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June is here! – LIVE ENGLISH – From the birthplace of the English language – with Mr Duncan 1/6/18

{“en”:”So here we are oh it’s a new month has arrived I can’t believe it and Here I am now with you live as live can be here we go then it is what is it today it’s Friday it feels very unusual to be here on a Friday but look outside look at the day we are having it’s a glorious day and June is here it is June the 1st the first day of a new month and I thought hmm I thought it would be a good idea to go outside and do something live because the weather is quite nice although having said that there is a forecast for thunder and rain later on today so I’m not really sure whether or not I’m going to be staying out here for a very long time because it looks as if there might be some rain coming so we will see what happens but for now the Sun is in the sky everything is alright even though now and again there are some black clouds hanging overhead some storm clouds are floating by right now so here we go then but the big question is is where am i oh ok then if you insist hi everybody this is mr.

Duncan in England how are you today are you ok I hope so are you happy I hope so so I thought why not why not do a live stream on the first day of June and it does feel quite summery today even though as I just mentioned there is a little bit of rain in the air so I’m taking a bit of a risk here going outside on what can only be described as a very hot and humid day it’s ever so humid here it’s really really hot so a lot of people already on the live chat I can’t believe how many people already are here on the live chat so let’s say hello shall we so hello to Alamgir who is first on the live chat today so hello to you and welcome welcome to my special live English outside it’s a very warm day very muggy so Alamgir Husein congratulations you are first on the live chat Attila is also here today hello Attila hi mr.

Duncan how are you I’m okay thanks I can’t complain also JC jordi amir andrew is here how is your week going so far well today is the final day of the week because it’s Friday yes I’m sure you are very excited as well because the week is coming to an end the weekend is just around the corner what a lovely surprise you’re on with another livestream yes it’s true I hope you could hear me ok because I think the sound level might be a little bit low so for those who can’t hear me please let me know it’s a nice start to the month with a live stream yes I thought I would do it as a little surprise you know I like to have surprises and sometimes I like to give surprises as well so here we go yes it’s a little overcast there are some some black clouds floating overhead at the moment you tis here hello ute mr.

Duncan what a surprise oh thank you very much I hope it’s a nice surprise that’s all I can say hello everyone from I think you are watching in Russia or maybe somewhere nearby Albert is here hello Albert I don’t think I’ve seen you here before is it your first time on the live chat if it is your first time please let me know please tell me mr. Duncan my first time so let me know also Marie so is here watching in Brazil I have a strange feeling that I have a lot of people watching in Brazil at the moment I don’t know why I’ve noticed over the past couple of weeks that I sing to have lots and lots of people watching in Brazil say hello to Brazil yes I just have Gabrielle or Gabriel is here hello to you as well Fredrik Fredrik Roy says it’s my first time to chat on the live chat with your live stream oh ok then thank you welcome Fredrik now in the past I used to give fireworks when when someone new arrived on the live chat but sadly I don’t have any fireworks at the moment I’m I’m ever so sorry about that so I hope you will forgive me so it’s live English it’s live mr.

Duncan the reason why I’m doing this today is because it’s a brand new month and I’m thinking of doing some regular surprise live streams during the month of June so besides my normal live streams I’m also thinking of doing something slightly different during this month by giving you some lovely surprise live streams especially if the weather turns out to be nice because if the weather is nice then it might be a good opportunity to actually go outside all I’m thinking at the moment is I hope it doesn’t start raining but I have planned for that so if it does start raining I’m going to play a video and then I will move my things inside so just in case it decides to start raining I do have a back-up plan the other night something very exciting happened we had some Bulls arrive at the back of the house so some Bulls have arrived and there at the back although today they’ve disappeared can you believe it I was hoping to capture them live on camera but unfortunately they have decided to wander off that’s not very good is it the live chat is starting to get very busy Kunal is here apparently it’s Children’s Day today I did not know that here in the UK it is a special day because it’s national fish and chip day it is one of the most famous English meals a lot of people associate this country England with fish and chips so here in the UK it is national fish and chip day Thank You Albert it’s not my first time I’ve been watching you for quite a long time but I don’t comment regularly well Albert you are more than welcome to say hello any time – is here it is my first time mr.

Duncan to talk to you on the live chat well all I can say is welcome welcome Aurora hello Aurora mr. Duncan I’m at the gym unfortunately I can’t watch because it’s Friday morning well all I can say is I’m very pleased to hear that you have decided you have decided to keep fit I like that you are very active first thing in the morning I wish I was amrwardy I believe you need to manage the clock on this video it says the 30th of May yes it probably does let’s just get rid of that shall we that is my automatic date which comes up and sometimes sometimes it isn’t right yes it’s true you are you are correct there so all I have to do is watch this is if by magic I can actually change the date even though you can’t see it but I’m going to change the date see look how professional I’m trying to be there it is that’s Beth sir yes oh that’s much better let’s just make sure it’s right yeah the date is now right it is definitely the first of June there it is I’ve corrected it now thank you for noticing by the way KATU is here hello mr.

Duncan it’s my first time okay then welcome you are more than welcome to join in and don’t forget I am live every Wednesday from p.m. UK time and also every Sunday from p.m. UK time summer cookie says it’s my first time normally I’m a shy girl and I don’t believe that I’m here you are now live summer cookie you are now live and I like your name by the way because I like summer and I also like eating cookies hi Trin hi Albert hi Amory and hi everyone from TS hello TS thanks for joining me today I think you are watching in Indonesia so far away I’m going to guess that the weather in Indonesia is very similar to here it’s very hot and very humid here today so I thought just to get us all in the mood I thought we would have a little replay of something I did a while ago and because there is no mr.

Steve today unfortunately so because mr. Steve is away busy working I am on my own so I thought it would be fun to show one of my past videos with mr. Steve so here we are doing something in the kitchen but the big question is what are we doing oh hello there well welcome to the kitchen it’s mr. Duncan and a mr. Steve come over here it’s over there so here we are in the kitchen what are we going to do we are going to make some tea cakes but we’re not actually making them we’re going window we’re going to put them in the toaster we’re going to toast them toast of the tea cakes that we have previously purchased from a local bakery and here they are here are the tea cakes look at that are they gorgeous too fresh tea cakes now so people think that tea cakes and hot cross buns are the same thing but in fact in fact they are not they are not the same thing tea cakes are normally larger and also they don’t have the cross on the front also they are not as flavoursome they don’t have as much spice or lemon zest inside them so normally lemon zest lemon zest I love the lemon zest it’s just a sweet bread with some currants or raisins added so the name perhaps such a strong flavor is hot cross bun but they are still delicious they are delicious so mr.

Steve what do we need to do first we need to well these are frozen and we’ve defrosted we need to take them out of this pandemic we can’t put them in the toaster while they’re inside that plastic bag know that I know for certain I would be very silly you keep it so don’t forget don’t toast them in the back because the plastic will melt and they will tastes terrible so they freeze very well for once we brought them fresh bread retort too many and if we froze with some of them and they are absolutely delicious icy frosty red freezes very well as we all know and there they all look lovely look at those lovely tea cakes so now mr.

Steven iceberg mr. Steve is going to cut them right in half careful I’ve got an armed with a sharp knife I’m not sure if we should trust mr. Steve with a sharp knife so here we go I’m going to cut these in preparation for putting in the toaster there we go that one that will strengthen in the toaster and I’ll move I’ll cut the other one in half so that we resin because know me better them we want to make sure the right hard okay with the right ones and this one thing I’ve noticed with mr.

Steve when he’s doing something he likes to bang things around and clang which is great for real life but unfortunately on camera whether you are listening at home it sounds dreadful so try to do everything quietly if you can do it silently silently including them but the voice can be big fine well they’re going to take about two minutes to toast in there so meanwhile should I get rid of with in here the butter oh yes we’re going to put some lovely butter now you have to have butter on your tea cakes there is something I noticed because the word butter can actually be used in other ways as well is that true mr. Steve that’s very true yes butter is normally for spreading on bread and things like that but it can be used by the way so here we go butter the word butter can be used in more than one way for example it can be used as a verb in the phrase butter up if you want to win someone’s favor or if you want to get someone on your side you might try to charm them by doing something nice you butter them up you try to butter them up by being nice to them so the phrase butter up means flatter a person or suck up to them for example I need my friend to drive me into town tomorrow and I won’t have to butter him up by treating him to dinner to butter up a person means to flatter or charm someone so was it get on that good side you ingratiate them butter or butter up now I can butter up to mr.

Duncan couldn’t I yeah I could tell mr. Duncan oh I’ll go do that later I will show an example no I’ll do it now oh I’m gonna butter up to mr. Duncan now mr. Dave oh how do you what how do you look so slim having have you lost weight oh thank you I think mr. Steve is trying to butter me up I think mr. Steve wants something so better up means to flatter someone or to ingratiate yourself to to creep around someone normally for a favor okay any chance that I can you know here on your showers on Sunday no your office doesn’t show yeah and you’re on it now it’s slim you’re so good-looking this isn’t okay come on I’m hungry right that pinging sound meant that this out of the toaster and over there we go mr.

Duncan won’t like that one because it’s bird you know my bird burns daily mr. Tim I don’t like my buns burn I bet my buns too Brown try not to bang around please stop banging it sounds terrible on the camera mr. Duncan likes lots of better on his tea cakes I would say where else but he said there are some on the teeth on the tea cakes I like I like my buns buttery that’s great that’s good mr. Steve thank you there we go I don’t know what’s happened to that it doesn’t seem very much there we go there is the first tea cake it has been toasted and as you can see there is some butter it is now melting on the tea cake so mr. Steve is now going to toast his tea cake by the way just in case you have just joined us we are live well this isn’t live but in a moment I will be lying again on Sunday yes we are here live is live can be on Sunday afternoon I hope you are enjoying this live lesser my fingers are all greasy and so I was using a paper towel to wipe all the butter off so it’s gonna be a long time we got two minutes at least two minutes to wait before the next TK comes out to the toaster so well I know what I’m I don’t know what I’m going to I wanna go cold I’m going to have a bite of the tea cake to see how nice it is to see how well nice please how well mr.

Steve has toasted this tea cake let’s see okay mmm they go very nicely with a cup of tea hence the name tea cake well actually it could be called a tea cake you have them at tea time I think it’s because you have another cup of tea which we haven’t got ready but we can make afterwards the kept low now while we’re waiting no suit yourself it’s too noisy okay pretend pretend Oh what are we five year olds another 30 second repeat mr. Steve likes his buns very Brown mmm these are delicious very nice hmm hot you know testers get very hot right there is there is another type of there is another type of burn called a scone or stomp and they are much smaller and normally they are made with pure butter or fat another way for a burn is your buttocks yes but actually that it’s buns so your buttocks or your bum cheeks can be called bunions now that normally comes from American English so if you talk about someone’s nice buns you might be talking about their bread but also you might be talking about their lovely sexy bottom okay mr.

Steve so that could actually yes it like someone’s bottom that does that’s good can I just say now for the record mr. Steve can you stop banging things around and I put that but it back in the fridge otherwise it’ll melt I’m gonna do it quietly all right so I’m ready to be fine now that’s it we’re going to eat our tea cakes I’ve already eaten half of mine thank you very much for following us delicious we’re now going back to the studio back to the studio live to rejoin mr. Duncan that’s me Oh Oh mr. Duncan and I look forward to seeing you again very shortly where am I going to be stuck in the corner maybe I haven’t decided yet outside oh yeah it’ll be a big surprise off we go bye hmm so here we are then it is a Friday and we are live I hope you enjoyed that for those who are missing mr.

Steve I thought I would play one of our old moments of time recorded in the kitchen when we were eating our tea cakes and for those who are wondering the small black things inside are raisins raisins and sultanas they are types of dried fruit so I hope that answers your question I hope you enjoyed that fortunately the rain is holding off we just had some lovely sunshine the Sun came out just and it was absolutely glorious and soon as the video finished and I returned live the Sun went back in I don’t know what’s going on come on son why are you letting me down I’ve just been checking on my phone as well there are lots of very useful apps that you can get nowadays for your mobile phones so there is one that I can actually check any time of the day to find out what the weather is like in my area and they even have a special radar that scans for rain so I can actually see a live view and I can see where the rain is and where it is moving so at the moment it looks as if there is no rain here at the moment there is no rain anywhere around this area although I suppose I should be very careful what I’m saying to be honest because you know we might suddenly get lots of rain so I’ll have to be careful what I’m saying the live chat is up and running oh hello there so many people on the live chat amory is here or amia sorry I wish I could have your tea cakes yes they are beautiful oh hey Haitham gauzy says amazing recording we miss mr.

