’s look at some expressions that have to do with “mind” when we’re talking about being polite and politeness. Okay, so we can also use the word “mind” when we are trying to be polite. And usually we use it this way if we are asking permission for something or if we are requesting something. Pretty much we are asking: Is something okay? And this is a very polite way to ask that. So, for example: “Do you mind if _______?”, “Do you mind if I smoke?” So this is a question where you’re politely asking: “Is it okay if I smoke?” Okay? So, we don’t usually… Well, we sometimes talk this way to our friends, but we usually use this in formal situations or with strangers, or with people we don’t really know that well.

But we can also use it with friends, too. “Do you mind if I smoke?” So you’re asking permission. “Is it okay if I smoke?”, “Do you mind if I open the window?”, “Do you mind if I turn off the light?”, “Do you mind if I borrow your books?” Okay? So, again, you’re asking permission. Now, if it’s okay, you can say: “I don’t mind.” This means: “It’s okay”. “I don’t mind if you open the window.”, “I don’t mind if you smoke.”, “I don’t mind if you borrow my books.” You’re saying: “It’s okay if you do this.” You don’t even need this. If you want, you can say: “Sure. I don’t mind.” So, you know, you don’t need the full sentence, you can just say: “I don’t mind”, and that’s okay, too.

What about if you do mind? What about if it’s not okay? If somebody says: “Do you mind if I smoke?” and you’re not okay with it, what you can say is: “I prefer if you didn’t”. -“Do you mind if I open the window?” -“Well, I’d prefer if you didn’t.” Okay? So we say: “I don’t mind” if it’s okay, and we can say it in different ways, but one way is if you have a problem you can say: “I’d prefer it if you didn’t.” Okay, and then we also have another expression which means very similar: “Would you mind _______?” So this is a very polite way to speak, just like: “Do you mind?”, “Would you mind getting me some coffee?” So in this case I’m asking somebody to do something for me, so I’m requesting something. I want somebody to do something for me and I’m asking: “Is it okay? Is it okay for you…? Do you mind if you get me some coffee?”, “Would you mind getting me some coffee?” I’m requesting for the person to do something for me. “Would you mind if I don’t go to the party?”, “Is it okay if I don’t go to the party? Would you mind?” So this, again, is very similar to: “Do you mind?” It’s a polite way to either request something or ask for somebody’s permission to see if something is okay.

So these are all very polite ways to speak. So we’ve now covered “mind” when we’re talking about the brain and thinking, we’ve covered “mind” when we’re talking about being polite and requesting or asking permission for something. And now let’s look at the final way we use “mind”, which is when we’re telling somebody to pay attention to something. Okay, so our next expression has to do with paying attention. It means you’re telling somebody to be careful about some sort of danger, and so that sentence is: “Mind the _______!” and then here you put whatever the danger is.

So, for example: “Mind the gap.” If you’ve ever been on the subway or the tube and you see there’s, like, between the train and the platform, there’s like a hole, sometimes people might trip on that so you’ll see signs saying: “Mind the gap”, which means: “Be careful about the gap. Pay attention for this gap.” Or on a rainy day when it rains, the ground has puddles on it. So, a puddle is like a lot of water, and what you might tell your friend is: “Oh wait, mind the puddle”, meaning: “Pay attention.

There’s a puddle there.” Or maybe you see dog poo on the sidewalk, and you’re about to step in it and your friend says: “Mind the dog shit.” Okay? Or: “Mind the dog poo”, if you want to be more polite. So, you know, you see these different dangers. Sometimes they’re not dangers, but you really don’t want to step in dog doo-doo, so that’s an example. So anytime you’re telling somebody: “Be careful. Pay attention to this” and it’s kind of urgent, you can use: “Mind the _______.” We also have: “Keep in mind”. So, “keep in mind” means you’re telling somebody to pay attention to something and not forget to remember something. Okay? So, for example: “Keep in mind the bus leaves at 8 pm.” This means: “Remember”, or, you know: “Keep this on your mind. Don’t forget this. Pay special attention to this, the bus leaves at 8 pm.” Or imagine your boss is going on vacation and you’re not going to be able to contact them, your boss might tell you: “Keep in mind I’m going on vacation on Tuesday.” Okay? So: “Keep in mind” means: “Please remember this.” You’re pretty much reminding somebody about something, you’re telling them to put…

Or to pay attention to it, to put some sort of focus on it, and to remember it. Okay? So we’ve covered a lot of different expressions, and just to tell you this, when we cover a lot of expressions it’s very easy to forget some of the ones we cover because we have covered many. What I recommend is maybe working on three or four a day, and then just come back to the video, watch again, learn some new expressions, practice those ones, and once you’re comfortable with those ones maybe work on some of the other expressions we’ve covered in this video. You don’t have to learn them all at the same time; you can do a little bit every day, and that way you will remember a lot more.

On that note, I invite you to come check out our website at www.engvid.com and there you can actually find a quiz where we have all of these expressions and you can practice using them in our quiz. So I highly recommend that for practice. Another point is I’d like you to invite you to subscribe to our channel. There, you will find a lot of incredible videos on all sorts of things. We have more vocabulary videos, grammar, pronunciation, IELTS, TOEFL, business English, all sorts of different resources that are very helpful for students. So I highly recommend you check that out. Until next time, take care. And I will see you later..

