Terrible High School Teacher | Lele Pons & Anwar Jibawi

{“en”:”At every school, There’s the jocks. Yeah, yeah, whatever, The cheerleaders. Go Spartins! (Chanin) the kid that skipped all the grades. I’m the smartest! The class president.As your class president I would not let you. The mean girls. Did you get the answers from the nerds, whatever. The class clown. Very nice!! The nerds. I just got my acceptance letter to MIT. Well I’m designing a rocket for NASA.The artist. No I know Man shut up! The bully. Give me all your money You don’t even look like a bully! The class photographer, and then there’s me. I love my job.

Wait not him. This is me, the teacher The classroom You know sometimes I wonder why the hell am I a teacher? I don’t even like these kids. [oh] [fuck] [it] I like the cheerleader. We only date athletes. yo yo yo yo, party at my house tonight, and I wish I could go to the parties like the jocks, but I can’t Let me my God if you’re gonna keep cheat well Ladies and! and my least favourite student, as your class president! Fire I’m your class president, Ms. Applebob. I don’t care! Now, my favorite part about being a teacher is giving F’s I love giving F’s. I hate giving A. Oh, come on. Hey, detention The only time the class is productive is when the principal comes.

What does this mean,Guys? Dymon. Pie. Correct Besides the classroom. There’s the teacher’s lounge. Alone at last I love my kids! Their amazing! 20 pushups in 10 seconds. Their just so energetic! How was your day? Oh my gosh. You wanna go first, my day was divine Okay, so I taught them about India in 1648. Maybe with capital from Agra – Valiant built oh my God Borring next go Sports Sports very important well during water polo today [Patricia]. [I] dribbled the ball from one into the other and scored four touchdowns [at] three different sports, what do you know about Sports? We’re talking about everybody now. Are you eat your fruit and give me 20 push-ups? What kind of position is that Seven eight and [a] half That’s not a postion.

Good job high five yes? oh loved it [why] don’t just talk about the kids? Oh? Yeah? Let’s talk about the kid, okay? Oh, well, the kids are so smart [all] they do is fart. Oh, and we just have a ball I’m going to hate them all hi. I can’t wait for the next class. It can kiss my ass teaching is so fun Are you done? oh wow go teacher go teacher go teacher go. Go she should go Go teacher go Oh, and my favorite out school Teacher should stop this But when I’m not in school.

I’m not a teacher got it covered I Try my [best] you Will believe with you go to China do return achieving the face of the bully fighting back the air to calm them down Okay whoever wins get the name So you guys are probably wondering why of that teacher like me still has a job just tell me what happened if you have to Get [creative] with apple [pump], not a teacher I understand your passion about a party scooby where it is tough She lays glass before the students know [it] since I just got engaged activates. It’s not a [privacy].

Okay. [I] would be late I can’t be late hard to know you’re great. Come on Yeah, I’m not firing her. Well. This is why?. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Steven Pinker: Linguistics as a Window to Understanding the Brain

{“en”:”My name is Steve Pinker, and Iu2019m Professor of Psychology at Harvard University.  And today Iu2019m going to speak to you about language.  ufeffIu2019m actually not a linguist, but a cognitive scientist.  Iu2019m not so much interested as language as an object in its own right, but as a window to the human mind.ufeff Language is one of the fundamental topics in the human sciences.

 Itu2019s the trait that most conspicuously distinguishes humans from other species, itu2019s essential to human cooperation; we accomplish amazing things by sharing our knowledge or coordinating our actions by means of words.  It poses profound scientific mysteries such as, how did language evolve in this particular species?  How does the brain compute language? But also, language has many practical applications not surprisingly given how central it is to human life. ufeff Language comes so naturally to us that weu2019re apt to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is.

 But think about what youu2019re doing for the next hour.   Youu2019re going to be listening patiently as a guy makes noise as he exhales.  Now, why would you do something like that?  Itu2019s not that I can claim that the sounds Iu2019m going to make are particularly mellifluous, but rather Iu2019ve coded information into the exact sequences of hisses and hums and squeaks and pops that Iu2019ll be making.  You have the ability to recover the information from that stream of noises allowing us to share ideas. Now, the ideas we are going to share are about this talent, language, but with a slightly different sequence of hisses and squeaks, I could cause you to be thinking thoughts about a vast array of topics, anything from the latest developments in your favorite reality show to theories of the origin of the universe.

 This is what I think of as the miracle of language, its vast expressive power, and itu2019s a phenomenon that still fills me with wonder, even after having studied language for 35 years.  And it is the prime phenomenon that the science of language aims to explain.  ufeff Not surprisingly, language is central to human life.  The Biblical story of the Tower of Babel reminds us that humans accomplish great things because they can exchange information about their knowledge and intentions via the medium of language.  Language, moreover, is not a peculiarity of one culture, but it has been found in every society ever studied by anthropologists.ufeff Thereu2019s some 6,000 languages spoken on Earth, all of them complex, and no one has ever discovered a human society that lacks complex language.  For this and other reasons, Charles Darwin wrote, u201cMan has an instinctive tendency to speak as we see in the babble of our young children while no child has an instinctive tendency to bake, brew or write.u201d ufeff Language is an intricate talent and itu2019s not surprising that the science of language should be a complex discipline.

ufeffIt includes the study of how language itself works including:  grammar, the assembly of words, phrases and sentences; phonology, the study of sound; semantics, the study of meaning; and pragmatics, the study of the use of language in conversation. ufeff ufeffScientists interested in language also study how it is processed in real time, a field called psycholinguistics; how is it acquired by children, the study of language acquisition.  And how it is computed in the brain, the discipline called neurolinguistics. ufeffu2028 Now, before we begin, itu2019s important to not to confuse language with three other things that are closely related to language.  One of them is written language.  Unlike spoken language, which is found in all human cultures throughout history, writing was invented a very small number of times in human history, about 5,000 years ago.

 ufeff And alphabetic writing where each mark on the page stands for a vowel or a consonant, appears to have been invented only once in all of human history by the Canaanites about 3,700 years ago.  And as Darwin pointed out, children have no instinctive tendency to write, but have to learn it through construction and schooling.ufeff A second thing not to confuse language with is proper grammar.

 Linguists distinguish between descriptive grammar – the rules, that characterize how people to speak – and prescriptive grammar – rules that characterize how people ought to speak if they are writing careful written prose.  ufeff A dirty secret from linguistics is that not only are these not the same kinds of rules, but many of the prescriptive rules of language make no sense whatsoever.  Take one of the most famous of these rules, the rule not to split infinitives.  ufeff According to this rule, Captain Kirk made a grievous grammatical error when he said that the mission of the Enterprise was u201cto boldly go where no man has gone before.u201d  He should have said, according to these editors, u201cto go boldly where no man has gone before,u201d which immediately clashes with the rhythm and structure of ordinary English.  In fact, this prescriptive rule was based on a clumsy analogy with Latin where you canu2019t splint an infinitive because itu2019s a single word, as in facary[ph] to do.

 Julius Caesar couldnu2019t have split an infinitive if he wanted to.  That rule was translated literally over into English where it really should not apply.  ufeff Another famous prescriptive rule is that, one should never use a so-called double negative.  Mick Jagger should not have sung, u201cI canu2019t get no satisfaction,u201d he really should have sung, u201cI canu2019t get any satisfaction.u201d  Now, this is often promoted as a rule of logical speaking, but u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201canyu201d is just as much of a double negative as u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201cno.u201d  The only reason that u201ccanu2019t get any satisfactionu201d is deemed correct and u201ccanu2019t get no satisfactionu201d is deemed ungrammatical is that the dialect of English spoken in the south of England in the 17th century used u201ccanu2019tu201d u201canyu201d rather than u201ccanu2019tu201d u201cno.u201d  ufeff If the capital of England had been in the north of the country instead of the south of the country, then u201ccanu2019t get no,u201d would have been correct and u201ccanu2019t get any,u201d would have been deemed incorrect.

ufeff Thereu2019s nothing special about a language that happens to be chosen as the standard for a given country.  In fact, if you compare the rules of languages and so-called dialects, each one is complex in different ways.  Take for example, African-American vernacular English, also called Black English or Ebonics.  There is a construction in African-American where you can say, u201cHe be workin,u201d which is not an error or bastardization or a corruption of Standard English, but in fact conveys a subtle distinction, one thatu2019s different than simply, u201cHe workin.u201d  u201cHe be workin,u201d means that he is employed; he has a job, u201cHe workin,u201d means that he happens to be working at the moment that you and I are speaking.  ufeff Now, this is a tense difference that can be made in African-American English that is not made in Standard English, one of many examples in which the dialects have their own set of rules that is just as sophisticated and complex as the one in the standard language.

 ufeff Now, a third thing, not to confuse language with is thought.  Many people report that they think in language, but commune of psychologists have shown that there are many kinds of thought that donu2019t actually take place in the form of sentences.  ufeff (1.) Babies (and other mammals) communicate without speech ufeffFor example, we know from ingenious experiments that non-linguistic creatures, such as babies before theyu2019ve learned to speak, or other kinds of animals, have sophisticated kinds of cognition, they register cause and effect and objects and the intentions of other people, all without the benefit of speech.  ufeff (2.) Types of thinking go on without language–visual thinkingufeff We also know that even in creatures that do have language, namely adults, a lot of thinking goes on in forms other than language, for example, visual imagery.  If you look at the top two three-dimensional figures in this display, and I would ask you, do they have the same shape or a different shape?  People donu2019t solve that problem by describing those strings of cubes in words, but rather by taking an image of one and mentally rotating it into the orientation of the other, a form of non-linguistic thinking.

 ufeff (3.) We use tacit knowledge to understand language and remember the gistufeff For that matter, even when you understand language, what you come away with is not in itself the actual language that you hear.  Another important finding in cognitive psychology is that long-term memory for verbal material records the gist or the meaning or the content of the words rather than the exact form of the words.  ufeff For example, I like to think that you retain some memory of what I have been saying for the last 10 minutes.