Steve a lot of people miss mr. Steve by the way last night last night it was the first night the opening night of the musical play that mr. Steve is actually appearing in so apparently everything went well now tonight I am going to see it so instead of tomorrow night originally I was going to go tomorrow but I’m very busy tomorrow preparing things for Sunday so I will actually be going tonight to see mr. Steve perform in his his musical play where he is playing a Spanish pirate would you like to see a little bit of mr. Steve pretending to be a Spanish pirates ok hello mr. Duncan and all your lovely viewers all around the world today I met earlier sir so unfortunately I cannot be here to teach English with you today hopefully on Wednesday or next Sunday I will be back and then we shall teacher the English to everyone around the world but today I am a color standard retired from the Caribbean island of sand arena goodbye thank you Steve thank you very much for that I’ve just also noticed because I’m reward he mentioned the the date was wrong earlier and I’ve also noticed that the time is also wrong so I don’t know how that’s happened I really don’t so I’m going to change that right now let’s see if I can actually change that it is supposed to be five minutes past two my computer seems to have a mind of its own today so there it is that’s better it is six minutes past o’clock on a Friday and I’m outside doing something very special because it is the first of June it really does feel as if spring is in the air the weather is so variable yes variable it is changeable it changes from one thing to another so yes it would be fair to say that the weather at the moment is very very changeable variable so if something varies it changes so yes I think you are right there the weather here especially today is very changeable it is variable Haytham says oh I think and I’m not sure what you’re laughing at I’m not sure I don’t know yeah I hope it’s something very funny that’s all I can say the Sun has come out yes the Sun is now out and I am now being bombarded with ultraviolet light from olive listen what is it 9 91 million miles away is it so and yet it still feels hot it really does so it’s live English and I am in my short today would you like to see my feet okay here are my feet a live shot of my feet as we stand here in the CERN you can see I’m wearing my shorts today I am wearing my shorts and also my lovely stripey socks as well so the Sun is now out and everything is nice around the garden everything is looking very summery as well people always like to see the garden so here we go for those who like taking a look around the garden here are some shots and also this is the back at the moment sadly the Bulls are not there I was hoping they would come across I was really hoping that the Bulls would come over to say hello but they only arrived two days ago so at the moment they’re feeling very shy I think that’s what’s going on they are they are actually very shy at the moment so it is live English in the sunshine and this is just a very special livestream just to say hello to June and of course hello to you as well on the live chat mr.

Steve could perform in the movies oh really do you think he’s that good yes I think mr. Steve is a very good performer he is a very good actor and he’s been in quite a few shows now very very big parts he was in a show called a Christmas Carol based on a story by Charles Dickens and he actually played the lead part he was actually playing the lead role of Scrooge he’s also appeared in the king and I as well bit bitterness hello vit Ernests hello from Lithuania hello to you I don’t think we’ve spoken before have we have we talked to each other before or is it your first time I am rewarded says I really like tea cakes with raisin I’m not a big fan of raisins to be honest so sometimes I will pick them out so sometimes I will pick them out especially if there are too many because I don’t like too many reasons in my teacakes hat wah says such a beautiful garden thank you very much for that you are very kind I’m very pleased to hear that you like the garden it is still trying to rain here there is now a big ominous cloud hanging over the house and it looks as if it’s about to rain but but the forecast says there is no rain I’m getting very confused with the weather today it’s all over the place all over the place if something is all over the place it means it is very chaotic it is hard to predict it is all over the place so the weather today is all over the place it is very hard to predict it is very chaotic it is changeable it sure is I envy you with your sunny weather and garden well I can tell you now it’s not always sunny here quite often we get rain we get storms so it’s not always sunny even during the summer we can get lots and lots of rain I saw some live news videos on YouTube that have live subtitles yes I think there are some channels may be very big channels that have subtitles on their live stream but at the moment YouTube is not allowing me to have them I don’t know why because they would be very useful to be honest they would be very useful indeed h-m is here hello there I am mubashir Hafiz from Pakistan and I am studying at the Medical University and I’m wishing you the best of luck thank you very much mubashir watching in Pakistan petrol is oh hello Pedro Belmont of course it wouldn’t be a live chat without Pedro Belmont so Pedro is here how long am i on for well I’m probably going to stay on for about an hour so I will be with you for around about another 15 maybe 20 minutes of course it all depends on whether or not it rains so if it suddenly starts raining I will have to go in the house and then everything will have to come to an end that’s not very nice is it so I’m hoping that the rain will stay off I’m hoping very much that the rain will stay away today is windy and cloudy in my city well it’s cloudy here but sometimes we get lots and lots of sunshine as well and it’s very very hot I’m actually wearing my shorts today that’s how hot it is yesterday the weather was nice and I decided yesterday to put some washing out so there you can see some washing on the clothes line and that is what I did yesterday so this type of weather is very good for drying your washing so whenever the weather is nice I always like to do some washing so I can hang it out and it always dries very very well what about you do you like to hang your washing outside because I know nowadays people have these very sophisticated washing machines and they will wash your clothes and they will dry them as well incredible so some people have very posh washing machines they will actually dry the clothes as well it’s a lovely morning well now it is afternoon here it is now just coming up to quarter past two quarter past two on a Friday afternoon and I don’t normally do live streams on Friday but today I thought I would do something different hello mr.

Duncan from Vietnam long time no see true true Tuan Minh hello to you Stran love is here we need one course for a special about the singer George Michael yes George Michael was a very popular singer during the early 1980s and also the 1990s as well so George Michael started out in the early 1980s I remember very well when George Michael first appeared on television because I was a teenager back then I know it’s hard to believe isn’t it that I was a teenager in the 1980s but it’s true it’s true I tell you what a great surprise you are here mr. Duncan it’s very unusual well I thought today I would do something different I thought I would do something different today because it’s the first of June and it’s a Newman so that’s the reason why I’m here today Noah says yes we are in shock we are very shocked you are live again mr.

Duncan yes I was alive I was alive and live on Wednesday with my usual live stream and I will be here on Sunday as well with my live stream from 2 p.m. UK time at the moment I’m being attacked by lots and lots of flies yes there are flies everywhere at the moment I’m being attacked attacked by flies Jobin says you look knackered when we say a person looks knackered it means they look tired tired well I’m going to tell you something that I have been suffering with hay fever during the past couple of days and one of the side effects of hay fever is that you get a very sore throat so at the moment I have a very sore throat and that’s the reason why my voice sounds a little bit croaky a little bit rough because of the hay fever yes did you hear the crow saying hello someone’s car alarm was going off did you hear that someone’s car alarm was going off is it Children’s Day in your hometown I don’t think it is I don’t think today is Children’s Day maybe it is in your country but I’m not sure about here but one thing I do know is that today here in England it is national fish-and-chip day because you may be aware that we like eating fish and chips here in the UK we are very very fond of eating fish and chips it’s making me feel hungry now andrew says is there any treatment or are there any inhalers to help you with hayfever there are some types of medicine to help you with your hay fever and I do take some of those type of Medicine but the problem is some of the medicine has a very bad side effect and the side effect is that it makes you very very sleepy so I don’t like to take too much especially if I’m working and especially if I’m doing a livestream because I have to stay very alert so yes sometimes I do take medication for my hay fever but the problem is it has side effects and one of the side effects is it makes me very drowsy very sleepy do you celebrate fish-and-chip day asks Albert I really wish I could I really wish I could but unfortunately there isn’t a fish and chip shop round here although having said that later on for for dinner I’m going to have some fish so I’m not completely celebrating fish and chip day but I am having some fish later but no chips sadly hello mr.

Black bird mr. black bird is just saying hello I think the birds are waiting to feed you see because just just behind me there’s a bird feeder just over there there is the bird feeder and I think the birds are waiting to eat I think so it is Children’s Day in Vietnam ah ok then so maybe in some countries they are celebrating Children’s Day so in Vietnam there are lots of interesting activities taking place for Children’s Day the birds are getting very excited behind me hi just saying hello to the birds hello mister venca and i’m happy to join you says Nadia hello Nadia is it your first time on the live chat please let me know if it is also hi therm says I like your perspective mr. Duncan for taking medicines I don’t always like to take medicine so I take it when I have to if I really need it but normally I don’t like to take medicine unless I have to so if my hay fever gets really bad if it gets very severe I will take some medicine but at the moment it’s not too bad my hay fever is not bad today even though I have a slight sore throat I have a very sore throat can you see behind me and being asked yes Anne asks what is your possession in the garden what are the things in your garden well I can show you the thing behind me can you see there that is a birdbath so that is where the birds will go to bathe and also to to drink as well so quite often the birds will gather and they will have a drink and sometimes they will also go into the water and have a little bath as well and over there can you see just over there you can see my my heron so that isn’t a real heron it’s actually a fake heron it’s not real so it’s not not real don’t worry my throat is very rough today can you can you hear my throat it sounds very bad and that’s because of the hay fever so yes so that the heroin behind me that heroin is not real its fake it’s made of plastic and there is the birdbath and if you look there you can see part of my dams and tree so that is where all of the dam zones are growing at the moment thank you am rewarding for your best wishes I don’t feel sick I feel perfectly healthy today I feel so so well unfortunately my throat at the moment is a little sore because of my hay fever so if you also suffer from hay fever you will know exactly what I’m going through it is very very unpleasant very unpleasant indeed you have got some great deal and passion for teaching keep doing the same thing thank you Jobin for that you are welcome I I do intend to continue doing this I’m not going anywhere some people think that I’m about to quit but I’m not I’m not going anywhere honestly some people seem to think that I’m going but I’m not in fact can I let you in on a secret during the month of June that’s this month I will be doing some special surprise live streams just like this so during the month of June I’m planning to do some special live streams just for you hopefully my hay fever will stay away and my voice will return so I’m planning on having a very busy month in the month of June I am planning to have a very busy month indeed do you drink enough yes I’ve been drinking lots of water today Thank You summer summer cookie thank you for your thank you for your care and consideration hello mr.

Duncan this is my first time here and I’m so happy ephra hello ephra thanks for joining me today even though my voice isn’t very good today I’m very sorry about that my voice sounds a little rough and that is because of the hay fever I apologize I really do so the weather here is okay and we also have Oh for those who missed it the other night a lot of people were asking about the the daihlia in the garden so for those who were watching or weren’t watching on Wednesday there is the Dahlia you can see now that the flowers are preparing to come out everything is coming into bloom isn’t that lovely I was hoping to show you the Bulls today but unfortunately they’ve they’ve vanished they’ve walked away it’s not very nice is it so it’s live English on a Friday afternoon here in the UK it is now coming up to half-past in the afternoon and I hope you are feeling happy today and I hope you are enjoying this special live stream even though my voice is starting to fade why don’t you build a massive fence around your property well because I like to see the view I like to see the trees and the cows and the grass thanks mr.

Duncan I’m waiting for your extra life lessons in June yes I am planning to pop-up pop-up if someone pops up it means they appear suddenly they will pop up it’s a great expression and we use it quite often in English to describe something that suddenly appears suddenly appears it pops up it popped up to pop up is to suddenly appear and I will be doing a lot of popping up during June your job is quite hard yes is that this is not easy for those who think that doing a live stream is easy it is not I think this is the hardest thing to do on YouTube it’s very easy to record videos and talk and then rerecord it so if you make a mistake when you are recording something you can just do it again but unfortunately because I’m live I can’t do this again so if I make a mistake then that’s it it’s happened I can’t change anything so one of the things that I really enjoy about doing lie is that it is spontaneous and that means that anything anything can happen anything even the hay fever affects you and your voice but you are speaking still clear and I have understood everything thanks a lot for your enthusiasm Thank You Fung du Chun thank you very much for that do you have any favorite flowers mr.