As found on Youtube

Learn English: “How come?”

Hello. My name is Emma, and in today’s video I am going to teach you a very important expression for conversation. That expression is: “How come?” It’s a very popular expression you may see in movies, on TV, or in conversation with English speakers. But it’s a very good one to know because we do use it a lot. So, what does “How come?” mean? Okay, well, first I have a question for you. I have here two sentences. “Why did you miss your plane?” and “How come you missed your plane?” What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences? Maybe you already know. Okay? So take a guess. The difference in meaning is actually they mean the same thing. “How come?” is another way to say “Why?”. It’s just a little bit more informal. Okay? So if you’re writing, you’re going to use “Why?”, but if you’re speaking you can use both.

Okay? “How come?” is informal, it’s an informal way to say “Why?” And so, by informal, I mean you use it with your friends, with, you know, people you’re talking to on the street, but you wouldn’t use it in an essay. Okay? Or for school. Okay, so: “How come?” means: “Why?” So, when we’re asking: “How come?” what we’re asking about is… we want to know why something happened or the reasons why something happened. Okay? So, for example: “How come you missed your plane?” You know, a reason might be: “Oh, I was late getting to the airport” or “I slept in.” Okay? So these would be the answers to a question like: “How come?” So, a lot of the time, teachers will ask this question. “You were late for class today. How come?” That means the teacher wants to know why you were late for class. So now let’s look at the grammar of “How come?” and how we can use it in a sentence. Okay, so again, “How come?” is an informal way to say: “Why?” So, we often use it in conversation.

Now let’s look at the grammar of “How come?” and how we make a sentence with “How come?” So, I have here: “How come”, which is at the beginning, and then we have plus the subject. A subject is… It can be: “I”, “you”, “he”, “she”, “they”, “we”, or it can also be a thing, a place, or a person, but it’s the doer of a sentence. Then we have the verb. So, for example: “play”, “take”, “listen”, “sing”, “eat”, these are all verbs. And then finally we have an object, which comes after the verb in regular English sentences and usually those can be people, they can be places, they can be things, so these are the objects.

If this is confusing, let’s look at some examples, maybe that will help. So, for example: “How come you”-is the subject-“take”-is the verb, and the object is-“the bus”? “How come you take the bus?” This means the same thing as: “Why do you take the bus?” So, here I actually have this written: “Why do you take the bus?” And you’ll actually notice “How come” is easier in terms of grammar than “Why”. If you look here: “Why do you take the bus?” you have this word, here: “do”. Okay? In other sentences we say: “Why does he” or “Why didn’t he”, but there’s always something like: “do”, “does”, “did”, “didn’t” here with “Why”.

And a lot of students forget to put this here. A lot of students will say: “Why you take the bus?” But this is not correct English. For “Why” we always need something here. Now, the nice thing about “How come” is you don’t need this. Okay? If you look at “How come”, if you can make an English sentence: “you take the bus”, you can change this into “Why” just by adding “How come”. So, the structure of this is just like a regular English sentence. We have the subject, the verb, and the object, and then we just add “How come” at the front of it. So let’s look at another example: “How come Toronto isn’t the capital of Canada?” So, again, we have: “How come”, we have “Toronto” which is the subject, we have “isn’t” which is the verb, and we have “the capital”, which is the object.

So, if you want to make a regular sentence, I would just say: “Toronto isn’t the capital”, we can just add “How come” to this, and then it becomes a question, meaning: “Why isn’t Toronto the capital?” “How come John didn’t come?” Okay? So here we have “How come” at the beginning, “John” which is the subject, and “didn’t come”, because it’s negative form we have “didn’t” here, so this is the past, past tense. “Didn’t come” is the verb. Okay? This sentence doesn’t have an object. Not all sentences in English need objects. The main thing is that you have a subject and a verb. Okay, so that might be a little confusing for you.

Point here is: “How come” is easier than “Why” because all you need to do is make a basic sentence, and you add “How come” to the front of it. Okay? One last thing I wanted to say about “How come”, you can also use “How come?” just on its own. Okay? Here I showed you how to make “How come”, you know, combined with a sentence. You can also just use it, like, you know: “How come” and a question mark. So, for example, imagine we’re having a conversation and I say to you: “Oh, John didn’t come today.” You might be wondering: “Oh, why didn’t John come?” So you can just say to me: “How come?” which means: “Why didn’t John come?” Okay? Or, you know: -“English is a great language.” -“How come?” Again, this just means: “Why?” So it’s a very easy thing to use, and I really, really recommend you start using this in your English because it will make you sound more like a native speaker, and it will improve your conversation or your conversational English. So, I invite you to come subscribe to my YouTube channel. There, you can find a lot of different videos on all sorts of different things English, including pronunciation, grammar, IELTS, vocabulary.

There’re so many different resources we have. I also invite you to check out our website at www.engvid.com. There, you can actually do some practice on this video and everything you learned today. We have a quiz there, and I highly, highly recommend you take our quiz. It’s very good to practice what you learn so you can remember it. Okay? You can also practice this maybe with a friend, or if you’re taking English classes why not try using this inside one of your classes with your teacher? So, until next time, thank you for watching and take care..

As found on Youtube