 But I suspect that if I were to ask you to reproduce any sentence that I have uttered, you would be incapable of doing so.  What sticks in memory is far more abstract than the actual sentences, something that we can call meaning or content or semantics.  ufeff In fact, when it even comes to   understanding a sentence, the actual words are the tip of a vast iceberg of a very rapid, unconscious, non-linguistic processing thatu2019s necessary even to make sense of the language itself.  And Iu2019ll illustrate this with a classic bit of poetry, the lines from the shampoo bottle.

 u201cWet hair, lather, rinse, repeat.u201d  ufeff Now, in understanding that very simple snatch of language, you have to know, for example, that when you repeat, you donu2019t wet your hair a second time because its already wet, and when you get to the end of it and you see u201crepeat,u201d you donu2019t keep repeating over and over in infinite loop, repeat here means, u201crepeat just once.u201d  Now this tacit knowledge of what the writers **** of language had in mind is necessary to understand language, but it, itself, is not language. ufeff (4.) If language is thinking, then where did it come from?ufeff Finally, if language were really thought, it would raise the question of where language would come from if it were incapable of thinking without language.  After all, the English language was not designed by some committee of Martians who came down to Earth and gave it to us.  Rather, language is a grassroots phenomenon.  Itu2019s the original wiki, which aggregates the contributions of hundreds of thousands of people who invent jargon and slang and new constructions, some of them get accumulated into the language as people seek out new ways of expressing their thoughts, and thatu2019s how we get a language in the first place.

 ufeff Now, this not to deny that language can affect thought and linguistics has long been interested in what has sometimes been called, the linguistic relativity hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (note correct spelling, named after the two linguists who first formulated it, namely that language can affect thought.  Thereu2019s a lot of controversy over the status of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, but no one believes that language is the same thing as thought and that all of our mental life consists of reciting sentences.

 ufeff Now that we have set aside what language is not, letu2019s turn to what language is beginning with the question of how language works. In a nutshell, you can divide language into three topics.  ufeff There are the words that are the basic components of sentences that are stored in a part of long-term memory that we can call the mental lexicon or the mental dictionary.  There are rules, the recipes or algorithms that we use to assemble bits of language into more complex stretches of language including syntax, the rules that allow us to assemble words into phrases and sentences; Morphology, the rules that allow us to assemble bits of words, like prefixes and suffixes into complex words; Phonology, the rules that allow us to combine vowels and consonants into the smallest words.

 And then all of this knowledge of language has to connect to the world through interfaces that allow us to understand language coming from others to produce language that others can understand us, the language interfaces.ufeff Letu2019s start with words.ufeff The basic principle of a word was identified by the Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, more than 100 years ago when he called attention to the arbitrariness of the sign.  Take for example the word, u201cduck.u201d  The word, u201cducku201d doesnu2019t look like a duck or walk like a duck or quack like a duck, but I can use it to get you to think the thought of a duck because all of us at some point in our lives have memorized that brute force association between that sound and that meaning, which means that it has to be stored in memory in some format, in a very simplified form and an entry in the mental lexicon might look something like this.

 There is a symbol for the word itself, there is some kind of specification of its sound and thereu2019s some kind of specification of its meaning.  ufeff Now, one of the remarkable facts about the mental lexicon is how capacious it is.  Using dictionary sampling techniques where you say, take the top left-hand word on every 20th page of the dictionary, give it to people in a multiple choice test, correct for guessing, and multiply by the size of the dictionary, you can estimate that a typical high school graduate has a vocabulary of around 60,000 words, which works out to a rate of learning of about one new word every two hours starting from the age of one.  When you think that every one of these words is arbitrary as a telephone number of a date in history, youu2019re reminded about the remarkable capacity of human long-term memory to store the meanings and sounds of words.

 ufeff But of course, we donu2019t just blurt out individual words, we combine them into phrases and sentences.  And that brings up the second major component of language; namely, grammar.  ufeff Now the modern study of grammar is inseparable to the contributions of one linguist, the famous scholar, Noam Chomsky, who set the agenda for the field of linguistics for the last 60 years. ufeff To begin with, Chomsky noted that the main puzzle that we have to explain in understanding language is creativity or as linguists often call it productivity, the ability to produce and understand new sentences.  ufeff Except for a small number of clichu00e9d formulas, just about any sentence that you produce or understand is a brand new combination produced for the first time perhaps in your life, perhaps even in the history of the species.

 We have to explain how people are capable of doing it.  It shows that when we know a language, we havenu2019t just memorized a very long list of sentences, but rather have internalized a grammar or algorithm or recipe for combining elements into brand new assemblies.  For that reason, Chomsky has insisted that linguistics is really properly a branch of psychology and is a window into the human mind. ufeff A second insight is that languages have a syntax which canu2019t be identified with their meaning.  Now, the only quotation that I know of, of a linguist that has actually made it into Bartlettu2019s Familiar Quotations, is the following sentence from Chomsky, from 1956, u201cColorless, green ideas sleep furiously.u201d  Well, whatu2019s the point of that sentence?  The point is that it is very close to meaningless.

 On the other hand, any English speaker can instantly recognize that it conforms to the patterns of English syntax.  Compare, for example, u201cfuriously sleep ideas dream colorless,u201d which is also meaningless, but we perceive as a word salad.  ufeff A third insight is that syntax doesnu2019t consist of a string of word by word associations as in stimulus response theories in psychology where producing a word is a response which you then hear and it becomes a stimulus to producing the next word, and so on.  Again, the sentence, u201ccolorless green ideas sleep furiously,u201d can help make this point.  Because if you look at the word by word transition probabilities in that sentence, for example, colorless and then green; how often have you heard colorless and green in succession.  Probably zero times.  Green and ideas, those two words never occur together, ideas and sleep, sleep and furiously.  Every one of the transition probabilities is very close to zero, nonetheless, the sentence as a whole can be perceived as a well-formed English sentence.

 ufeff Language in general has long distance dependencies.  The word in one position in a sentence can dictate the choice of the word several positions downstream.  For example, if you begin a sentence with u201ceither,u201d somewhere down the line, there has to be an u201cor.u201d  If you have an u201cif,u201d generally, you expect somewhere down the line there to be a u201cthen.u201d  Thereu2019s a story about a child who says to his father, u201cDaddy, why did you bring that book that I donu2019t want to be read to out of, up for?u201d  Where you have a set of nested or embedded long distance dependencies.

 ufeff Indeed, one of the applications of linguistics to the study of good prose style is that sentences can be rendered difficult to understand if they have too many long distance dependencies because that could put a strain on the short-term memory of the reader or listener while trying to understand them.  ufeff Rather than a set of word by word associations, sentences are assembled in a hierarchical structure that looks like an upside down tree.  Let me give you an example of how that works in the case of English.  One of the basic rules of English is that a sentence consists of a noun phrase, the subject, followed by a verb phrase, the predicate.ufeff A second rule in turn expands the verb phrase.  A very phrase consists of a verb followed by a noun phrase, the object, followed by a sentence, the complement as, u201cI told him that it was sunny outside.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, why do linguists insist that language must be composed out of  phrase structural rules?  ufeff (1.) Rules allow for open-ended creativity ufeffWell for one thing, that helps explain the main phenomenon that we want to explain, mainly the open-ended creativity of language.

 ufeff (2.) Rules allow for expression of unfamiliar meaningufeff It allows us to express unfamiliar meanings.  Thereu2019s a clichu00e9 in journalism for example, that when a dog bites a man, that isnu2019t news, but when a man bites a dog, that is news.  The beauty of grammar is that it allows us to convey news by assembling into familiar word in brand new combinations.  Also, because of the way phrase structure rules work, they produce a vast number of possible combinations. ufeff (3.) Rules allow for production of vast numbers of combinationsufeff Moreover, the number of different thoughts that we can express through the combinatorial power of grammar is not just humongous, but in a technical sense, itu2019s infinite.  Now of course, no one lives an infinite number of years, and therefore can shell off their ability to understand an infinite number of sentences, but you can make the point in the same way that a mathematician can say that someone who understands the rules of arithmetic knows that there are an infinite number of numbers, namely if anyone ever claimed to have found the longest one, you can always come up with one thatu2019s even bigger by adding a one to it.