Duncan I like all sorts of flowers I like colorful flowers I like red flowers yellow flowers I love the daffodils in the spring so every time spring arrives I always look forward to the arrival of daffodils so yes I like all sorts of flowers I also like trees as well and that’s why I live here because I am literally surrounded surrounded they are all around me I am surrounded by trees it’s true so there are trees all around me I am surrounded by them mr.

Duncan I hope you will recover soon thank you very much a meme or Amina Amina I Adi thank you very much that’s very kind of you mr. J is here oh hello there mr. J I’ve not seen you here before is it your first time I think so I think so so live chat lots of things going on in the news at the moment yesterday all of the chaos that is going on in Italy was sort of resolved so now Italy has a new government having said that today it’s like political musical chairs it really is today in Spain the government there collapsed so now at the moment in Spain they have no government due to various things so the prime minister or the president has stepped down he has stepped down so now there will be another election by the looks of it in Spain I don’t know what it is about politics at the moment everything seems quite crazy what do you think it’s very crazy we have lots of things going on in the world at the moment we have North Korea about to give up its nuclear weapons maybe we have world peace approaching well okay maybe in North Korea and South Korea there will be some some peace we can only hope so why can’t I see my messages asks Sameera I don’t know I don’t know why well I can see your messages Sameera I can see your messages Mustapha says mr.

Duncan how can we speak fast not fastly fastly is not a word how can we speak fast well just like everything you have to learn how to do it and that means putting in lots and lots of practice first of all you have to start off slowly you have to learn like a child never be afraid to learn like a child whenever you learn something new you always start with the very basics the simple things and that includes speaking so when you first start to learn a new language you might find that you speak very slowly like a child so that’s what you do you practice you do it regularly you have to make it part of your life I think so hello mr.

Duncan I haven’t watched your videos for a very long time Thank You Nam for saying hello Nasir says mr. Duncan what a surprise to watch you today yes I’m here I’m here it’s Simona and I what watching you on my son’s YouTube account ah okay then hello Simona and welcome you are more than welcome today something very different I’m actually outside on the 1st of June I know for most people that will mean nothing but here in England the 1st of June is a very special day because it means that we can officially say that it is summertime I don’t know why it always feels as if summer has really arrived as soon as June begins I don’t know why but it may be it’s a psychological thing I think so but whenever whenever June arrives it always feels as if summer has arrived with it what is your favorite singer do you mean who who is your favorite singer because a singer is a person so when we refer to a person it is always who who is your favorite singer who Sergio we are all on the edge of a trade war yes this is something that has happened over the past 48 hours it would appear that certainly with the United States they are now charging countries that want to export to the United States at the moment I think it’s aluminium aluminium and I want to say steel so if a country outside the States wants to export their steel or aluminium to the to the United States they will have to pay what they call a levy levy so there is a charge that will be imposed if they want to export to the United States some people think it’s unfair some people think that it is perfectly fair so it depends on what your position is it depends where you are standing at the time Eliana says my favorite singer is Elton John yes Elton John at the moment he is doing a tour this year and apparently it’s his final tour he’s actually going to retire from touring and that’s this year yes he’s doing a tour I think it’s this year and it looks as if he’s going to retire from performing live which I suppose is is a little bit sad for those who are big fans of Elton John TS Amory I got an IELTS band 5 on writing well that’s not too bad I must admit band 5 is pretty good pretty good five point five would have been nice or maybe even six but five yes not not too bad not too bad at all on Wednesday in Canada there is chicken and what is that chicken wings delicious it is wigs with delicious sauce I’m not sure what wigs are shitty do you mean wings do you mean the wings I think you mean you mean wing chicken wings so you can fly away like a bird chicken wings chicken wings hi what are you talking about it is open today you can talk about anything I’ve just been talking about the trade war that is taking place at the moment between the United States and also Canada and Europe so yes there is a lot to talk about also there is some political tension at the moment in Spain where the president or prime minister has just stepped down and in Italy they have just announced that they have a new government so there is there are all sorts of things going on at the moment in the world 2018 is proving to be a very very busy year I think so Andrea it’s not good enough for university I must do more practice yes TAS you probably need to get a or even a 6 even a 6 I think I think you should really be aiming for 6 to be iced-tea GN says I really appreciate your work thanks a lot for your throat I advise you some honey with black pepper and lemon that sounds very nice actually mr.

Steve actually has some lemon tea so he has some lovely herb all tea that has lemon and also ginger and apparently that is also very good for your throat as well it’s very good if you have a fever very good it’s very interesting to listen to you mr. Duncan Thank You Samira I’m glad that you are enjoying it I am actually going to leave you in a moment I’m only here for around about one hour so I hope you’ve enjoyed this livestream just something a little different to celebrate the new month yes understood that you need or more yes you should always be aiming aiming for 5 point 5 or 6 at the very least it is a sunny day here the Sun has come out again yes the Sun is out and I am now enjoying the rays of sunlight but I don’t want to get too much Sun because it’s not good for your skin it isn’t good for your skin at all and today I’m wearing my socks let’s have a quick look at my socks again shall we there they are you can see and wearing my socks today and also my shorts can you see my legs yes I’m wearing my shorts because it’s so hot the only problem is that all the flies keep biting me they are flying around and they are biting my legs and it is very annoying very annoying indeed so there you can see my my socks and also my shorts I hope you enjoyed that I don’t know why some people are always interested to find out what type or which type of shorts I’m wearing so today I’m wearing my lovely blue shorts that I bought in Turkey do you have tea at like the Queen well I’m not sure if the Queen has tea at 5 o’clock I’m not quite sure about that I couldn’t answer that question to be honest I’ve never been to Buckingham Palace to have tea with the Queen but I will be having a cup of tea as soon as I finished this livestream in around about 2 or 3 minutes so I will be going very soon for two reasons one I have to prepare mr.

Steve’s dinner because mr. Steve will be appearing in his show and I am also going to see mr. Steve perform on the stage tonight so tonight is the second night of mr. Steve’s play pinnate says hello mr. Duncan I’m from Thailand and I watch your videos every day I love your lessons and every place in your videos they make me happy and also they allow me to improve my English thank you for your kindness you are welcome pin it pin it watching in Thailand and a big happy hello to everyone watching in Thailand at the moment it is the first day of June it always feels as if summer has definitely arrived whenever Jun arrives so does the summer it’s a lovely feeling to be honest a very nice feeling indeed so I’m back on Sunday I will be here on Sunday from 2 p.m. UK time that’s 2 o’clock UK time for those who are wondering when I am on and also I am with you on Wednesday from 10 p.m.

Very late late and live in fact I love this pop-up show it is a very beautiful place thank you so much you are welcome Rosa at this very moment I can feel I can feel the skin on my arms being burnt by the Sun I can actually feel the heat from the CERN on my arms my my arms are so hot Omar asks a question what is the meaning of off you go off you go we normally say off you go when we are telling someone to leave off you go are you leaving now off you go off you go it normally means please leave or are you going are you going off you go please go please leave off you go I hope that helps I hate the summer months because it’s hot in Vietnam about 32 degrees says Fung I think the hot weather can be very nice it can also be very unpleasant especially if it gets too hot to be honest I’m going to be honest with you now I prefer the hot weather if I had a choice between being very hot and being very cold I think I would always choose being hot so I don’t mind being hot I’ve been to very hot countries in the past I’ve been to Malaysia I’ve been to Turkey and those countries are very hot places they really are I should spend more time under the Sun because of my bones also my bones will not be damaged Eliana yes I believe you are talking about vitamin D vitamin D which is something that you need to keep your bones very strong and a good source of vitamin D is sunlight your garden shows are marvelous do you do the garden tasks asks Rosario I have a confession to make mr.

Steve is the one who does all the gardening I’m not a gardener this is what I like to do in the garden I will show you the work that I do in the garden watch this that’s it that’s all the work that I’m going to do this year in the garden that’s it you just saw it there that is the only thing that I’m going to do in the garden this year all the rest of the work is turned by mr.

Steve fortunately mr. Steve loves doing the gardening he really does I’m very happy that I have a chance to join you today Thank You Bella for that I have plus six it is six degrees and heavy rain and fitful or frightful do you mean frightful frightful wind strong wind severe wind violent storms maybe well today apparently today or should I say this afternoon and this evening here we are going to have lots of thunderstorms and lots of rain and that’s the reason why I said that I was taking a risk today so I really was taking a risk coming outside to do my live stream because I thought I really thought it was going to rain so fortunately it hasn’t rained off you go yes it’s off off so it is the second one off Oh F F off you go so off can mean to disconnect you have disconnected someone or something you are off you do not do something anymore or you don’t want to do something or you are leaving you are off off you go mr.

Steve has a good hand for the plants yes I think mr. Steve does enjoy doing the gardening he enjoys doing it more than I do I think it’s very safe to say I like touching the plants and hugging the trees with love I don’t know why I think this helps them to grow and it’s kind of being it’s it’s a it’s a way of being thankful for them being there maybe that’s silly on my part no Bella no it’s not silly a lot of people love nature they love to be near nature like me I love being in the countryside I love being near the trees and the flowers and the birds I love it very much okay I’m going now I know I said that I was going 15 minutes ago but now I’m definitely going because I have to prepare mr.

Steeves dinner because he has a very busy night he is performing on stage I the black bird is just saying hello to me mr. Duncan which books can you recommend for improving my English well there are many different types of exercise books there are many different reference books one of the best books that I can suggest for learning English is of course a good dictionary always have a good dictionary never be afraid to buy a good dictionary or to borrow a good dictionary from the library and just look through it learn some new words and the best place to do that is with a dictionary who is mr. Steve I am new here mr. Steve is the person who likes to help me sometimes on my live streams but at the moment he is very very busy and tonight he is going out to perform I’m hoping he will be back from work in around about an hour or an hour and a half so he will be back from work and then we will have our dinner and then mr.

Steve will go to the theatre to perform on stage and I am going along well to watch have a great day mr. Duncan do you have any pets I said I suppose mr. Steve mr. Steve might be my pet so I’m going I hope you’ve had a good time I hope you’ve enjoyed this I’ve been on for a roundabout 1 hour and 15 minutes an hour and 15 minutes so actually I’ve been on much longer than I intended so I’m going now thank you to a meaner thank you to Eliana Samira Lazzaro Kareem also Eleanor and Belen mr. Steve is awesome and funny you really must meet him maybe one day he will be here on Sunday by the way yes I’m not joking mr. Steve will be here on Sunday he will be joining me from 2 p.m. UK time on the livestream I’m going now it’s time to say goodbye goodbye farewell to you all from a very hot and humid England this is mr.

duncan in the birthplace of the english language saying thanks for watching me today and of course during June who knows where I will be popping up and when I will be appearing on YouTube of course you can catch me on Sunday from 2 p.m. UK time and of course you know what’s coming next yes you do that’s it the Blackbird knows what’s coming next what’s coming next he’s gone quiet so I will do it instead that’s right ta ta for now 8-). “}

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Study English – Series 3, Episode 26: Giving Advice

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis. What should you do to stay healthy? This is a possible question in IELTS. How might you reply to such a question – what language choices do you have? The language function required is “giving advice”. Today we’ll look at language choices in English for giving advice. First, let’s listen to someone giving advice about health: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure.

“Prevention is better than cure”. This is a common saying that means it’s better to avoid getting sick than trying to cure the sickness later. So what does our advisor recommend we do to prevent getting ill? There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. What sort of language does she use for giving advice? First she uses the modal verb ‘should’. Listen again: There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. The word ‘should’ is used in a number of ways. Here it indicates advisability – there are several things we should do to keep fit. Listen to another use of should with this meaning: You should try to walk a couple of kilometres every day.

The negative form “shouldn’t” is often used to give advice about what not to do. There are three things that you shouldn’t do. You shouldn’t smoke, you shouldn’t eat too much junk food and you shouldn’t drink too much alcohol. There is another modal verb that is used in the same way as should, but is a more formal choice, ought. It’s used by this man in an interview about immigration to Australia and its impact on the environment: It’s an open question whether people are applying more strain on the environment if they’re living in a flood plain in Bangladesh than if they’re living in Australia. Secondly, I think that if you’re worried about the environmental sustainability of the pattern of economic growth in Australia – and there are good reasons why you might be – then you ought to be looking at policies to reduce, say, carbon dioxide emissions, water usage, regardless of how many foreigners you let in or don’t let in.

