IELTS Writing: Numbers and Pie Charts

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Learn English Tenses: 4 ways to talk about the FUTURE

{“en”:”Hello. My name is Emma, and in today’s lesson, I’m going to teach you the four futures. Okay? A lot of you know two futures, I think. A lot of you probably know “will” and “going to”. I’m going to teach you two more futures today, and teach you how they’re different from one another. Okay? So let’s get started with the present continuous future. So the present continuous is when you have “be” verb, so “I am”, “you are”, “he is”, “she is”, “they are”, I don’t know if I said “we are”, “we are” plus the verb and “ing”. Okay? So we have “am”, the verb, “ing”. This is known as the present continuous. It’s usually one of the first things you will learn when you’re learning English.

So a lot of you know the present continuous, and you think: “Oh, present continuous, it’s taking place now.” You’re right, but we can also use it to talk about the future. We use the present continuous to talk about future that is going to happen very, very soon. So, for example, if you ask me: “Emma, what are you doing this weekend?” Well: “I’m hanging out with my friend, Josh, this weekend.” Okay? Or I might say: “I’m shopping this weekend.”, “I’m studying this weekend.” If you ask me: “What are you doing tonight?” Well, you know, I want to be a good student, so: -“I’m studying tonight. I’m studying tonight.” -“What are you doing next week?” -“Well, next week… I’m working next week.” Okay? So present continuous is very, very common for when we’re talking about the future that’s going to happen soon. Not future that’s going to happen 2,000 years from now or 50 years from now – no, no, that’s far future.

We’re talking about the future that’s going to happen in the next couple of days. Okay? So very, very soon future. We can also use the simple present to talk about the future. So, the simple present is when you take a verb and, you know, it’s in the basic form, usually you add an “s”. If it’s third-person singular, for example: “I leave”, “you leave”, “he leaves”, “she leaves”, “they leave”, “we leave”. So this is all simple present. In your classes, you probably learned we use the simple present when we talk about routine. We can also use the simple present when we’re talking about routines in the future. Okay? So, for example… And by this I mean timetables. We use this when we’re talking about a schedule event; something that is scheduled to happen in the future. So, this usually has to do with when we’re talking about transportation; trains, airplanes, we can use this tense. We can use it when we’re talking about TV shows. We can use it when we’re talking about restaurants opening and closing, or stores, when they open and close.

So we use this when we’re thinking about a schedule or a timetable. So here are some examples: “The last train leaves at 6pm today.” So 6pm hasn’t happened yet. It’s in the future, but because this is a schedule event, it’s a timetable event, it’s a schedule, we can use the simple present. Here’s another example: “The restaurant opens at 5pm today.” So this hasn’t happened yet. Right now, it is 2pm. This is going to happen in the future.

But still, I use the simple present because this is a schedule. Okay? Every day the restaurant opens at 5pm. Here’s a third example, I like watching TV, imagine I like The Big Bang Theory: “My TV show, The Big Bang Theory, starts at 4pm.” So again, it’s a routine, it’s a schedule that takes place in the future, but it’s still a schedule so we can use the simple present here. All right, so these two, even though they’re present tenses, they can be used for the future. Now let’s look at the two verbs we commonly use for the future or we commonly think of as future verbs. “Be going to” + a verb and “will”. So, “be going to” + verb: “I’m going to study.”, “I’m going to sleep.”, “You are going to watch a video.” Okay? These are examples of the “be going to” + verb future. So we use this when we’re talking about the near future. Similar to this… So it’s not a future that’s very, very far away; it’s soon, but it’s a future where we think something is going to happen, and we have evidence that something is going to happen. So, for example: “I’m going to study English next month in Canada.” This means you probably have your ticket already bought, you’re pretty sure about this.

There’s not a lot of confusion. This is almost going to happen almost certainly. So you’re pretty sure about this. “I’m going to study English next month.” Another example, imagine I watch the weather station. Okay? And the meteorologist has predicted the weather, but it’s a very good prediction because we see these clouds in the sky, there’s a lot of evidence it’s going to rain. Because there’s evidence, we could use this tense and we could say: “It’s going to rain all week.” So this is based… It’s in the near future, but it’s based on some sort of evidence. This is likely to happen, and we’re pretty sure it’s going to happen.

We have some evidence that makes us think it’s going to happen. So this is a bit different from “will”, which is one of the maybe easier futures to think about. We use “will” + a verb. For example: “I will always love you.”, “I will study hard.”, “I will do my taxes on time.” Okay? So we use “will” + a verb when we’re talking, first of all, in the far future. So this is all soon. This is very soon; whereas this, is very far. So for example: “In 50 years, everyone will speak Chinese.” We use this also when we’re not so sure about something.