 And you can do the same thing with language.  ufeff Let me illustrate it in the following way.  As a matter of fact, there has been a claim that there is a worldu2019s longest sentence.  ufeff Who would make such a claim?  Well, who else?  The Guinness Book of World Records.  You can look it up.  There is an entry for the Worldu2019s Longest Sentence.  It is 1,300 words long.  And it comes from a novel by William Faulkner.  Now I wonu2019t read all 1,300 words, but Iu2019ll just tell you how it begins.

 ufeff u201cThey both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltationu2026u201d and it runs on from there. ufeff But Iu2019m here to tell you that in fact, this is not the worldu2019s longest sentence.  And Iu2019ve been tempted to obtain immortality in Guinness by submitting the following record breaker.  “Faulkner wrote, they both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltation.u201d  But sadly, this would not be immortality after all but only the proverbial 15 minutes of fame because based on what you now know, you could submit a record breaker for the record breaker namely, “Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote” or “Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote”, or “who cares that Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wroteu2026”  ufeff Take for example, the following wonderfully ambiguous sentence that appeared in TV Guide.

 u201cOn tonightu2019s program, Conan will discuss sex with Dr. Ruth.u201d  ufeff Now this has a perfectly innocent meaning in which the verb, u201cdiscussu201d involves two things, namely the topic of discussion, u201csexu201d and the person with who itu2019s being discussed, in this case, with Dr. Ruth.  But is has a somewhat naughtier meaning if you rearrange the words into phrases according to a different structure in which case u201csex with Dr. Ruthu201d is the topic of conversation, and thatu2019s whatu2019s being discussed.  ufeff Now, phrase structure not only can account for our ability to produce so many sentences, but itu2019s also necessary for us to understand what they mean.  The geometry of branches in a phrase structure is essential to figuring out who did what to whom.ufeff Another important contribution of Chomsky to the science of language is the focus on language acquisition by children.

Now, children canu2019t memorize sentences because knowledge of language isnu2019t just one long list of memorized sentences, but somehow they must distill out or abstract out the rules that goes into assembling sentences based on what they hear coming out of their parentu2019s mouths when they were little.  And the talent of using rules to produce combinations is in evidence from the moment that kids begin to speak.  ufeff Children create sentences unheard from adultsufeff At the two-word stage, which you typically see in children who are 18 months or a bit older, kids are producing the smallest sentences that deserve to be counted as sentences, namely two words long.  But already itu2019s clear that they are putting them together using rules in their own mind.  To take an example, a child might say, u201cmore outside,u201d meaning, take them outside or let them stay outside.  Now, adults donu2019t say, u201cmore outside.u201d  So itu2019s not a phrase that the child simply memorized by rote, but it shows that already children are using these rules to put together new combinations.

 ufeff Another example, a child having jam washed from his fingers said to his mother ‘all gone sticky’.ufeff Again, not a phrase that you could ever have copied from a parent, but one that shows the child producing new combinations.  ufeff Past tense ruleufeff An easy way of showing that children assimilate rules of grammar unconsciously from the moment they begin to speak, is the use of the past tense rule. ufeff For example, children go through a long stage in which they make errors like, u201cWe holded the baby rabbitsu201d or u201cHe teared the paper and then he sticked it.u201d  Cases in which they over generalize the regular rule of forming the past tense, add u2018edu2019 to irregular verbs like u201chold,u201d u201csticku201d or u201ctear.u201d  And itu2019s easy to showu2026 itu2019s easy to get children to flaunt this ability to apply rules productively in a laboratory demonstration called the Wug Test.

 You bring a kid into a lab.  You show them a picture of a little bird and you say, u201cThis is a wug.u201d  And you show them another picture and you say, u201cWell, now there are two of them.u201d  There are two and children will fill in the gap by saying u201cwugs.u201d  Again, a form they could not have memorize because itu2019s invented for the experiment, but it shows that they have productive mastery of the regular plural rule in English.  ufeff And famously, Chomsky claimed that children solved the problem of language acquisition by having the general design of language already wired into them in the form of a universal grammar.  ufeff A spec sheet for what the rules of any language have to look like.  ufeff What is the evidence that children are born with a universal grammar?  Well, surprisingly, Chomsky didnu2019t propose this by actually studying kids in the lab or kids in the home, but through a more abstract argument called, u201cThe poverty of the input.u201d  Namely, if you look at what goes into the ears of a child and look at the talent they end up with as adults, there is a big chasm between them that can only be filled in by assuming that the child has a lot of knowledge of the way that language works already built in.

 ufeff Hereu2019s how the argument works.  One of the things that children have to learn when they learn English is how to form a question.  Now, children will get evidence from parentu2019s speech to how the question rule works, such as sentences like, u201cThe man is here,u201d ufeffand the corresponding question, u201cIs the man here?u201dufeff   Now, logically speaking, a child getting that kind of input could posit two different kinds of rules.

ufeffThereu2019s a simple word by word linear rule.  In this case, find the first u201cisu201d in the sentence and move it to the front.  u201cThe man is here,u201d u201cIs the man here?u201d Now thereu2019s a more complex rule that the child could posit called a structure dependent rule, one that looks at the geometry of the phrase structure tree.  In this case, the rule would be:  find the first u201cisu201d after the subject noun phrase and move that to the front of the sentence.  A diagram of what that rule would look like is as follows:  you look for the u201cisu201d that occurs after the subject noun phrase and thatu2019s what gets moved to the front of the sentence.  Now, whatu2019s the difference between the simple word-by-word rule and the more complex structured dependent rule?  Well, you can see the difference when it comes to performing the question from a slightly more complex sentence like, u201cThe man who is tall is in the room.u201d  ufeff But how is the child supposed to learn that?  How did all of us end up with the correct structured dependent of the rule rather than the far simpler word-by-word version of the rule? ufeff u201cWell,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cif you were actually to look at the kind of language that all of us hear, itu2019s actually quite rare to hear a sentence like, u201cIs the man who is tall in the room?  The kind of input that would logically inform you that the word-by-word rule is wrong and the structure dependent rule is right.

 Nonetheless, we all grow up into adults who unconsciously use the structure dependent rule rather than the word-by-word rule.  Moreover, children donu2019t make errors like, u201cis the man who tall is in the room,u201d as soon as they begin to form complex questions, they use the structure dependent rule.  And that,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cis evidence that structure dependent rules are part of the definition of universal grammar that children are born with.u201d  ufeff Now, though Chomsky has been fantastically influential in the science of language that does not mean that all language scientists agree with him.  And there have been a number of critiques of Chomsky over the years.  For one thing, the critics point out, Chomsky hasnu2019t really shown principles of universal grammar that are specific to language itself as opposed to general ways in which the human mind works across multiple domains, language and vision and control of motion and memory and so on.  We donu2019t really know that universal grammar is specific to language, according to this critique. ufeff Secondly, Chomsky and the linguists working with him have not examined all 6,000 of the worldu2019s languages and shown that the principles of universal grammar apply to all 6,000.

 Theyu2019ve posited it based on a small number of languages and the logic of the poverty of the input, but havenu2019t actually come through with the data that would be necessary to prove that universal grammar is really universal.  ufeff Finally, the critics argue, Chomsky has not shown that more general purpose learning models, such as neuro network models, are incapable of learning language together with all the other things that children learn, and therefore has not proven that there has to be specific knowledge how grammar works in order for the child to learn grammar.

  ufeff  Another component of language governs the sound pattern of language, the ways that the vowels and consonants can be assembled into the minimal units that go into words.  Phonology, as this branch of linguistics is called, consists of formation rules that capture what is a possible word in a language according to the way that it sounds.   To give you an example, the sequence, bluk, is not an English word, but you get a sense that it could be an English word that someone could coin a new formu2026 that someone could coin a new term of English that we pronounce u201cbluk.u201d  But when you hear the sound ****, you instantly know thatthat not only isnu2019t it an English word, but it really couldnu2019t be an English word.