“You ought to be looking at policies”. You could also say you should be looking at policies. Advice is suggesting choices, so you don’t use the word must. There is no choice when you say must – it’s an obligation or something you have to do. Sometimes you need to suggest choices in a way that doesn’t upset the person you are advising. Instead of saying ‘You shouldn’t smoke’, you can express it as a question: Shouldn’t you give up smoking? A more formal way of saying this uses the word oughtn’t: Oughtn’t you give up smoking? In the next clip, listen to another way of using should: If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. Here, should expresses the idea that this is likely to happen if the condition – having a good diet – is met. This is called a conditional.

The negative form, shouldn’t, is used in a similar way here: In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. It is a common language feature to use conditionals when giving advice, like this: If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. But you don’t always have to use ‘then’ after the ‘if’ clause: If you feel unusually sick, you need to consult a doctor. And the ‘if’ clause doesn’t need to be at the beginning of the sentence: You need to consult a doctor if you feel unusually sick. There is another structure in English using ‘should’: Should you have any questions, do not hesitate to ask. Here, should means ‘if’ – if you have any questions. It’s a polite invitation which you will often hear on planes. The cabin crew might say to passengers “Should you require any help” Now listen carefully to all the advice and concentrate on what tense is being used for the verbs: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest.

If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure. Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables for fibre, and get a good mix of proteins from fish and some meat, and reduce your intake of fatty food, sugar and salt. Exercise every day. You should try to walk a couple of kilometres daily. Playing sport, or going to the gym is an easy way to exercise your body. Exercise helps to relieve stress. You also need to rest. Health experts say we need about 8 hours sleep a night, but some people need less than this. If you feel unusually sick you need to consult a doctor. Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. Did you notice that many of the verbs were the base form, such as avoid or stay.

Listen again: Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. This is called the imperative form and it’s used for giving advice, and also to give orders. For example a teacher may say to a noisy class: Stop talking! Or Be quiet! You also use the imperative when you need to warn someone of danger: Watch out! There’s one more use for the imperative and that’s in instructions.

In the essay section of the IELTS Test you will read: ‘Write at least 250 words.’ In recipes you often see the imperative, like this: Fry the prawns. Chop the leeks. Add the noodles. The negative form of the imperative has don’t in front of it, like this: Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. You’ll hear this structure a lot in English. You might hear people, such as parents to their children, say: Don’t forget to telephone. Or Don’t get lost. Finally, you should know the difference between the words advice and advise. Listen to the way they are used by this woman talking about generation Y or gen Y: The baby boomers still like to have face-to-face meetings. They like to chat about certain things. A gen Y would be just as happy for you to send them a text message and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

Advise – spelled with an ‘s’ – is the verb form. Send them a text and advise them of a change of roster. Advice – spelled with a ‘c’ and pronounced with a shorter ‘i’ sound – advice – is the noun. They’re happy to get advice. Listen again: and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

That’s all for now. For advice on the IELTS Test, visit our Study English website. We strongly advise it. Good luck with your studies. Bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Steven Pinker: Linguistics as a Window to Understanding the Brain

{“en”:”My name is Steve Pinker, and Iu2019m Professor of Psychology at Harvard University.  And today Iu2019m going to speak to you about language.  ufeffIu2019m actually not a linguist, but a cognitive scientist.  Iu2019m not so much interested as language as an object in its own right, but as a window to the human mind.ufeff Language is one of the fundamental topics in the human sciences.

 Itu2019s the trait that most conspicuously distinguishes humans from other species, itu2019s essential to human cooperation; we accomplish amazing things by sharing our knowledge or coordinating our actions by means of words.  It poses profound scientific mysteries such as, how did language evolve in this particular species?  How does the brain compute language? But also, language has many practical applications not surprisingly given how central it is to human life. ufeff Language comes so naturally to us that weu2019re apt to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is.

 But think about what youu2019re doing for the next hour.   Youu2019re going to be listening patiently as a guy makes noise as he exhales.  Now, why would you do something like that?  Itu2019s not that I can claim that the sounds Iu2019m going to make are particularly mellifluous, but rather Iu2019ve coded information into the exact sequences of hisses and hums and squeaks and pops that Iu2019ll be making.  You have the ability to recover the information from that stream of noises allowing us to share ideas. Now, the ideas we are going to share are about this talent, language, but with a slightly different sequence of hisses and squeaks, I could cause you to be thinking thoughts about a vast array of topics, anything from the latest developments in your favorite reality show to theories of the origin of the universe.

 This is what I think of as the miracle of language, its vast expressive power, and itu2019s a phenomenon that still fills me with wonder, even after having studied language for 35 years.  And it is the prime phenomenon that the science of language aims to explain.  ufeff Not surprisingly, language is central to human life.  The Biblical story of the Tower of Babel reminds us that humans accomplish great things because they can exchange information about their knowledge and intentions via the medium of language.  Language, moreover, is not a peculiarity of one culture, but it has been found in every society ever studied by anthropologists.ufeff Thereu2019s some 6,000 languages spoken on Earth, all of them complex, and no one has ever discovered a human society that lacks complex language.  For this and other reasons, Charles Darwin wrote, u201cMan has an instinctive tendency to speak as we see in the babble of our young children while no child has an instinctive tendency to bake, brew or write.u201d ufeff Language is an intricate talent and itu2019s not surprising that the science of language should be a complex discipline.

ufeffIt includes the study of how language itself works including:  grammar, the assembly of words, phrases and sentences; phonology, the study of sound; semantics, the study of meaning; and pragmatics, the study of the use of language in conversation. ufeff ufeffScientists interested in language also study how it is processed in real time, a field called psycholinguistics; how is it acquired by children, the study of language acquisition.  And how it is computed in the brain, the discipline called neurolinguistics. ufeffu2028 Now, before we begin, itu2019s important to not to confuse language with three other things that are closely related to language.  One of them is written language.  Unlike spoken language, which is found in all human cultures throughout history, writing was invented a very small number of times in human history, about 5,000 years ago.

 ufeff And alphabetic writing where each mark on the page stands for a vowel or a consonant, appears to have been invented only once in all of human history by the Canaanites about 3,700 years ago.  And as Darwin pointed out, children have no instinctive tendency to write, but have to learn it through construction and schooling.ufeff A second thing not to confuse language with is proper grammar.

 Linguists distinguish between descriptive grammar – the rules, that characterize how people to speak – and prescriptive grammar – rules that characterize how people ought to speak if they are writing careful written prose.  ufeff A dirty secret from linguistics is that not only are these not the same kinds of rules, but many of the prescriptive rules of language make no sense whatsoever.  Take one of the most famous of these rules, the rule not to split infinitives.  ufeff According to this rule, Captain Kirk made a grievous grammatical error when he said that the mission of the Enterprise was u201cto boldly go where no man has gone before.u201d  He should have said, according to these editors, u201cto go boldly where no man has gone before,u201d which immediately clashes with the rhythm and structure of ordinary English.  In fact, this prescriptive rule was based on a clumsy analogy with Latin where you canu2019t splint an infinitive because itu2019s a single word, as in facary[ph] to do.

 Julius Caesar couldnu2019t have split an infinitive if he wanted to.  That rule was translated literally over into English where it really should not apply.  ufeff Another famous prescriptive rule is that, one should never use a so-called double negative.  Mick Jagger should not have sung, u201cI canu2019t get no satisfaction,u201d he really should have sung, u201cI canu2019t get any satisfaction.u201d  Now, this is often promoted as a rule of logical speaking, but u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201canyu201d is just as much of a double negative as u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201cno.u201d  The only reason that u201ccanu2019t get any satisfactionu201d is deemed correct and u201ccanu2019t get no satisfactionu201d is deemed ungrammatical is that the dialect of English spoken in the south of England in the 17th century used u201ccanu2019tu201d u201canyu201d rather than u201ccanu2019tu201d u201cno.u201d  ufeff If the capital of England had been in the north of the country instead of the south of the country, then u201ccanu2019t get no,u201d would have been correct and u201ccanu2019t get any,u201d would have been deemed incorrect.

ufeff Thereu2019s nothing special about a language that happens to be chosen as the standard for a given country.  In fact, if you compare the rules of languages and so-called dialects, each one is complex in different ways.  Take for example, African-American vernacular English, also called Black English or Ebonics.  There is a construction in African-American where you can say, u201cHe be workin,u201d which is not an error or bastardization or a corruption of Standard English, but in fact conveys a subtle distinction, one thatu2019s different than simply, u201cHe workin.u201d  u201cHe be workin,u201d means that he is employed; he has a job, u201cHe workin,u201d means that he happens to be working at the moment that you and I are speaking.  ufeff Now, this is a tense difference that can be made in African-American English that is not made in Standard English, one of many examples in which the dialects have their own set of rules that is just as sophisticated and complex as the one in the standard language.

 ufeff Now, a third thing, not to confuse language with is thought.  Many people report that they think in language, but commune of psychologists have shown that there are many kinds of thought that donu2019t actually take place in the form of sentences.  ufeff (1.) Babies (and other mammals) communicate without speech ufeffFor example, we know from ingenious experiments that non-linguistic creatures, such as babies before theyu2019ve learned to speak, or other kinds of animals, have sophisticated kinds of cognition, they register cause and effect and objects and the intentions of other people, all without the benefit of speech.  ufeff (2.) Types of thinking go on without language–visual thinkingufeff We also know that even in creatures that do have language, namely adults, a lot of thinking goes on in forms other than language, for example, visual imagery.  If you look at the top two three-dimensional figures in this display, and I would ask you, do they have the same shape or a different shape?  People donu2019t solve that problem by describing those strings of cubes in words, but rather by taking an image of one and mentally rotating it into the orientation of the other, a form of non-linguistic thinking.

 ufeff (3.) We use tacit knowledge to understand language and remember the gistufeff For that matter, even when you understand language, what you come away with is not in itself the actual language that you hear.  Another important finding in cognitive psychology is that long-term memory for verbal material records the gist or the meaning or the content of the words rather than the exact form of the words.  ufeff For example, I like to think that you retain some memory of what I have been saying for the last 10 minutes.

 But I suspect that if I were to ask you to reproduce any sentence that I have uttered, you would be incapable of doing so.  What sticks in memory is far more abstract than the actual sentences, something that we can call meaning or content or semantics.  ufeff In fact, when it even comes to   understanding a sentence, the actual words are the tip of a vast iceberg of a very rapid, unconscious, non-linguistic processing thatu2019s necessary even to make sense of the language itself.  And Iu2019ll illustrate this with a classic bit of poetry, the lines from the shampoo bottle.

 u201cWet hair, lather, rinse, repeat.u201d  ufeff Now, in understanding that very simple snatch of language, you have to know, for example, that when you repeat, you donu2019t wet your hair a second time because its already wet, and when you get to the end of it and you see u201crepeat,u201d you donu2019t keep repeating over and over in infinite loop, repeat here means, u201crepeat just once.u201d  Now this tacit knowledge of what the writers **** of language had in mind is necessary to understand language, but it, itself, is not language. ufeff (4.) If language is thinking, then where did it come from?ufeff Finally, if language were really thought, it would raise the question of where language would come from if it were incapable of thinking without language.  After all, the English language was not designed by some committee of Martians who came down to Earth and gave it to us.  Rather, language is a grassroots phenomenon.  Itu2019s the original wiki, which aggregates the contributions of hundreds of thousands of people who invent jargon and slang and new constructions, some of them get accumulated into the language as people seek out new ways of expressing their thoughts, and thatu2019s how we get a language in the first place.

 ufeff Now, this not to deny that language can affect thought and linguistics has long been interested in what has sometimes been called, the linguistic relativity hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (note correct spelling, named after the two linguists who first formulated it, namely that language can affect thought.  Thereu2019s a lot of controversy over the status of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, but no one believes that language is the same thing as thought and that all of our mental life consists of reciting sentences.

 ufeff Now that we have set aside what language is not, letu2019s turn to what language is beginning with the question of how language works. In a nutshell, you can divide language into three topics.  ufeff There are the words that are the basic components of sentences that are stored in a part of long-term memory that we can call the mental lexicon or the mental dictionary.  There are rules, the recipes or algorithms that we use to assemble bits of language into more complex stretches of language including syntax, the rules that allow us to assemble words into phrases and sentences; Morphology, the rules that allow us to assemble bits of words, like prefixes and suffixes into complex words; Phonology, the rules that allow us to combine vowels and consonants into the smallest words.

 And then all of this knowledge of language has to connect to the world through interfaces that allow us to understand language coming from others to produce language that others can understand us, the language interfaces.ufeff Letu2019s start with words.ufeff The basic principle of a word was identified by the Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, more than 100 years ago when he called attention to the arbitrariness of the sign.  Take for example the word, u201cduck.u201d  The word, u201cducku201d doesnu2019t look like a duck or walk like a duck or quack like a duck, but I can use it to get you to think the thought of a duck because all of us at some point in our lives have memorized that brute force association between that sound and that meaning, which means that it has to be stored in memory in some format, in a very simplified form and an entry in the mental lexicon might look something like this.

 There is a symbol for the word itself, there is some kind of specification of its sound and thereu2019s some kind of specification of its meaning.  ufeff Now, one of the remarkable facts about the mental lexicon is how capacious it is.  Using dictionary sampling techniques where you say, take the top left-hand word on every 20th page of the dictionary, give it to people in a multiple choice test, correct for guessing, and multiply by the size of the dictionary, you can estimate that a typical high school graduate has a vocabulary of around 60,000 words, which works out to a rate of learning of about one new word every two hours starting from the age of one.  When you think that every one of these words is arbitrary as a telephone number of a date in history, youu2019re reminded about the remarkable capacity of human long-term memory to store the meanings and sounds of words.

 ufeff But of course, we donu2019t just blurt out individual words, we combine them into phrases and sentences.  And that brings up the second major component of language; namely, grammar.  ufeff Now the modern study of grammar is inseparable to the contributions of one linguist, the famous scholar, Noam Chomsky, who set the agenda for the field of linguistics for the last 60 years. ufeff To begin with, Chomsky noted that the main puzzle that we have to explain in understanding language is creativity or as linguists often call it productivity, the ability to produce and understand new sentences.  ufeff Except for a small number of clichu00e9d formulas, just about any sentence that you produce or understand is a brand new combination produced for the first time perhaps in your life, perhaps even in the history of the species.

 We have to explain how people are capable of doing it.  It shows that when we know a language, we havenu2019t just memorized a very long list of sentences, but rather have internalized a grammar or algorithm or recipe for combining elements into brand new assemblies.  For that reason, Chomsky has insisted that linguistics is really properly a branch of psychology and is a window into the human mind. ufeff A second insight is that languages have a syntax which canu2019t be identified with their meaning.  Now, the only quotation that I know of, of a linguist that has actually made it into Bartlettu2019s Familiar Quotations, is the following sentence from Chomsky, from 1956, u201cColorless, green ideas sleep furiously.u201d  Well, whatu2019s the point of that sentence?  The point is that it is very close to meaningless.

 On the other hand, any English speaker can instantly recognize that it conforms to the patterns of English syntax.  Compare, for example, u201cfuriously sleep ideas dream colorless,u201d which is also meaningless, but we perceive as a word salad.  ufeff A third insight is that syntax doesnu2019t consist of a string of word by word associations as in stimulus response theories in psychology where producing a word is a response which you then hear and it becomes a stimulus to producing the next word, and so on.  Again, the sentence, u201ccolorless green ideas sleep furiously,u201d can help make this point.  Because if you look at the word by word transition probabilities in that sentence, for example, colorless and then green; how often have you heard colorless and green in succession.  Probably zero times.  Green and ideas, those two words never occur together, ideas and sleep, sleep and furiously.  Every one of the transition probabilities is very close to zero, nonetheless, the sentence as a whole can be perceived as a well-formed English sentence.

 ufeff Language in general has long distance dependencies.  The word in one position in a sentence can dictate the choice of the word several positions downstream.  For example, if you begin a sentence with u201ceither,u201d somewhere down the line, there has to be an u201cor.u201d  If you have an u201cif,u201d generally, you expect somewhere down the line there to be a u201cthen.u201d  Thereu2019s a story about a child who says to his father, u201cDaddy, why did you bring that book that I donu2019t want to be read to out of, up for?u201d  Where you have a set of nested or embedded long distance dependencies.

 ufeff Indeed, one of the applications of linguistics to the study of good prose style is that sentences can be rendered difficult to understand if they have too many long distance dependencies because that could put a strain on the short-term memory of the reader or listener while trying to understand them.  ufeff Rather than a set of word by word associations, sentences are assembled in a hierarchical structure that looks like an upside down tree.  Let me give you an example of how that works in the case of English.  One of the basic rules of English is that a sentence consists of a noun phrase, the subject, followed by a verb phrase, the predicate.ufeff A second rule in turn expands the verb phrase.  A very phrase consists of a verb followed by a noun phrase, the object, followed by a sentence, the complement as, u201cI told him that it was sunny outside.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, why do linguists insist that language must be composed out of  phrase structural rules?  ufeff (1.) Rules allow for open-ended creativity ufeffWell for one thing, that helps explain the main phenomenon that we want to explain, mainly the open-ended creativity of language.

 ufeff (2.) Rules allow for expression of unfamiliar meaningufeff It allows us to express unfamiliar meanings.  Thereu2019s a clichu00e9 in journalism for example, that when a dog bites a man, that isnu2019t news, but when a man bites a dog, that is news.  The beauty of grammar is that it allows us to convey news by assembling into familiar word in brand new combinations.  Also, because of the way phrase structure rules work, they produce a vast number of possible combinations. ufeff (3.) Rules allow for production of vast numbers of combinationsufeff Moreover, the number of different thoughts that we can express through the combinatorial power of grammar is not just humongous, but in a technical sense, itu2019s infinite.  Now of course, no one lives an infinite number of years, and therefore can shell off their ability to understand an infinite number of sentences, but you can make the point in the same way that a mathematician can say that someone who understands the rules of arithmetic knows that there are an infinite number of numbers, namely if anyone ever claimed to have found the longest one, you can always come up with one thatu2019s even bigger by adding a one to it.

 And you can do the same thing with language.  ufeff Let me illustrate it in the following way.  As a matter of fact, there has been a claim that there is a worldu2019s longest sentence.  ufeff Who would make such a claim?  Well, who else?  The Guinness Book of World Records.  You can look it up.  There is an entry for the Worldu2019s Longest Sentence.  It is 1,300 words long.  And it comes from a novel by William Faulkner.  Now I wonu2019t read all 1,300 words, but Iu2019ll just tell you how it begins.

 ufeff u201cThey both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltationu2026u201d and it runs on from there. ufeff But Iu2019m here to tell you that in fact, this is not the worldu2019s longest sentence.  And Iu2019ve been tempted to obtain immortality in Guinness by submitting the following record breaker.  “Faulkner wrote, they both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltation.u201d  But sadly, this would not be immortality after all but only the proverbial 15 minutes of fame because based on what you now know, you could submit a record breaker for the record breaker namely, “Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote” or “Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote”, or “who cares that Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wroteu2026”  ufeff Take for example, the following wonderfully ambiguous sentence that appeared in TV Guide.

 u201cOn tonightu2019s program, Conan will discuss sex with Dr. Ruth.u201d  ufeff Now this has a perfectly innocent meaning in which the verb, u201cdiscussu201d involves two things, namely the topic of discussion, u201csexu201d and the person with who itu2019s being discussed, in this case, with Dr. Ruth.  But is has a somewhat naughtier meaning if you rearrange the words into phrases according to a different structure in which case u201csex with Dr. Ruthu201d is the topic of conversation, and thatu2019s whatu2019s being discussed.  ufeff Now, phrase structure not only can account for our ability to produce so many sentences, but itu2019s also necessary for us to understand what they mean.  The geometry of branches in a phrase structure is essential to figuring out who did what to whom.ufeff Another important contribution of Chomsky to the science of language is the focus on language acquisition by children.

Now, children canu2019t memorize sentences because knowledge of language isnu2019t just one long list of memorized sentences, but somehow they must distill out or abstract out the rules that goes into assembling sentences based on what they hear coming out of their parentu2019s mouths when they were little.  And the talent of using rules to produce combinations is in evidence from the moment that kids begin to speak.  ufeff Children create sentences unheard from adultsufeff At the two-word stage, which you typically see in children who are 18 months or a bit older, kids are producing the smallest sentences that deserve to be counted as sentences, namely two words long.  But already itu2019s clear that they are putting them together using rules in their own mind.  To take an example, a child might say, u201cmore outside,u201d meaning, take them outside or let them stay outside.  Now, adults donu2019t say, u201cmore outside.u201d  So itu2019s not a phrase that the child simply memorized by rote, but it shows that already children are using these rules to put together new combinations.

 ufeff Another example, a child having jam washed from his fingers said to his mother ‘all gone sticky’.ufeff Again, not a phrase that you could ever have copied from a parent, but one that shows the child producing new combinations.  ufeff Past tense ruleufeff An easy way of showing that children assimilate rules of grammar unconsciously from the moment they begin to speak, is the use of the past tense rule. ufeff For example, children go through a long stage in which they make errors like, u201cWe holded the baby rabbitsu201d or u201cHe teared the paper and then he sticked it.u201d  Cases in which they over generalize the regular rule of forming the past tense, add u2018edu2019 to irregular verbs like u201chold,u201d u201csticku201d or u201ctear.u201d  And itu2019s easy to showu2026 itu2019s easy to get children to flaunt this ability to apply rules productively in a laboratory demonstration called the Wug Test.

 You bring a kid into a lab.  You show them a picture of a little bird and you say, u201cThis is a wug.u201d  And you show them another picture and you say, u201cWell, now there are two of them.u201d  There are two and children will fill in the gap by saying u201cwugs.u201d  Again, a form they could not have memorize because itu2019s invented for the experiment, but it shows that they have productive mastery of the regular plural rule in English.  ufeff And famously, Chomsky claimed that children solved the problem of language acquisition by having the general design of language already wired into them in the form of a universal grammar.  ufeff A spec sheet for what the rules of any language have to look like.  ufeff What is the evidence that children are born with a universal grammar?  Well, surprisingly, Chomsky didnu2019t propose this by actually studying kids in the lab or kids in the home, but through a more abstract argument called, u201cThe poverty of the input.u201d  Namely, if you look at what goes into the ears of a child and look at the talent they end up with as adults, there is a big chasm between them that can only be filled in by assuming that the child has a lot of knowledge of the way that language works already built in.

 ufeff Hereu2019s how the argument works.  One of the things that children have to learn when they learn English is how to form a question.  Now, children will get evidence from parentu2019s speech to how the question rule works, such as sentences like, u201cThe man is here,u201d ufeffand the corresponding question, u201cIs the man here?u201dufeff   Now, logically speaking, a child getting that kind of input could posit two different kinds of rules.

ufeffThereu2019s a simple word by word linear rule.  In this case, find the first u201cisu201d in the sentence and move it to the front.  u201cThe man is here,u201d u201cIs the man here?u201d Now thereu2019s a more complex rule that the child could posit called a structure dependent rule, one that looks at the geometry of the phrase structure tree.  In this case, the rule would be:  find the first u201cisu201d after the subject noun phrase and move that to the front of the sentence.  A diagram of what that rule would look like is as follows:  you look for the u201cisu201d that occurs after the subject noun phrase and thatu2019s what gets moved to the front of the sentence.  Now, whatu2019s the difference between the simple word-by-word rule and the more complex structured dependent rule?  Well, you can see the difference when it comes to performing the question from a slightly more complex sentence like, u201cThe man who is tall is in the room.u201d  ufeff But how is the child supposed to learn that?  How did all of us end up with the correct structured dependent of the rule rather than the far simpler word-by-word version of the rule? ufeff u201cWell,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cif you were actually to look at the kind of language that all of us hear, itu2019s actually quite rare to hear a sentence like, u201cIs the man who is tall in the room?  The kind of input that would logically inform you that the word-by-word rule is wrong and the structure dependent rule is right.