 ****, by the way, comes from Yiddish and it means kind of to sigh or to moan.  Oi.  Thatu2019s to ****.  ufeff The reason that we recognize that itu2019s not English is because it has sounds like **** and sequences like ****, which arenu2019t part of the formation rules of English phonology.  But together with the rules that define the basic words of a language, there are also phonological rules that make adjustments to the sounds, depending on what the other words the word appears with.  Very few of us realize, for example, in English, that the past tense suffix u201cedu201d ufeffis actually pronounced in three different ways.  When we say, u201cHe walked,u201d ufeffwe pronounce the u201cedu201d like a u201cta,u201d walked.  When we say u201cjogged,u201d ufeffwe pronounce it as a u201cd,u201d jogged.

 And when we say u201cpatted,u201dufeff we stick in a vowel, pat-ted, showing that the same suffix, u201cedu201d can be readjusted in its pronunciation according to the rules of English phonology.  ufeff Now, when someone acquires English as a foreign language or acquires a foreign language in general, they carry over the rules of phonology of their first language and apply it to their second language.  We have a word for it; we call it an u201caccent.u201d  When a language user deliberately manipulates the rules of phonology, that is, when they donu2019t just speak in order to convey content, they pay attention as to what phonological structures are being used; we call it poetry and rhetoric.  ufeff So far, Iu2019ve been talking about knowledge of language, the rules that go into defining what are possible sequences of language.  But those sequences have to get into the brain during speech comprehension and they have to get out during speech production.

 And that takes us to the topic of language interfaces.  ufeff And letu2019s start with production.  ufeff This diagram here is literally a human cadaver that has been sawn in half.  An anatomist took a saw and [sound] allowing it to see in cross section the human vocal tract.  And that can illustrate how we get out knowledge of language out into the world as a sequence of sounds.  ufeff Now, each of us has at the top of our windpipe or trachea, a complex structure called the larynx or voice box; itu2019s behind your Adamu2019s Apple.  And the air coming out of your lungs have to go passed two cartilaginous flaps that vibrate and produce a rich, buzzy sound source, full of harmonics.

 Before that vibrating sound gets out to the world, it has to pass through a gauntlet or chambers of the vocal tract.  The throat behind the tongue, the cavity above the tongue, the cavity formed by the lips, and when you block off airflow through the mouth, it can come out through the nose.  ufeff Now, each one of those cavities has a shape that, thanks to the laws of physics, will amplify some of the harmonics in that buzzy sound source and suppress others.

 We can change the shape of those cavities when we move our tongue around.  When we move our tongue forward and backward, for example, as in u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d we change the shape of the cavity behind the tongue, change the frequencies that are amplified or suppressed and the listener hears them as two different vowels.  ufeff Likewise, when we raise or lower the tongue, we change the shape of the resonant cavity above the tongue as in say, u201ceh,u201d u201cah,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201cah.u201d  Once again, the change in the mixture of harmonics is perceived as a change in the nature of the vowel.  ufeff When we stop the flow of air and then release it as in, u201ct,u201d u201cca,u201d u201cba.u201d  Then we hear a consonant rather than a vowel or even when we restrict the flow of air as in u201cf,u201d u201cssu201d producing a chaotic noisy sound.  Each one of those sounds that gets sculpted by different articulators is perceived by the brain as a qualitatively different vowel or consonant.

 ufeff Now, an interesting peculiarity of the human vocal track is that it obviously co-ops structures that evolved for different purposes for breathing and for swallowing and so on.  And itu2019s anu2026 And itu2019s an interesting fact first noted by Darwin that the larynx over the course of evolution has descended in the throat so that every particle of food going from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach has to pass over the opening into the larynx with some probability of being inhaled leading to the danger of death by choking.

 And in fact, until the invention of the Heimlich Maneuver, several thousand people every year died of choking because of this maladaptive of the human vocal tract. ufeff Why did we evolve a mouth and throat that leaves us vulnerable to choking?  Well, a plausible hypothesis is that itu2019s a compromise that was made in the course of evolution to allow us to speak.  By giving range to a variety of possibilities for alternating the resonant cavities, for moving the tongue back and forth and up and down, we expanded the range of speech sounds we could make, improve the efficiency of language, but suffered the compromise of an increased risk of choking showing that language presumably had some survival advantage that compensated for the disadvantage in choking.

 ufeff What about the flow of information in the other direction, that is from the world into the brain, the process of speech comprehension?  ufeff Speech comprehension turns out to be an extraordinarily complex computational process, which we’re reminded of every time we interact with a voicemail menu on a telephone or you use a dictation on our computers.  For example, One writer, using the state-of-the-art speech-to-text systems dictated the following words into his computer.  He dictated u201cbook tour,u201d and it came out on the screen as u201cback to work.u201d  Another example, he said, u201cI truly couldnu2019t see,u201d and it came out on the screen as, u201ca cruelly good MC.u201d  Even more disconcertingly, he started a letter to his parents by saying, u201cDear mom and dad,u201d and what came out on the screen, u201cThe man is dead.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, dictation systems have gotten better and better, but they still have a way to go before they can duplicate a human stenographer.  ufeff What is it about the problem of speech understanding that makes it so easy for a human, ufeffbut so hard for a computer? Well, there are two main contributors.

 One of them is the fact that each phony, each vowel or consonant actually comes out very differently, depending on what comes before and what comes after.  A phenomenon sometimes called co-articulation.  ufeff Let me give you an example.  The place called Cape Cod has two u201ccu201d sounds.  ufeff u2028Each of them symbolized by the letter u201cC,u201d the hard u201cC.u201d  Nonetheless, when you pay attention to the way you pronounce them, you notice that in fact, you pronounce them in very different parts of the mouth.  Try it.  Cape Cod, Cape Codu2026 u201cc,u201d u201ccu201d.  In one case, the u201ccu201d is produced way back in the mouth; the other itu2019s produced much farther forward.

 We donu2019t notice that we pronounce u201ccu201d in two different ways depending whether it comes before an u201cau201d or an u201cah,u201d but that difference forms a difference in the shape of the resonant cavity in our mouth which produces a very different wave form.  And unless a computer is specifically programmed to take that variability into account, it will perceive those two different u201ccu2019s,u201d as a different sound that objectively speaking, they really are:  u201cc-ehu201d u201cc-oau201d.  They really are different sounds, but our brain lumps them together.  ufeff The other reason that speech recognition is such a difficult problem is because of the absence of segmentation.  Now we have an illusion when we listen to speech that consists of a sequence to sounds corresponding to words.  But if you actually were to look at the wave form of a sentence on a oscilloscope, there would not be little silences between the words the way there are little bits of white space in printed words on a page, but rather a continuous ribbon in which the end of one word leads right to the beginning of the next.

 ufeff Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware ofu2026 Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware of when we listen to speech in a foreign language when we have no idea where one word ends and the other one begins.  In our own language, we detect the word boundaries simply because in our mental lexicon, we have stretches of sound that correspond to one word that tell us where it ends.

 But you canu2019t get that information from the wave form itself.  ufeff In fact, thereu2019s a whole genre of wordplay that takes advantage of the fact that word boundaries are not physically present in the speech wave.  Novelty songs like Mairzy doats and dozy doats and liddle lamzy diveyufeff u2028A kiddley divey too, wooden shoe? ufeffu2028u2028Now, it turns out that this is actually a grammatical sequence in words in Englishu2026 Mares eat oats and does eat oats and little lambs eat ivy, a kid’ll eat ivy too, wouldnu2019t you?ufeff When it is spoken or sung normally, the boundaries between words are obliterated and so the same sequence of sounds can be perceived either as nonsense or if you know what theyu2019re meant to convey, as sentences.  ufeff Another example familiar to most children, ufeffFuzzy Wuzzy was a bear, Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair.  Fuzzy Wuzzy wasnu2019t very fuzzy, was he?  And the famous dogroll, I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.

ufeff We are generally unaware of how unambiguous language is.  In context, we effortlessly and unconsciously derive the intended meaning of a sentence, but a poor computer not equipped with all of our common sense and human abilities and just going by the words and the rules is often flabbergasted by all the different possibilities.  Take a sentence as simple as u201cMary had a little lamb,u201d ufeffyou might think that thatu2019s a perfectly simple unambiguous sentence.  But now imagine that it was continued with u201cwith mint sauce.u201d  You realize that u201chaveu201d is actually a highly ambiguous word.ufeff As a result, the computer translations can often deliver comically incorrect results.  ufeff According to legend, one of the first computer systems that was designed to translate from English to Russian and back again did the following given the sentence, u201cThe spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak,u201d it translated it back as u201cThe vodka is agreeable, but the meat is rotten.u201d ufeff So why do people understand language so much better than computers?  What is the knowledge that we have that has been so hard to program into our machines?  Well, thereu2019s a third interface between language and the rest of the mind, and that is the subject matter of the branch of linguistics called Pragmatics, namely, how people understand language in context using their knowledge of the world and their expectation about how other speakers communicate.

 ufeff The most important principle of Pragmatics is called u201cthe cooperative principle,u201d namely; assume that your conversational partner is working with you to try to get a meaning across truthfully and clearly.  And our knowledge of Pragmatics, like our knowledge of syntax and phonology and so on, is deployed effortlessly, but involves many intricate computations.  For example, if I were to say, u201cIf you could pass the guacamole, that would be awesome.u201d  You understand that as a polite request meaning, give me the guacamole.  You donu2019t interpret it literally as a rumination about a hypothetical affair, you just assume that the person wanted something and was using that string of words to convey the request politely.  ufeff Often comedies will use the absence of pragmatics in robots as a source of humor.  As in the old u201cGet Smartu201d situation comedy, which had a robot named, Hymie, and a recurring joke in the series would be that Maxwell Smart would say to Hymie, u201cHymie, can you give me a hand?u201d  And then Hymie would go, {sound}, remove his hand and pass it over to Maxwell Smart not understanding that u201cgive me a hand,u201d in context means, help me rather than literally transfer the hand over to me.

 ufeff Or take the following example of Pragmatics in action.  Consider the following dialogue, Martha says, u201cIu2019m leaving you.u201d  John says, u201cWho is he?u201d  Now, understanding language requires finding the antecedents pronouns, in this case who the u201cheu201d refers to, and any competent English speaker knows exactly who the u201cheu201d is, presumably Johnu2019s romantic rival even though it was never stated explicitly in any part of the dialogue.

 This shows how we bring to bear on language understanding a vast store of knowledge about human behavior, human interactions, human relationships.  And we often have to use that background knowledge even to solve mechanical problems like, who does a pronoun like u201cheu201d refer to.  Itu2019s that knowledge thatu2019s extraordinarily difficult, to say the least to program into a computer.  ufeff Language is a miracle of the natural world because it allows us to exchange an unlimited number of ideas using a finite set of mental tools.  Those mental tools comprise a large lexicon of memorized words and a powerful mental grammar that can combine them.  Language thought of in this way should not be confused with writing, with the prescriptive rules of proper grammar or style or with thought itself.  ufeff Modern linguistics is guided by the questions, though not always the answers suggested by the linguist known as Noam Chomsky, namely how is the unlimited creativity of language possible?  What are the abstract mental structures that relate word to one another? How do children acquire them?  ufeff What is universal across languages?  And what does that say about the human mind?  ufeff The study of language has many practical applications including computers that understand and speak, the diagnosis and treatment of language disorders, the teaching of reading, writing, and foreign languages, the interpreting of the language of law, politics and literature.ufeff But for someone like me, language is eternally fascinating because it speaks to such fundamental questions of the human condition.

 ufeff[Language] is really at the center of a number of different concerns of thought, of social relationships, of human biology, of human evolution, that all speak to whatu2019s special about the human species. ufeff Language is the most distinctively human talent.  Language is a window into human nature, and most significantly,ufeff the vast expressive power of language is one of the wonders of the natural world.  Thank you.ufeff. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Learn English – English in Three Minutes – Asking About Names

{“en”:”Welcome to EnglishClass101.comu2019s English in Three Minutes. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, Iu2019m Alisha! This series will teach you some easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. Itu2019s really useful, and it only takes three minutes! In this lesson, youu2019re going to learn some new ways to ask someone, u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d including one that you can use when youu2019ve forgotten someoneu2019s name. Now, u201cWhat is your name?u201d was probably one of the first questions you learned when you started studying English.

I have to tell you, though, that most native speakers of English would never say this! In English, just like in other languages, it is often more polite to be a little indirect. Of course, the easiest way to avoid asking the question directly is to not ask at all! Just introduce yourself, and most people will respond by doing the same. When introducing yourself, simple is nearly always best. Just say… u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha!u201d To show that you want to know the other personu2019s name, just add, u201cAnd you?u201d at the end. u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d Just like before, take out my name, Alisha, and put your name in its place. After you say this, the other person will tell you his or her name. Okay, now letu2019s talk about an embarrassing situation that happens to EVERYBODY: youu2019ve already met this person once before, but youu2019ve forgotten their name! The most polite thing to do in this situation is to apologize and ask again.

Thereu2019s a simple way to do this thatu2019s also polite. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This sentence is very similar to u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d but it has three important differences. First, we say, u201cIu2019m sorry.u201d A small apology can go a long way. After that we say u201cWhat was your name?u201d This is just like u201cWhat is your name?u201d but instead of u201cisu201d, we use the past tense u201cwasu201d.

This is really important, as it tells the other person that you remember meeting them. You havenu2019t forgotten HIM or HER, youu2019ve just forgotten the NAME. This little word makes all the difference! u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name…? Finally, we add u201cagainu201d to the end. This is another hint that tells the other person that you remember learning his or her name before, but you just canu2019t recall it right now. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This phrase is appropriate for both formal and informal situations. Now itu2019s time for Alishau2019s Advice! In the United States, itu2019s normal to address people by name in conversation more than once. In both formal and informal situations, itu2019s a way to show respect or interest in the other person, and can help you make friends.

It is also a great way to practice someoneu2019s name so you donu2019t forget it! If you are talking to someone named Ann, for example, instead of just: u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d, you could say: u201cAnn, what do you do for fun?u201d You can also put the name at the end of the sentence: u201cWhat do you do for fun, Ann?u201d You donu2019t want to say the personu2019s name too often, or it will sound a little strange, but if you practice someoneu2019s name like this, you wonu2019t forget it. And people love to hear their own name! In this lesson, we learned what to say when we forget someoneu2019s name. In the next lesson, youu2019ll learn what to say when you want to get in touch with someone, whether by telephone, email, or even newer ways to communicate. Whatu2019s your favorite? Let us know in the comments, and join us next time for the sixth English in 3 Minutes lesson! See you next time!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Improve your English the CRAZY way!!!

{“en”:”Hi, there. Are you having problems or difficulties, or do you find it difficult to practice speaking English? Maybe you live in a country where nobody around you speaks English, or you’re the only person you know that speaks English. I’ve got some advice for you. So, how to help you improve your speaking or your talking in English. Goin’ crazy. Usually in English, we never say: “going” or “trying”. We say: “goin'”. So, any time in English you see this, we’re actually missing the “g”. So, probably you should say: “Going crazy trying to speak or practice English”.

But, in slang when regular speech, we say: “Goin’ crazy tryin’ to speak or practice English”. So, I want you to think about one thing. Crazy people, there’s one right here. I’m crazy, little bit. But when I say “crazy people”, I mean people who are mentally disturbed or have something really wrong with their brain. And we like to categorize people as being crazy, but they really are not insane. They just make crazy noises. So if someone is considered crazy, what do they do? Crazy people usually talk to themselves, they hear voices, especially if they’re psychotic, and they will take to anyone or everyone that will listen to them. So, my advice to you, secret number 42 of how to speak English, is act like you’re crazy, or just go crazy learning English.

The first one: crazy people talk to themselves. You are going to talk to yourself. If you want to really put… Bring this off and do it well, you could go on the bus [giggles] or on any kind of trans… Public transportation, go on the street in your city and just talk to yourself on the street. I don’t really recommend that. If you want to do that, you can. But talk to yourself, but record it. So when you do this, you’re actually listening to your English so you can catch your mistakes and you can listen to your pronunciation. And, really, what do you sound like in English? So, rule number one: you’re going to talk to yourself, but you’re going to record it so you can check your mistakes and you can see just how well you do speak. Because I bet you, you speak better than you think. Next one: crazy people talk about hearing voices. Now, I know you inside have a voice. You, like I, have an inner being, a voice inside your head.

Crazy people are known to have more than one voice. If you have this, you might want to seek some help. But when you hear voices, I want you to talk to yourself inside your head in English. When I lived in Japan, I learned to speak Japanese. I didn’t take a course. I don’t like studying. But my inner voice spoke to me in Japanese. So I would come back to Canada or I would go travelling, and I would actually speak to people who spoke English, they would ask me a question, I would answer them in Japanese because my inner voice was still talking to me in Japanese.

So, one really, really important and great thing that you can do is make your inside voice speak to you in English. This sounds crazy, but I guarantee you that it’s one of the ways that you know if you are coming actually bilingual (means you can speak two languages) or trilingual. So, if your inside voice can talk to you in two different languages, this is really amazing, and it means that your English is improving. Everyone has a different timeline. Some people can do this within a year, some people within months, some people it takes three or four years to do this, but once you have achieved this, woohoo, you’re almost there. And the last one: you’ll notice that if you see crazy people on the subway or you see crazy people in your city, they’re going to talk to any or… This means “or”, by the way. Everyone. They don’t care who it is. They’re not going to be picky and go: “I don’t want to talk to that person. I want to talk to everyone.” So, the more people that you can speak to in English, the better.