 Nonetheless, we all grow up into adults who unconsciously use the structure dependent rule rather than the word-by-word rule.  Moreover, children donu2019t make errors like, u201cis the man who tall is in the room,u201d as soon as they begin to form complex questions, they use the structure dependent rule.  And that,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cis evidence that structure dependent rules are part of the definition of universal grammar that children are born with.u201d  ufeff Now, though Chomsky has been fantastically influential in the science of language that does not mean that all language scientists agree with him.  And there have been a number of critiques of Chomsky over the years.  For one thing, the critics point out, Chomsky hasnu2019t really shown principles of universal grammar that are specific to language itself as opposed to general ways in which the human mind works across multiple domains, language and vision and control of motion and memory and so on.  We donu2019t really know that universal grammar is specific to language, according to this critique. ufeff Secondly, Chomsky and the linguists working with him have not examined all 6,000 of the worldu2019s languages and shown that the principles of universal grammar apply to all 6,000.

 Theyu2019ve posited it based on a small number of languages and the logic of the poverty of the input, but havenu2019t actually come through with the data that would be necessary to prove that universal grammar is really universal.  ufeff Finally, the critics argue, Chomsky has not shown that more general purpose learning models, such as neuro network models, are incapable of learning language together with all the other things that children learn, and therefore has not proven that there has to be specific knowledge how grammar works in order for the child to learn grammar.

  ufeff  Another component of language governs the sound pattern of language, the ways that the vowels and consonants can be assembled into the minimal units that go into words.  Phonology, as this branch of linguistics is called, consists of formation rules that capture what is a possible word in a language according to the way that it sounds.   To give you an example, the sequence, bluk, is not an English word, but you get a sense that it could be an English word that someone could coin a new formu2026 that someone could coin a new term of English that we pronounce u201cbluk.u201d  But when you hear the sound ****, you instantly know thatthat not only isnu2019t it an English word, but it really couldnu2019t be an English word.

 ****, by the way, comes from Yiddish and it means kind of to sigh or to moan.  Oi.  Thatu2019s to ****.  ufeff The reason that we recognize that itu2019s not English is because it has sounds like **** and sequences like ****, which arenu2019t part of the formation rules of English phonology.  But together with the rules that define the basic words of a language, there are also phonological rules that make adjustments to the sounds, depending on what the other words the word appears with.  Very few of us realize, for example, in English, that the past tense suffix u201cedu201d ufeffis actually pronounced in three different ways.  When we say, u201cHe walked,u201d ufeffwe pronounce the u201cedu201d like a u201cta,u201d walked.  When we say u201cjogged,u201d ufeffwe pronounce it as a u201cd,u201d jogged.

 And when we say u201cpatted,u201dufeff we stick in a vowel, pat-ted, showing that the same suffix, u201cedu201d can be readjusted in its pronunciation according to the rules of English phonology.  ufeff Now, when someone acquires English as a foreign language or acquires a foreign language in general, they carry over the rules of phonology of their first language and apply it to their second language.  We have a word for it; we call it an u201caccent.u201d  When a language user deliberately manipulates the rules of phonology, that is, when they donu2019t just speak in order to convey content, they pay attention as to what phonological structures are being used; we call it poetry and rhetoric.  ufeff So far, Iu2019ve been talking about knowledge of language, the rules that go into defining what are possible sequences of language.  But those sequences have to get into the brain during speech comprehension and they have to get out during speech production.

 And that takes us to the topic of language interfaces.  ufeff And letu2019s start with production.  ufeff This diagram here is literally a human cadaver that has been sawn in half.  An anatomist took a saw and [sound] allowing it to see in cross section the human vocal tract.  And that can illustrate how we get out knowledge of language out into the world as a sequence of sounds.  ufeff Now, each of us has at the top of our windpipe or trachea, a complex structure called the larynx or voice box; itu2019s behind your Adamu2019s Apple.  And the air coming out of your lungs have to go passed two cartilaginous flaps that vibrate and produce a rich, buzzy sound source, full of harmonics.

 Before that vibrating sound gets out to the world, it has to pass through a gauntlet or chambers of the vocal tract.  The throat behind the tongue, the cavity above the tongue, the cavity formed by the lips, and when you block off airflow through the mouth, it can come out through the nose.  ufeff Now, each one of those cavities has a shape that, thanks to the laws of physics, will amplify some of the harmonics in that buzzy sound source and suppress others.

 We can change the shape of those cavities when we move our tongue around.  When we move our tongue forward and backward, for example, as in u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d we change the shape of the cavity behind the tongue, change the frequencies that are amplified or suppressed and the listener hears them as two different vowels.  ufeff Likewise, when we raise or lower the tongue, we change the shape of the resonant cavity above the tongue as in say, u201ceh,u201d u201cah,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201cah.u201d  Once again, the change in the mixture of harmonics is perceived as a change in the nature of the vowel.  ufeff When we stop the flow of air and then release it as in, u201ct,u201d u201cca,u201d u201cba.u201d  Then we hear a consonant rather than a vowel or even when we restrict the flow of air as in u201cf,u201d u201cssu201d producing a chaotic noisy sound.  Each one of those sounds that gets sculpted by different articulators is perceived by the brain as a qualitatively different vowel or consonant.

 ufeff Now, an interesting peculiarity of the human vocal track is that it obviously co-ops structures that evolved for different purposes for breathing and for swallowing and so on.  And itu2019s anu2026 And itu2019s an interesting fact first noted by Darwin that the larynx over the course of evolution has descended in the throat so that every particle of food going from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach has to pass over the opening into the larynx with some probability of being inhaled leading to the danger of death by choking.

 And in fact, until the invention of the Heimlich Maneuver, several thousand people every year died of choking because of this maladaptive of the human vocal tract. ufeff Why did we evolve a mouth and throat that leaves us vulnerable to choking?  Well, a plausible hypothesis is that itu2019s a compromise that was made in the course of evolution to allow us to speak.  By giving range to a variety of possibilities for alternating the resonant cavities, for moving the tongue back and forth and up and down, we expanded the range of speech sounds we could make, improve the efficiency of language, but suffered the compromise of an increased risk of choking showing that language presumably had some survival advantage that compensated for the disadvantage in choking.

 ufeff What about the flow of information in the other direction, that is from the world into the brain, the process of speech comprehension?  ufeff Speech comprehension turns out to be an extraordinarily complex computational process, which we’re reminded of every time we interact with a voicemail menu on a telephone or you use a dictation on our computers.  For example, One writer, using the state-of-the-art speech-to-text systems dictated the following words into his computer.  He dictated u201cbook tour,u201d and it came out on the screen as u201cback to work.u201d  Another example, he said, u201cI truly couldnu2019t see,u201d and it came out on the screen as, u201ca cruelly good MC.u201d  Even more disconcertingly, he started a letter to his parents by saying, u201cDear mom and dad,u201d and what came out on the screen, u201cThe man is dead.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, dictation systems have gotten better and better, but they still have a way to go before they can duplicate a human stenographer.  ufeff What is it about the problem of speech understanding that makes it so easy for a human, ufeffbut so hard for a computer? Well, there are two main contributors.

 One of them is the fact that each phony, each vowel or consonant actually comes out very differently, depending on what comes before and what comes after.  A phenomenon sometimes called co-articulation.  ufeff Let me give you an example.  The place called Cape Cod has two u201ccu201d sounds.  ufeff u2028Each of them symbolized by the letter u201cC,u201d the hard u201cC.u201d  Nonetheless, when you pay attention to the way you pronounce them, you notice that in fact, you pronounce them in very different parts of the mouth.  Try it.  Cape Cod, Cape Codu2026 u201cc,u201d u201ccu201d.  In one case, the u201ccu201d is produced way back in the mouth; the other itu2019s produced much farther forward.

 We donu2019t notice that we pronounce u201ccu201d in two different ways depending whether it comes before an u201cau201d or an u201cah,u201d but that difference forms a difference in the shape of the resonant cavity in our mouth which produces a very different wave form.  And unless a computer is specifically programmed to take that variability into account, it will perceive those two different u201ccu2019s,u201d as a different sound that objectively speaking, they really are:  u201cc-ehu201d u201cc-oau201d.  They really are different sounds, but our brain lumps them together.  ufeff The other reason that speech recognition is such a difficult problem is because of the absence of segmentation.  Now we have an illusion when we listen to speech that consists of a sequence to sounds corresponding to words.  But if you actually were to look at the wave form of a sentence on a oscilloscope, there would not be little silences between the words the way there are little bits of white space in printed words on a page, but rather a continuous ribbon in which the end of one word leads right to the beginning of the next.

 ufeff Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware ofu2026 Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware of when we listen to speech in a foreign language when we have no idea where one word ends and the other one begins.  In our own language, we detect the word boundaries simply because in our mental lexicon, we have stretches of sound that correspond to one word that tell us where it ends.

 But you canu2019t get that information from the wave form itself.  ufeff In fact, thereu2019s a whole genre of wordplay that takes advantage of the fact that word boundaries are not physically present in the speech wave.  Novelty songs like Mairzy doats and dozy doats and liddle lamzy diveyufeff u2028A kiddley divey too, wooden shoe? ufeffu2028u2028Now, it turns out that this is actually a grammatical sequence in words in Englishu2026 Mares eat oats and does eat oats and little lambs eat ivy, a kid’ll eat ivy too, wouldnu2019t you?ufeff When it is spoken or sung normally, the boundaries between words are obliterated and so the same sequence of sounds can be perceived either as nonsense or if you know what theyu2019re meant to convey, as sentences.  ufeff Another example familiar to most children, ufeffFuzzy Wuzzy was a bear, Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair.  Fuzzy Wuzzy wasnu2019t very fuzzy, was he?  And the famous dogroll, I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.

ufeff We are generally unaware of how unambiguous language is.  In context, we effortlessly and unconsciously derive the intended meaning of a sentence, but a poor computer not equipped with all of our common sense and human abilities and just going by the words and the rules is often flabbergasted by all the different possibilities.  Take a sentence as simple as u201cMary had a little lamb,u201d ufeffyou might think that thatu2019s a perfectly simple unambiguous sentence.  But now imagine that it was continued with u201cwith mint sauce.u201d  You realize that u201chaveu201d is actually a highly ambiguous word.ufeff As a result, the computer translations can often deliver comically incorrect results.  ufeff According to legend, one of the first computer systems that was designed to translate from English to Russian and back again did the following given the sentence, u201cThe spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak,u201d it translated it back as u201cThe vodka is agreeable, but the meat is rotten.u201d ufeff So why do people understand language so much better than computers?  What is the knowledge that we have that has been so hard to program into our machines?  Well, thereu2019s a third interface between language and the rest of the mind, and that is the subject matter of the branch of linguistics called Pragmatics, namely, how people understand language in context using their knowledge of the world and their expectation about how other speakers communicate.

 ufeff The most important principle of Pragmatics is called u201cthe cooperative principle,u201d namely; assume that your conversational partner is working with you to try to get a meaning across truthfully and clearly.  And our knowledge of Pragmatics, like our knowledge of syntax and phonology and so on, is deployed effortlessly, but involves many intricate computations.  For example, if I were to say, u201cIf you could pass the guacamole, that would be awesome.u201d  You understand that as a polite request meaning, give me the guacamole.  You donu2019t interpret it literally as a rumination about a hypothetical affair, you just assume that the person wanted something and was using that string of words to convey the request politely.  ufeff Often comedies will use the absence of pragmatics in robots as a source of humor.  As in the old u201cGet Smartu201d situation comedy, which had a robot named, Hymie, and a recurring joke in the series would be that Maxwell Smart would say to Hymie, u201cHymie, can you give me a hand?u201d  And then Hymie would go, {sound}, remove his hand and pass it over to Maxwell Smart not understanding that u201cgive me a hand,u201d in context means, help me rather than literally transfer the hand over to me.

 ufeff Or take the following example of Pragmatics in action.  Consider the following dialogue, Martha says, u201cIu2019m leaving you.u201d  John says, u201cWho is he?u201d  Now, understanding language requires finding the antecedents pronouns, in this case who the u201cheu201d refers to, and any competent English speaker knows exactly who the u201cheu201d is, presumably Johnu2019s romantic rival even though it was never stated explicitly in any part of the dialogue.