You don’t have to be picky. That means you don’t have to choose. Is it a beautiful girl? A handsome boy? Young people, old people, babies, children. Anyone that you know that speaks English, try and talk to them. Even in your country, you think: “Ronnie, there’s no one in my country that speaks English”, you might be surprised. You can find people on websites, and you can find other English speakers to talk to. So, go crazy, speak as much as you can, and learn English with me. I’m Ronnie, and I’m crazy. Good bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

English – Parent Teacher Interviews (Elementary School)

{“en”:”Going to school, it’s an exciting time. Yes, free field trip. What about a fraction? There’s so much to do… Who can give me an example of a… So much to learn. Richard. So much for a child to try and cope with in a new country. This video is about one of the important ways that parents can help their child succeed in school. Okay, so, boys and girls, I have a letter here that I’d like you to take home to your parents please. It invites your parents to come to our next parent teacher interview, okay? And it’s really important and I’d like to see each and every one of them, all right? Now, parent teacher interviews… Once or twice a year you will be asked to come to your child’s school to talk with the teacher.

The letter will suggest the time but it can be changed if it isn’t convenient for you. Watch for the invitation to what is called the parent teacher interview. Mom, dad, well, the teachers u2013 I don’t know but there’s a letter he gave me. What is it we’re going to? Parent teacher interview. What’s that? What’s wrong? It might be u2013 it might be a teacher wants to meet with us. Okay. What date? Okay, December 2nd. Oh, let me write it down. December 2nd. Hello, welcome to Clark School. It’s nice that you could come tonight. We’ll just check the list. Oh, yes, you’re with our interpreter and you’re down in room four. Thank you. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you. I am Melissa. Thank you. Meeting the teacher to talk about how your child is progressing may be a new experience for you but it is very important for your child’s success. Most parents are glad to come and hear how they’re child is getting along. And you’re in room ten. Okay. Down this way. Thank you. Thank you. Jennifer will reread words and her sentences… The interview only takes a few minutes and you can bring a friend to help with English if you wish.

Your next step should be… does it sound, right? Some schools can even provide an interpreter. Jennifer [foreign language] Mm-hmm. Welcome to the parent teacher interview. I just wanted to say that I’m very glad that you can make it here this evening. Now, Richard is a very strong student. You must be encouraging him quite a bit at home. That’s okay. Thank you very much. Just to give you an idea of what he’s been doing. Here’s an example of some of his earlier work. And if you take a look at what he’s been writing just recently you can see that he’s progressed quite a reasonable amount. Now, as you can see his sentences are fair but longer. His spelling and grammar are much improved too. Mm. In China, Richard loved to write stories.

Yeah. It’s funny that you mentioned that because actually when he first came here I asked him to write something in his first language. He put some English words there. Yeah. That’s interesting. No, but that’s good… Yeah. …you know, I mean he put in what he knew and then everything else that he didn’t he worked on, you know. The teacher will tell you about your child’s progress and explain how you can help at home. That’s great. That’s good. And we’re happy to hear that but we have a concern about the homework. Oh, okay. So, uh, compared being back in China we didn’t see Richard bring home a lot of homework. Right. Right, that is understandable.

What we normally like to do here is we’ll… …start something off in class. That gives the students a chance to basically if they have any questions that they wish to ask, you know, they can ask myself… Teachers also want to know about your child’s first language skills and the things he likes to do at home. The teacher will also answer your questions about school work, homework and relationships with other students. We are worried about that if Richard is making new friends here. You know, I understand that’s a great concern to a lot of parents especially, you know, when u2013 since Richard’s new to the school but I guarantee you have nothing to worry about.

Richard’s a great sociable child. He’s very involved in the school community. Mm-hmm. Now, do you have any other questions or concerns about Richard at school? Uh, are there any, uh, program for Richard after school? Definitely, there are lots of after school programs, you know, that you can take advantage of. There’s the soccer program, you know, I know that you said… Mm-hmm. Yeah. …Richard likes soccer. Meeting the teacher like this is a good opportunity to learn how well your child is doing. As a parent, it’s always wonderful to hear of your child’s progress but you should also listen carefully for suggestions on how your child can improve and how you can help at home. Okay, as you can see from Richard’s reading mark it would benefit Richard to read a little bit more at home. Do you read… Mm-hmm. …with him often? Yes, we u2013 we read with Richard every evening but sometimes we read in Chinese. Yeah. You know what? That’s u2013 that’s all right. That’s actually a great thing, you know, if… Mm-hmm. …if that’s something that Richard’s more comfortable by all means let him read in Chinese, you know, and then we can gradually get him, you know, um, into exploring, you know…

…certain English language books, you know, but that’s great. So… The teacher may also review their report card and explain how well your child is learning to speak, write and read in English. Can I ask a question? Please, by all means. No, I u2013 I think I understand about this part. Okay. But I have a question here. So, I understand that you grade the students according to different subjects but here, what does… Okay. …this part mean? What the learning skills are is actually u2013 it’s an area where we comment on u2013 not specifically on grading students on academics. More about some of the work habits or study habits that we’d like to see students… Mm-hmm. develop. These are more areas of personal growth that we want to encourage. Well. Thank you very much for coming both of you tonight.

It’s been a pleasure having you here. You know, um, if you have any further questions, comments or concerns, you know, about Richard or anything else that you’d like to ask please feel free to contact me. Many parents do. Mm-hmm. Okay. Meeting once or twice a year like this, you and the teacher can discuss any difficulties before they even begin. Thanks. Good evening. Good evening. How are you doing? Oh, I’m great. How are you doing? Not bad at all. Please come on in. Thank you. I’ve returned grandma. I’m back home. It was great to meet your teacher. What did the teacher say? The teacher said that you did very well in your school. The teacher also said you have made a lot of friends at school… So, the parent teacher interview has many benefits. You get to know the teacher. You see how your child is doing. You learn how you can help your child do even better but one of the greatest benefits is the support your child feels when you come to the school because meeting the teacher connects the most important people in his or her life.

We are very proud of you. So, find out about your child’s parent teacher interviews. Look for the letter that invites you to come. There’s no better way to help your child do well in school.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Learn Arabic – Arabic in 3 Minutes – Do you speak English?

{“en”:”Maru1e25aban u01e7amu012bu02bfan, u02beanu0101 Carole! Hi everybody! Iu2019m Carole. Welcome to ArabicPod101.comu2019s Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Arabic. In the last lesson, we learned the most common forms of greetings in Arabic. Do you remember them? We introduced maru1e25aban and Al salu0101mu u02bfalaykum , as well as u0161ukran and u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be. In this lesson weu2019re going to learn a very useful phrase: u201cDo you speak English?u201d If you find yourself in a situation where you need assistance in English, this phrase can be a lifesaver.

And because youu2019re asking it in Arabic, you can be sure that everyone will understand what youu2019re saying, even if their answer is no. Are you ready? then letu2019s start! Here’s the basic way to ask if someone speaks English: Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a male and Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a female. [slowly] Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal means “Dou201d.

u201cYouu201d and u201cSpeaku201d are merged into the same word u201ctatakallamu u201d for males and u201ctatakallamu012bnau201d for females. u02beinklu012bziyyah means “English,” This is an indirect way of asking someone to speak to you in English. There are many ways of making it clear that you’re asking the person to speak English to you, for example: Hal biu02beimku0101nika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? also means “Could you speak English?” Hal biu02beimku0101nika? means u201ccan youu201d or u201dcould youu201d, u201care you able tou201d, or u201cis it possible tou201d and can also mean the u201cabilityu201d of the person to speak English.

Again, if you are talking to a female you should change the last accent of ka to ki. So the question becomes: Hal biu02beimku0101niki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? Al-takallum is a noun that means u2018speakingu2019 and bil u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cin Englishu201d. To be more formal we could add the word u201cpleaseu201d to the request, to make it: Hal biu02beimkanika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dlika? In this case, the question cannot mean the personu2019s ability to speak English anymore, because you are obviously asking them to speak English to you. Since in Arabic the word u2018pleaseu2019 literally means u2018from your favoru2019 it should also be changed according to the personu2019s gender.

So in case of a female, we should also change the ka ending of u2018pleaseu2019 in min fau1e0dlika? to min fau1e0dliki? The question becomes Hal biu02beimkaniki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dliki? The responses you will receive could be one of these three: Nau02bfam. “Yes.” [slowly] Nau02bfam. Qalu012blan. “A little.” [slowly] Qalu012blan There are a few ways of saying u2018nou2019 in Arabic Lu0101 or Kallu0101. u201cNou201d “No, I donu2019t speak English.” is Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah [slowly] Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah It is exactly the same structure as in English. Lu0101 is u2018nou2019, u02beanu0101 is u2018Iu2019, lu0101 means u201cdonu2019tu201d, u02beatakallamu is u201cspeaku201d (me) and al-u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cEnglishu201d.

Since this last one is a negative statement, we need to say lu0101 before the verb, u02beatakallamu or speak. lu0101 literally means u2018nou2019, but when placed before a verb it negates this verb, becoming u201cdonu2019tu201d or u201cdoesnu2019tu201d. Notice also that the verb, u02beatakallamu is slightly different than tatakallamu which we learned before. Remember, the verb changes depending on the pronoun used. We are now talking about u02beanu0101 , Arabic for “I,” Thus u201cI do not speaku201d is: u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu Now itu2019s time for Caroleu2019s Tips. For those of you who are not native English speakers, you can obviously use this question with any language you need. Arab people study other languages at school depending on the country they live in, so maybe you will get lucky! Just substitute al-u02beinklu012bziyyah with al-faransiyyah for French, Al-u02beiu1e6du0101liyyah for Italian, Al-u02beispu0101niyyah for Spanish, or Al-u02bealmu0101niyyah for German.

In this lesson you learned how to ask if someone can speak English. In the next lesson weu2019ll learn how to say u201cexcuse meu201d and other ways to apologize in Arabic. I’ll see you in the next Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq lesson. u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Learn English – Asking About Hobbies, What do you do for fun?

{“en”:”Welcome to EnglishClass101.comu2019s u201cEnglish in Three Minutesu201d. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, Alisha here! In this series, weu2019re going to learn some easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. Itu2019s really useful, and it only takes three minutes! In this lesson, youu2019re going to learn how to ask what someoneu2019s hobbies are – without using the word u201chobbiesu201d! Youu2019ve probably seen the question, u201cDo you have any hobbies?u201d, or u201cWhat are your hobbies?u201d in an English textbook before.

However, native English speakers almost never use the word u201chobbiesu201d when asking about them! A much more natural way to ask the same question is: u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d Letu2019s practice this question. u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d You can also ask: u201cWhat do you do in your free time?u201d u201cWhat do you do in your free time?u201d So how would you answer this question? Letu2019s look at how native speakers would do it! The easiest way is to say: u201cI like to…u201d or just u201cI like…u201d followed by what you like to do. For example, if you like watching movies, you could say: u201cI like to watch movies.u201d or u201cI like watching movies.u201d u201cI like to watch movies.u201d or u201cI like watching movies.u201d And if you like golf, you could say: u201cI like to play golfu201d or u201cI like playing golfu201d.

u201cI like to play golfu201d or u201cI like playing golf.u201d You can emphasize how much you like your hobby by adding a word like u201creallyu201d in front of u201clikeu201d. For example: u201cI really like watching movies.u201d On the other hand, if you want to play down how much you like something, you can say u201ckind ofu201d. For example: u201cI kind of like playing tennis.u201d Now itu2019s time for Alishau2019s Advice! If you donu2019t have any special hobbies, or donu2019t want to be specific, a good way to reply is: u201cI like hanging out with my friends, and stuff like that.u201d u201cI like hanging out with my friends, and stuff like that.u201d Just use u201cI like…u201d and add u201changing out with my friendsu201d, and then add: u201cand stuff like that.u201d How do you answer the question: Where you from? It doesnu2019t even have a verb! Weu2019ll cover this and more in the next English in 3 minutes lesson. See you next time!. “}

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Learn English in London

A, AN, THE – Articles in English

{“en”:”Articles Learning article in short Hello And welcome to the next video Today I’m going to teach you about a very difficult confusing fun maybe grammar point called articles *wink* Oh, really ? Yeah Articles are confusing there are many many rules in english about articles I do not have the time the energy to teach you all of them but I’ll do my best Okay? And What are articles first of all ? Articles are A AN and THE Articles come before a noun A noun is : a person a place or a thing So I’m going to generalise here and say that before most nouns in english you have to use an article Of course there are millions of exceptions to what I’ve just said Sometimes we do not use an article with a noun That’s a whole other lesson Hold the time warp for your brain we’re gonna stick to these ones When to use A AN and THE before a noun in a proper english sentence We use these when we speak when we write and they’re very important in grammar So There’s no way to avoid these I’ll help you don’t worry The first one is AN AN’s easy It’s the easiest we’ll do this one first AN is a singular noun huh is used in the singular nouns it’s in article and we use it before the noun that starts with a vowel now the pronunciation of this word sounds like va-will the vowels in english we have five vowels in english they are A E I O and U now Everyone who speaks spanish portuguese italian any of our latin american friends or latin language speakers you’re gonna mix up these two vowels E and I Let me teach you one thing that will help you If you can remember that you have to dot your I you’re gonna get the pronunciation of this word so this word or this letter sorry When you write this letter You always have to put a *ping* a dot in the middle of the word so you’re going to remember that this I you can make a nice little EYE here to help you So, I When you write this word by itself you have to use a capital so this would only be in the middle of a word but the pronunciation is the same I So If you have a vowel A, E, I, O, U that begins the noun you have to use AN for example “eye” yey We have to say “an eye” because the word eye begins with a vowel If the word begins with this word with this letter I for example “ice cream” yey We have to say “I’d like AN ice cream” Do you like ice cream ? Or If the word begins with a vowel sound How can, what is a vowel sound Ronnie ? A vowel sound is usually always the letter H for example the word “hour” We do not even say the H word it sounds like we’re saying “our” So Because this word “hour” sounds like a vowel because the H is silent We have to say “an hour” Ok, you got it? You with me? “an hour” so AN We use before a vowel or before a vowel sound usually a noun that begins with an H The next one is A The very first letter of our alphabet A is a vowel Don’t let that confuse you A We use for again a singular noun All of these are going to be used with singular nouns If the noun is plural if the noun has an S Do not use an article So A We use for a singular noun in a general form You can think of this easier as using, replacing it with the word “any” So If you go to a coffee shop and they have five muffins and they’re all the same muffin You’re going to say to the person that works at the coffee shop “Hello” “I’d like A muffin” You do not get to choose or pick what muffin you get You can choose the flavor but you cannot specifically choose which muffin you would like It’s the same as saying “any” It’s like saying “I’d like any muffin” “Just get me a muffin” “I want a muffin” “I’d like anything” “Just give me something” Okay ? It’s used for when you don’t care which one it is You just want one of something A If my nose was stuffy and I had to blow my nose I would ask someone “Do you have A Kleenex ?” I don’t have to go through the box of Kleenexes “No, I don’t want that one” “No, yes, this, no” You’re just gonna get A Kleenex and you’re gonna blow your nose Okay ? So A and AN the only difference is AN you use before a vowel as an example You can say “I’d like a cookie” I was going to write coffee maybe I want a coffee right now but I would definitely rather have a cookie I don’t care which cookie you give me Just give me a cookie I’m the cookie monster Okay ? So “I’d like a cookie” I’d like any cookie The next is THE THE next is THE THE is opposite to A THE means something very very very specific general and specific are opposite this means you actually choose which one you are going to get Think about this when you go shopping You do not walk into a store and go “Hi, could I have a shirt ?” “I don’t care what it looks like I don’t care how much it is “Just gimme a shirt” This never happens Ladies When you go shopping for shoes You just don’t go into the shoe store and say “Just a pair of shoes please” “Just a pair of shoes” “Don’t care” “Size 8, fine, anything” No We want to go though all of the shoes We want to try them all on We want to get a handbag and match them with our shoes and choose the shoes of our dreams So you’re not going to say “A pair of shoes” You’re gonna say “THE” shoes Another very confusing thing about THE is the second time you talk about the same noun in a phrase you have to put the second noun with THE for example This is a little more difficult “I bought some fruit” Okay ? “Fruit” is an uncountable noun If the noun is uncountable we do not use an article “I bought some fruit” “THE fruit was bad” But Ronnie you just said if it’s an uncountable noun we don’t use an article What are you doing ? Have you lost your mind ? No This is a grammar rule The first time I talk about the fruit I use no article because it’s uncountable but the second time I’m talking about the same noun I have to I don’t know why I just have to it’s a rule So I have to say “THE fruit” “THE fruit was bad” The third point when we use the article THE the article THE I’m using articles all the time is when the speaker and the listener or the reader whatever, if you’re reading or listening know they both know which noun you are talking about for example If you and your friends go to the same school you have to say “THE school” If I were talking to my friend on the phone and I said “Hey, yeah, hum Oh, I left my book at the school” My friend and I both know what school I am talking about In my city there are 2,5 million schools There’s a lot of schools in Toronto There are 2,5 million people and a lot of people go to different schools but because my friend and I go to the same school I have to say “THE school” “I’m going to go to THE school tomorrow” You and I both know we’re talking about the same one Okay ? The next one is we use with countries but only 1% of the countries of the world So I ask you What country are you from ? I am from Canada We have listeners from all over the world I would guarantee that 99% of you would not use an article with your country name I come from Canada Below Canada there’s a country it’s a big country called anyone know? Below Canada ? Geography time The United States of America or, shorter the USA A lot of people, their ancestors in Canada came from a country a group of countries called the United Kingdom THE United Kingdom hum There’s a country in the middle east called the United Arab Emirates If anyone from there ? I went there once in an airplane It’s cool The United States The United Kingdom The United Arab Emirates All of these three countries we have to use THE because there is the word “united” in the title of the country I do not say “the” Canada I do not say “the” Japan If the word has “united” in it I say “the” The second one is if the country has more than two words in the name you’re gonna say “the” for example “New Zealand” New Zealand only has two words I do not say ‘the’ New Zealand If it has more than two words I have to put “the” in front of the country The last one is the most difficult If you are like me and did not do well in geography class this one’s hard we have to use THE if the country is comprised of tiny or small islands I do not expect everyone in the world to know which countries are made of small islands but to help you out off the top of my head the Philippines if you look at a map The Philippines has many tiny little islands that make one country another example would be The West Indies The Canary Islands these are all places that have small islands that form one country So If you look at Japan for example Japan has maybe five or more islands but there are quite large so we cannot use this as “the Japan” They have to be very small islands I hope you understand this If you have a question please leave me a comment if you need more help with this please ask me bye”}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