 This shows how we bring to bear on language understanding a vast store of knowledge about human behavior, human interactions, human relationships.  And we often have to use that background knowledge even to solve mechanical problems like, who does a pronoun like u201cheu201d refer to.  Itu2019s that knowledge thatu2019s extraordinarily difficult, to say the least to program into a computer.  ufeff Language is a miracle of the natural world because it allows us to exchange an unlimited number of ideas using a finite set of mental tools.  Those mental tools comprise a large lexicon of memorized words and a powerful mental grammar that can combine them.  Language thought of in this way should not be confused with writing, with the prescriptive rules of proper grammar or style or with thought itself.  ufeff Modern linguistics is guided by the questions, though not always the answers suggested by the linguist known as Noam Chomsky, namely how is the unlimited creativity of language possible?  What are the abstract mental structures that relate word to one another? How do children acquire them?  ufeff What is universal across languages?  And what does that say about the human mind?  ufeff The study of language has many practical applications including computers that understand and speak, the diagnosis and treatment of language disorders, the teaching of reading, writing, and foreign languages, the interpreting of the language of law, politics and literature.ufeff But for someone like me, language is eternally fascinating because it speaks to such fundamental questions of the human condition.

 ufeff[Language] is really at the center of a number of different concerns of thought, of social relationships, of human biology, of human evolution, that all speak to whatu2019s special about the human species. ufeff Language is the most distinctively human talent.  Language is a window into human nature, and most significantly,ufeff the vast expressive power of language is one of the wonders of the natural world.  Thank you.ufeff. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Lesson 1 – Sam and Mel English for Children

{“en”:”Hello my name is Sam. What is… Hello. Oh hello. What is your name? My name is Mel. What is your name? My name is Sam. Oh. Goodbye Sam. Goodbye Mel. Hello Oh hello. What is your name? My name is Vicky. Hello Wicky. No. My name is Vicky. Your name is Wicky. No, no, no, no. My name is Vicky, Vicky, V, V, Vicky. Vvvicky Yes. What is your name? My name is Sam. Sham? No. Sam. Sham. S, S, Sam. S, S, Sam. Yes, my name is Sam. Goodbye S, S, Sam. Goodbye V, V, Vicky. Goodbye Mel. Goodbye Sam. Goodbye. “}

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Study English in Brighton

Learn Numbers: 0 to 100 in english

{“en”:”zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seveteen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty thirty-one thirty-two thirty-three thirty-four thirty-five thirty-six thirty-seven thirty-eight thirty-nine forty forty-one forty-two forty-three forty-four forty-five forty-six forty-seven forty-eight forty-nine fifty fifty-one fifty-two fifty-three fifty-four fifty-five fifty-six fifty-seven fifty-eight fifty-nine sixty sixty-one sixty-two sixty-three sixty-four sixty-five sixty-six sixty-seven sixty-eight sixty-nine seventy seventy-one seventy-two seventy-three seventy-four seventy-five seventy-six seventy-seven seventy-eight seventy-nine eighty eighty-one eighty-two eighty-three eighty-four eighty-five eighty-six eighty-seven eighty-eight eighty-nine ninety ninety-one ninety-two ninety-three ninety-four ninety-five ninety-six ninety-seven ninety-eight ninety-nine one hundred. “}

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Study English in London

Learn English – English in Three Minutes – Asking About Names

{“en”:”Welcome to EnglishClass101.comu2019s English in Three Minutes. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, Iu2019m Alisha! This series will teach you some easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. Itu2019s really useful, and it only takes three minutes! In this lesson, youu2019re going to learn some new ways to ask someone, u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d including one that you can use when youu2019ve forgotten someoneu2019s name. Now, u201cWhat is your name?u201d was probably one of the first questions you learned when you started studying English.

I have to tell you, though, that most native speakers of English would never say this! In English, just like in other languages, it is often more polite to be a little indirect. Of course, the easiest way to avoid asking the question directly is to not ask at all! Just introduce yourself, and most people will respond by doing the same. When introducing yourself, simple is nearly always best. Just say… u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha!u201d To show that you want to know the other personu2019s name, just add, u201cAnd you?u201d at the end. u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d u201cHi, Iu2019m Alisha! And you?u201d Just like before, take out my name, Alisha, and put your name in its place. After you say this, the other person will tell you his or her name. Okay, now letu2019s talk about an embarrassing situation that happens to EVERYBODY: youu2019ve already met this person once before, but youu2019ve forgotten their name! The most polite thing to do in this situation is to apologize and ask again.

Thereu2019s a simple way to do this thatu2019s also polite. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This sentence is very similar to u201cWhatu2019s your name?u201d but it has three important differences. First, we say, u201cIu2019m sorry.u201d A small apology can go a long way. After that we say u201cWhat was your name?u201d This is just like u201cWhat is your name?u201d but instead of u201cisu201d, we use the past tense u201cwasu201d.

This is really important, as it tells the other person that you remember meeting them. You havenu2019t forgotten HIM or HER, youu2019ve just forgotten the NAME. This little word makes all the difference! u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name…? Finally, we add u201cagainu201d to the end. This is another hint that tells the other person that you remember learning his or her name before, but you just canu2019t recall it right now. u201cIu2019m sorry. What was your name again?u201d This phrase is appropriate for both formal and informal situations. Now itu2019s time for Alishau2019s Advice! In the United States, itu2019s normal to address people by name in conversation more than once. In both formal and informal situations, itu2019s a way to show respect or interest in the other person, and can help you make friends.

It is also a great way to practice someoneu2019s name so you donu2019t forget it! If you are talking to someone named Ann, for example, instead of just: u201cWhat do you do for fun?u201d, you could say: u201cAnn, what do you do for fun?u201d You can also put the name at the end of the sentence: u201cWhat do you do for fun, Ann?u201d You donu2019t want to say the personu2019s name too often, or it will sound a little strange, but if you practice someoneu2019s name like this, you wonu2019t forget it. And people love to hear their own name! In this lesson, we learned what to say when we forget someoneu2019s name. In the next lesson, youu2019ll learn what to say when you want to get in touch with someone, whether by telephone, email, or even newer ways to communicate. Whatu2019s your favorite? Let us know in the comments, and join us next time for the sixth English in 3 Minutes lesson! See you next time!. “}

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Study English in London

№11 How I study English

{“en”:”Welcome to Series English! Today I won’t teach you any vocabulary or grammar, I’m just going to tell you my story – how I have been studying English. So let’s start from the very beginning, I studied English at school. I started learning it when I was in the fifth grade. However as long as I am from a teeny-tiny town, you can guess that the teaching was not actually very good, to put it mildly, and I didn’t get profound knowledge of English.

However when I turned 13 or 14 my father decided to study English, and he got me and my sister involved. He did a really good job and he is a very good disciplinarian. So that’s why we studied English for like… We had been studying English for three to four hours a day! Can you imagine that? Well, yeah, that’s true. And, well, as long as you think that learning a foreign language is a piece of cake, well, it’s not actually. If you want to do it very quickly and you want to become a fluent speaker then you have to work really hard. So during our lessons, I guess, we did almost everything! We started from picking up some basic vocabulary and learning the pronunciation.

Of course it was funny, since we tried to pronounce these words and letters, I mean sound over and over again. And we sounded a little bit silly, I guess, but still. In addition we studied grammar of course. Unfortunately now I can’t recover the title, but if I find it, I will give you the title. So, what else?.. Of course we read a lot and we also listened to different tapes. For that purpose we listened ‘The voice of America’ podcasts, we read them, we listened to them, it was very useful! In addition to that we used… we read different fiction books like Harry Potter, yeah, I read all seven books in original, it was really enjoyable and useful I guess. Also we used video material, at first we watched the video course called ‘Follow me’. Maybe you have heard of it, it is a very interesting, funny course. And in addition to that we also watched different films, like ‘Pretty Woman’ and ‘Six days and seven nights’.

We watched ‘Shrek’ and ‘Alice in Wonderland’, However we didn’t just watch these films. Of course, at the beginning we watched them for a couple of times to remember the chain of events but after that my father would create mp3 files and we would listen to these parts of the film over and over again. And we would read and translate the script, we would learn and pick up some new vocabulary. It was really interesting and useful. So we studied really hard, and that is the reason why when I finished school I realized, that I want to make linguistics my profession. I want to choose it as my profession and so I did. However I had to pull up treas in order to enter the university, and… however in the end I managed to do that. And well I studied there. At the university we also studied different aspects, However my profession is not only a linguist, but also a translator and an interpreter. So that’s why we practiced translating and interpreting a lot. But it’s also quite useful for language studies. In addition to that we did a lot of listening. We listened to BBC and translated it.

Orally, that was… we interpreted it. It was a tough assignment at first, but then we got used to it. We read a lot of texts, analyzed them, translated them. We did a lot of good stuff, which was really useful. So and I got a lot from my university, of course. And I guess that starting from the third year I started watching TV series and films in English. My first TV series was ‘Scrubs’, and to tell you the truth it was quite hard at the very beginning. I couldn’t understand a lot. However when I kept doing that I realized that it’s getting more and more understandable for me. It’s getting easier and I enjoyed the process. As you can guess I’m crazy about series, and that is actually a very good way to study a foreign language. And I should also add that, well, they say, that teaching is also a way of learning a foreign language. So as long as I teach English I practice it all the time and revise a lot of grammatical topics and issues.

And well this is also studying. OK, I guess that’s it, by the way, speaking about the university, I graduated from it with flying colours, so all excellent marks. However it’s not so important nowadays. I got some perks of course, but this video is not about that. Well actually I’m going to tell you a little bit more about the learning process. And I’m going to devote two more videos… The first one is going to be devoted to beginner and elementary, and the second is going to be devoted to intermediate and higher.

So that I could give you some pieces of advice, because here I didn’t give you anything, I just told you about my experience. And of course, there were some drawbacks, there were some advantages. However now I’m able to analyze this process, and understand what was not right, what was good. And that’s why I’m ready to give you my tips. So don’t forget to follow me, subscribe to my YouTube channel. And watch my other videos. Keep up, ask questions, as usual. I really enjoy answering… I feel really confident when I get your feedback.

So don’t forget to give me your heart as well – like my videos. And hope to see you soon! Happy English practice! Bye-bye!. “}

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Study English in London

Don’t Study English in Vancouver…and Toronto

{“en”:”Hello, everyone. I’m Robin and welcome to my video. Don’t Study English in Vancouver Why am I making this video? Well, I’m making this video for my Korean students. Ok Now I’m Canadian and I’ve traveled through… throughout Canada and I visited many of my Korean students and I saw how they studied English in Canada. And also many of my students have gone to Canada for six months… one year… two years to study English and comeback and I’ve talked with them. So, I learned a lot about studying English in Canada. And what I learned is don’t study here. Ahh, Vancouver and Toronto. These are the bigger cities in Canada.

And I’m going to say don’t study English in Vancouver. and…don’t study English in Toronto. because…of the students…ahh… that I’ve seen, and there’s been a lot, that went to Canada and studied for six months or a year and they came back. Ahh…I’ve noticed that students that studied English in Vancouver and Toronto… their English was not as good as my students that studied in smaller Canadian cities. Ok, so I’m going to talk a little bit of maybe ‘why’ that happens. And before…uh…I talk about the ‘why’, we should understand if you plan to go to Canada… Uh…you should have a primary goal. Now up here I have an example of two goals. Improve my English speaking ability. Have a great travel experience. Ok. Both of these are good goals. There’s probably other goals but we should identify the primary goal. The first goal and the first goal I think should always be number one. When we go to Canada, we want to improve our English ok we want to go there for one year… …come back. And we speak English…uh…very well. You know it’s very embarrassing if you…your parents spend a lot of money to send you to Canada…

You go there and you come back and there’s only a little bit of improvement. So our first goal should be improve our English So every decision we make, should be to help the first goal. Of course in Canada, wherever you go in Canada, you will have a great travel experience. So understanding our first goal… do not study English in Vancouver… …or Toronto. All right, we should also think about what kind of friends we want to meet in Canada. Ahh…Toronto and Vancouver… Uh…they attract a lot of international students. ok so if you go to the language school…uh… or you’re just walking around…uh…probably you’re going to meet a lot of international students. These are going to be your friends. These are possibly going to be your roommates Again, we have some goals here. You want to go to Canada. You want to make Canadian friends. Ok, to improve your English. And you want to make international friends. This is good, too. …but again our primary goal should be – try to make Canadian friends.