10 Ways to Motivate Yourself When Learning English

Want to speak real English from your first lesson? Sign up for your free lifetime account at EnglishClass101.com. Hi, everybody, and welcome back to Top Words. My name is Alisha, and today we’re going to talk about 10 ways to motivate yourself when learning English. Let’s go! The first way to motivate yourself is to imagine that one day you will live in the United States. So to do this, imagine what is your day going to be like when you live in the US, where will you go, who will you meet, where will you shop, and so on.

Imagine your day in the United States. Ok, the second way to motivate yourself when you’re studying English is to study other aspects of the culture, too, which makes it more rewarding to study English. Ok, so this means, of course, studying English as a language but if there’s a specific country that you’d like to visit or a specific part of that country’s culture, try to learn about that too. If you like music, if you like the food, if you like the history; try to find something about a specific country or a specific part of that country’s culture that you enjoy in addition to studying the language. Ok! Way number 3 to motivate yourself is finding funny words in English. Ok, so finding a word that sounds funny or a word that you enjoy using, or a phrase that you enjoy using can really increase your motivation for using that word and for interacting with people.

So if you can find those phrases that you think are funny or are fun, they can be really really helpful for you as you learn your language. The next way to motivate yourself is to make friends with people who speak English. So of course, if you don’t have any friends who are English speakers, especially native English speakers, it’s a really good idea to make some friends. This way you can practice with them, you can learn from them, and you can just see maybe what their life is like and how their life is different from yours. So this is a great way to practice, a great way to learn, and a great way to think more internationally as well. The next way to motivate yourself is watching youtube videos of other people who have successfully learned English. So you can listen to people what worked for them, how did they study, where did they go, what materials did they use, what did they find not helpful.

So you can try to find a strategy that works well for you through using resources like YouTube, for example. It’s a great way to find people that maybe match with what you need. Ok, the next way to motivate yourself is by watching English movies and TV shows and enjoying the feeling when you can understand a word or a sentence. Yeah, I do this too. When you enjoy something, when you find entertainment value in something, like music, movies, TV, and you there’s that moment when you pick up, or when you understand what your favorite character said, or you understand that like a key point in the story, it’s a really really good feeling.

It makes you want to continue watching, I think. So that’s a really really nice feeling, I think, and you can do that by enjoying media so it’s a fun way to learn and it’s a fun feeling to experience. Ok, the next way to motivate yourself is by reading English news articles, blogs, and magazines to get a feel for formal and casual language. So the style that we use here, like EnglishClass101 and on the videos on this channel, is quite casual most of the time, or at least in these videos it’s very casual, but the way that I speak in the way a newspaper is written, the way a magazine is written, the way a newscaster presents the information, these are all different ways of communicating.

We’re using the same language, yes, but there are different styles, so it’s important to try to understand those differences and to become familiar with them. So try to find a few different things that you can enjoy. The next way to motivate yourself is after dinner you write about your day in a journal in English. Ok, this is an interesting idea. So just take a few minutes after dinner or before you go to bed to write something in English about what you did that day, or maybe so you have a chance to talk about future tense, or to use the future tense, you can use you can talk about your upcoming plans or the things you’re going to do the next day. So you can talk about past tense, what you did that day, maybe present tense, how you’re feeling as you’re writing your journal for the day, and future tense to talk about your upcoming plan.

So journaling can be a really effective exercise for motivating you. Okay, the next way to motivate yourself is by practicing with flashcards of useful words and phrases for 15 minutes every day on the train. I actually do do this, I use, but I use an application to study in Japanese to study Kanji, and 15 minutes every day adds up over the course of a week, you can learn a lot of information in a short period of time. And if you live in the country where your target language is spoken, then you might even find the word you studied on the train, you see it, like, after you leave the train you might see that word later on in your day.

So you can immediately feel like an extra sense of motivation by knowing that this thing you’re studying is applicable, it’s something you can use right away, it’s a really cool feeling. So this is a tip, I honestly, I use this. Last, I make sure to thank anyone and everyone who corrects my English. Yeah, I think this is really important because people are really nice, they don’t want to correct you when you make a mistake; but sometimes, people do, they’re really polite about it, and they tell you the more, tell you a more natural way, or they give you a suggestion for how to improve your English, make sure you say thank you. Like, repeat after them and then say thank you. So that’s, you know, it’s motivation for them to tell you again in the future, to help you again in the future.

So make sure to say thank you to anyone who helps you with your English. So that’s the end! So those are 10 ways that you can motivate yourself when you learn English. If you have a different strategy for how you like to motivate yourself to learn English, please let us know in the comments. Please be sure also to like this video and subscribe to our channel if you haven’t already. Thanks very much for watching I hope this video motivated you to keep studying, we’ll see you again soon with more fun stuff, bye!.

Which Countries Have The Best Education?

Over the past few years, the United States and other western countries have seen a trend of teachers quitting their jobs. Among their chief complaints is an overwhelming focus on standardized testing, and the feeling that their professional opinions are ignored. Perhaps as a result, the US was 29th in the most recent rankings of countries by education. So we wanted to know, which countries have the best education, and what are they doing right? In 2015, the OECD released a report on Universal Basic Skills, including one of the largest global education rankings. A substantial portion of the ranking is based on an international assessment of reading, mathematics, and science literacy, called PISA. Now, since the year 2000, Finland has topped most international education lists, especially based on PISA scores. But this year’s ranking, places Finland sixth worldwide. And while that’s partially the result of declining Finish test scores, it is much more so because a number of East Asian countries have come to dominate the list. In fact, all top five countries are located in and around East Asia: Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan.

And they’re all relatively wealthy nations, who share similar views on education. Succeeding in school is culturally stressed as a priority, and has an enormous impact on future prospects. This leads to intense competition, and subsequently higher overall scores. But in contrast to less effective education systems, these top ranking countries heavily invest in their teachers. For example, number one ranked Singapore is known for providing bonuses to well performing teachers, and attracts qualified instructors with competitive salaries.

And as a number of Asian countries continue to see rapid economic growth, having a strong education system is integral to future economic success. Looking at the far end of education rankings, Ghana had the lowest secondary school enrollment rate of countries surveyed, as well as the lowest PISA scores. The OECD has predicted that if Ghana could meet universal basic skill goals, they could see their GDP rise 38 times higher over the lifetime of a child born today. They also point out that when a nation’s population is uneducated, it equates to lost economic output, and can lead to a permanent economic recession as a result.

Additionally, in countries like the UK, one in five children finish school without a basic level of education. Similarly in the US, around two-thirds of nine and ten year olds cannot yet read at their grade level. Some point to an emphasis on “repetitive rote learning”, rather than actual education. This is often the difference between hands on instruction, and standardized test-based goals. The latter has shown to fail both students and teachers. Education is one of the most important criteria for determining the present and future health of a nation. And while not every country has the resources or cultural emphasis for successful modes of teaching, it is clear that governments should be treating education as an extremely high priority. Sex education, on the other hand, is not always given priority by countries like the U.S. To find out which countries are actually teaching sex education right, check out our video. Thanks for tuning in to TestTube News! Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel down below. We’ll see you soon..

As found on Youtube