Ok? Again a lot of my students… they go to Canada… they go to Vancouver for one year They come back and they say ” I have a lot of friends” and I asked them, “well “how many Canadian friends?’ …no…they have no Canadian friends. Ok… They have lots of new Korean friends. And they have lots of Japanese or Chinese friends. That’s good, but we should try to make some Canadian friends because this will really help improve our English. Ok. Study here! Here are some better cities. Victoria, Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg, Ottawa. Great cities to study English. and ‘why?’ Well problem one. There’s too many..ah…k..k..Koreans…in Canada. Like when I say Koreans… there’s a lot of koreans living in Canada. There’s also a lot of Korean students going to Canada. And there’s a lot of Korean tourists going to Canada. Now, I love Korea, and I love Koreans. But if you’re going to Canada to study English or practice English.

Ah…You don’t want to be around a lot of Koreans cause you’re just going to speak Korean more than you speak English. Ok, so it’s very important to get away from the people who speak the same language as you. Ok. It’s very tempting. After a long day, you’re tired and you’re sick of English to go play with your Korean friends. And on the weekend… play with your korean friends. Ok.You’re not practicing your English. So, here are Canadian provinces, not all the Canadian provinces. Ontario… This is…ah…the province with Toronto and Ottawa. British Columbia. Vancouver.

Victoria. So Toronto, Vancouver, don’t study English there. You can see there’s a lot of Koreans there. These are the Koreans that live there. Korean-Canadians. And again as I said, they’re students and tourists. These are the cities I recommend. Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Winnipeg. So you can see not many Koreans there. Good chance to practice your English Ok, another problem…the language schools. Now when you’re in Korea, you probably go to the uc5b4ud559uc6d0 [language school helpers] first. and you… you talk about studying English in Canada. And they might recommend Vancouver or Toronto. I hope you tell them: “No, no, no, I want to go to a smaller city.” But when they recommend Vancouver or Toronto…ah… They might get some incentive, some something, you know, money from… Vancouver language schools and Toronto language schools. These are big language schools.

They have a lot of students. They have a lot of…ah…money to try to get more students. So don’t trust the [language school helpers] too much, ok? And the language schools in Vancouver, Toronto very big very professional. And they are a problem because…I put three reasons here. First reason, they make it too easy…for students. Ah… Another reason they steal your English-speaking experiences. I’ll talk about this in a moment. And they control your money. Actually they control your time and money. So… Let’s go back to the stealing. Language stealing. So if you go to the language school in Vancouver or Toronto, ahh…they’re usual going to pick you up from the airport. They’re going to help you finding housing. Ahh…they help…they help you make a bank account and they have some weekend events for Saturday, Sunday. And they offer some class trips . Ahh…and I’m going to say this is stealing your language experience.

Remember you’re going to Canada to improve your English. It’s very important that you struggle and have a difficult time. That is where you’re learning to speak English. So, for example, if you go to make a bank account by yourself,.. wow, what a learning experience. You got to go open a bank account. You have to communicate what you need to the Canadian teller. And then you have a goal to accomplish. This is a really good learning experience. Not the ud559uc6d0[language school] or the language school taking you to the bank and helping you do everything.

And actually maybe you don’t even speak any English. Same with the weekend and class trips, you’re…you’re at the language school you’re in a class… most of your class, especially Vancouver ‘n Toronto,… are going to be other Koreans. Ok. Ah…over fifty percent of your classmates are going to be other Koreans. You’re going to have some international…uh…students there. Uh…Probably from Asia, Japan, China, Taiwan. You might have some European students – very few European students.

Maybe some South American and there’s a lot of Mexican students, too. Ah…great they’re also great to improve your .English But, you know, they’re controling your time and your money by offering their programs. You go out on a trip, you’re…you’re making friends and practicing English but really, your goal is to make Canadian friends and interact with Canadians. So I don’t really like this system. Uh… It’s ok, you know, it’s ok. It works, but I want you to try a more difficult and better way to really improve your English. Alright, let’s talk about Canada in a little more detail. This is Canada. I put the red pins: Vancouver, Toronto – Don’t go there.

Uh…I recommend middle Canada …the middle area…the middle cities. So yeah. Vancouver and Victoria. Vancouver, Victoria – beautiful cities. Ok, if you go to Canada, you must visit Vancouver. There is a good reason why many Koreans go to Vancouver. It is beautiful. So, spend a week travelling in Vancouver. But again, Don’t study English in Vancouver. Victoria very close to Vancouver. A lot of Koreans, but a better place to help improve your English. Ah…Alberta. Province of Alberta. Calgary, Edmonton. Perfect. These are perfect cities to study English. Ok. They’re about a million people each. Uhm…Not many Koreans. Safe places. Ah…you would have a great experience in these cities. Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Regina. I…I’ll tell you I had a student who went to Regina for nine months. He said, he…he went to Regina. There was no Koreans. He was forced, he had to make Canadian friends. He came back his English was amazing. Ok. Just nine months in Regina.

You know he really improved his English. And he loved Regina. Of course Regina is not a perfect city. But he had a great time there. And he made Canadian friends. Winnipeg..uh..getting really interior, in the center of Canada. Another good place to study English. I’ve had some students go there. It’s a good place. Uh…Winnipeg. Uh…this area’s… I’m not going to lie. A little bit cold. So if you do go to Winnipeg, dress warm. But that’s part of the Canadian experience. Ah…this is the province of Ontario. This is where Ottawa and Toronto are. Now before I talk about Ottawa and Toronto, I’m just going to mention the East coast of Canada. There are some places… some good places to study English, but I’m sorry I don’t have much information about these places. Ok… I… I haven’t had many students that went to study out here. I haven’t traveled so much in this area. So I’m sure there’s good places in Eastern Canada, Uh…

But I can’t really recommend them today so I know about central Canada very well and I recommend this area. Alright, so, Ottawa, Toronto. Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It’s a beautiful city. I think it’s okay to study English there. But Toronto – don’t study English in Toronto. Too many… too many Koreans in this area. And Koreatown…uh… if you study in Toronto most your friends are going to be Korean and you’re you’re eating…uh…

You know Korean food and doing Korean activities almost every day you know this is not part of the Canadian experience. Alright? Alright let’s do a summary of what I’ve been telling you. Be sincere about your goals. Remember your goal should be – improve my English. That’s your first goal. Make Canadian Friends. Alright, so all of your decisions focused on those things you have to achieve those things. So do not study English in Vancouver or Toronto. Ok? these are not good places to study English.

They do not help your goals because there’s too many Koreans in these cities. You are going to have a lot of Korean friends. You are going to go to Koreatown. You are going to be speaking more Korean than English Don’t go there. They’re great places to visit, but don’t study English in Vancouver. Get out of the uc5b4ud559uc6d0 [language school helpers] language school system. Uh…this is okay at first. I can understand why people might need this. but to spend one year in this system where they’re controlling your time and money and your selection of friends… is only your classmates. Uh…you got to getaway from this all right. Uh…be brave. Be strong. You can do it. You can get out of the system and start interacting with Canadians and living in Canada. So that brings us to participate in Canadian culture. You’re going to Canada (another country) to study English, but you have to participate.

You have to live in Canada. So you have to do things Canadians do. And you have to join clubs. And join classes. Meet Canadians. Alright, this is really important to improve your English. Ah…of course you’re going to have a great experience. You do not have to go to Vancouver or Toronto to have a great experience. You can go anywhere in Canada. I promise you. You will have a great experience. Ok? So, this goal is very easy. So, you do not have to study in Vancouver or Toronto. Alright. Some final words. Abroad is not the place to study, it’s the place to practice, experiment with, and test your English. And you should think this way too. Korea…you go to the language school, you study from a course book…uhh..

You study from a teacher. But when you go to Canada, you should get away from the teachers get away from the course book this is your chance to use real English in real situations. This will make your English better. Alright? You will learn very fast if you start thinking this way. Get out of the classroom. Alright. Thank you. I hope this video helps you. And remember, don’t study English in Vancouver.

See you next time. If you enjoyed this video, let us know. Subscribe. Like the video. And I really like it when my viewers write English comments below. Take care.. “}

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Study English in London

Learn Arabic – Arabic in 3 Minutes – Do you speak English?

{“en”:”Maru1e25aban u01e7amu012bu02bfan, u02beanu0101 Carole! Hi everybody! Iu2019m Carole. Welcome to ArabicPod101.comu2019s Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Arabic. In the last lesson, we learned the most common forms of greetings in Arabic. Do you remember them? We introduced maru1e25aban and Al salu0101mu u02bfalaykum , as well as u0161ukran and u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be. In this lesson weu2019re going to learn a very useful phrase: u201cDo you speak English?u201d If you find yourself in a situation where you need assistance in English, this phrase can be a lifesaver.

And because youu2019re asking it in Arabic, you can be sure that everyone will understand what youu2019re saying, even if their answer is no. Are you ready? then letu2019s start! Here’s the basic way to ask if someone speaks English: Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a male and Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? if you are talking to a female. [slowly] Hal tatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal tatakallamu012bna al-u02beinklu012bziyyah? Hal means “Dou201d.

u201cYouu201d and u201cSpeaku201d are merged into the same word u201ctatakallamu u201d for males and u201ctatakallamu012bnau201d for females. u02beinklu012bziyyah means “English,” This is an indirect way of asking someone to speak to you in English. There are many ways of making it clear that you’re asking the person to speak English to you, for example: Hal biu02beimku0101nika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? also means “Could you speak English?” Hal biu02beimku0101nika? means u201ccan youu201d or u201dcould youu201d, u201care you able tou201d, or u201cis it possible tou201d and can also mean the u201cabilityu201d of the person to speak English.

Again, if you are talking to a female you should change the last accent of ka to ki. So the question becomes: Hal biu02beimku0101niki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah? Al-takallum is a noun that means u2018speakingu2019 and bil u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cin Englishu201d. To be more formal we could add the word u201cpleaseu201d to the request, to make it: Hal biu02beimkanika al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dlika? In this case, the question cannot mean the personu2019s ability to speak English anymore, because you are obviously asking them to speak English to you. Since in Arabic the word u2018pleaseu2019 literally means u2018from your favoru2019 it should also be changed according to the personu2019s gender.

So in case of a female, we should also change the ka ending of u2018pleaseu2019 in min fau1e0dlika? to min fau1e0dliki? The question becomes Hal biu02beimkaniki al-takallum bil u02beinklu012bziyyah min fau1e0dliki? The responses you will receive could be one of these three: Nau02bfam. “Yes.” [slowly] Nau02bfam. Qalu012blan. “A little.” [slowly] Qalu012blan There are a few ways of saying u2018nou2019 in Arabic Lu0101 or Kallu0101. u201cNou201d “No, I donu2019t speak English.” is Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah [slowly] Lu0101, u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu al-u02beinklu012bziyyah It is exactly the same structure as in English. Lu0101 is u2018nou2019, u02beanu0101 is u2018Iu2019, lu0101 means u201cdonu2019tu201d, u02beatakallamu is u201cspeaku201d (me) and al-u02beinklu012bziyyah is u201cEnglishu201d.

Since this last one is a negative statement, we need to say lu0101 before the verb, u02beatakallamu or speak. lu0101 literally means u2018nou2019, but when placed before a verb it negates this verb, becoming u201cdonu2019tu201d or u201cdoesnu2019tu201d. Notice also that the verb, u02beatakallamu is slightly different than tatakallamu which we learned before. Remember, the verb changes depending on the pronoun used. We are now talking about u02beanu0101 , Arabic for “I,” Thus u201cI do not speaku201d is: u02beanu0101 lu0101 u02beatakallamu Now itu2019s time for Caroleu2019s Tips. For those of you who are not native English speakers, you can obviously use this question with any language you need. Arab people study other languages at school depending on the country they live in, so maybe you will get lucky! Just substitute al-u02beinklu012bziyyah with al-faransiyyah for French, Al-u02beiu1e6du0101liyyah for Italian, Al-u02beispu0101niyyah for Spanish, or Al-u02bealmu0101niyyah for German.

In this lesson you learned how to ask if someone can speak English. In the next lesson weu2019ll learn how to say u201cexcuse meu201d and other ways to apologize in Arabic. I’ll see you in the next Al-u02bfarabiyyah fi u1e6falu0101u1e6fi daqu0101u02beiq lesson. u02beilu0101 al-liqu0101u02be!. “}

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Study English in London