This is my prediction, but I don’t have much evidence of this. I’m not very, very sure, so I will use “will” because I’m not sure; whereas if I’m very sure, there’s a lot of evidence, I know it’s going to happen, I do “be going to”. So this one, there’s not a lot of evidence, and it’s a prediction we don’t have evidence for. Another example: “Aliens will invade Earth.” Okay? In 25 years, aliens are coming, they will invade the Earth. I don’t mean to scare you. Luckily, I’m using “will”, which means I’m not really sure. If I said to you: “This week, aliens are invading the Earth”, you’d be very scared. If I said: “Aliens are going to invade the Earth. I know this. I have secret government documents.” I’d be using this, and you’d be scared, too. But with “will”, it’s “will” so you don’t have to be scared.

It might not happen. We also use “will” when we’re making promises. Okay? So if somebody ever gets down on their knee, and says: -“Emma, will you marry me?” -“I will marry you.” It means I’m promising to marry you. Okay? Or maybe I don’t really like the person, I might say: “I won’t marry you.” “Won’t” is the negative form of “will”. So I promise not to marry you. I don’t know in your culture, but in Canadian culture and many Western cultures, for New Years, we always make these resolutions. We think: “Oh…” When it’s New Years, when it’s January 1st, we make some sort of promise to our self that we’re never going to do something again, or we’re going to start doing something. We normally use “will” for these. So, for example, maybe you have had too many beers, and you’re thinking: “I don’t want to ever drink again”, you might make a promise to yourself: “I won’t drink again. I will never drink again.” Okay? Or maybe you want to stop smoking: “I will never smoke again.

I will never do this again.” Okay? Maybe your parents are angry at you because, you know, you did really bad on a test: “I promise I will work harder, I will study harder.” So these are promises. We use “will” for promise. Finally, we also use “will” for volunteering. Okay? When we want to volunteer for something, we want to offer our help. We want to help someone, we can use “will”. So, for example: -“Emma, can you clean the dishes?” -“I’ll do it.” -“Emma, can you vacuum the floor?” -“Sure. I’ll vacuum.”, “I’ll get the telephone.”, “I’ll help you with your homework.”, “I’ll help you learn English.” I’m volunteering, and so I use “I will”.

Okay? So just to recap, just to quickly go over everything: there are four futures I’m teaching you today. Present continuous can be used as the future if it’s very soon. Simple present can be used for the future if it’s a routine or schedule, something that’s like… If you look at a schedule in the future, we can use the simple present. We can use “be going to” if we’re talking about the near future and some kind of plan that… Or prediction we have evidence for. We are pretty certain it’s going to happen. And then we can use “will” and a verb for the far future for a promise or when we want to volunteer for something. Okay? So, there you have it, four futures. I invite you to come visit our website at www.engvid.com. There, you can actually practice these on our quiz. I hope you will do it soon. I hope, actually… I hope you’re doing it today or tomorrow. Okay? So until next time, take care.

I wish you the best of luck. And good day, sir.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

100 School Words | Learn English Pronunciation | Practice Drill

{“en”:”Hello guys! My name is Fanny. Welcome to this pronunciation drill. Watch this video if you want to improve your pronunciation very quickly. And in today’s video, I have 100 words on school. All the words that you need to know. Now, don’t forget, it’s very important to for you to repeat after me. Let’s get started. Thank you guys. I’m sure you do a great job. If you think the video went too fast, or you want to do it again, Please, do it again! Watch the video over and over. Don’t stop practicing. Practice will make you better. Also you can watch my other pronunciation drills. They will be very helpful if you want to improve your pronunciation skills. See you next time! Thank you guys so much for watching my video. If you’ve liked it, please show me your support. Click ‘like’.

Subscribe to the channel. Put your comments below. And share the video. See you!. “}

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Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Learn English: The 2 ways to pronounce ‘THE’

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Gill from engVid, and today’s lesson is about the little word “the”, and how to say it, how to pronounce it. You might think: “What? I know how to pronounce that word”, but there are two different ways of pronouncing it, and this lesson is designed to show you how to work out which way to say it. Okay. So, the simple rule is: Before a consonant you say “thuh”, but before a vowel sound you say “thee”. So it’s either “thuh” or “thee”.

So, let me just go through some examples to show you how that works. So, before a consonant sound: “thuh”. “The banana”, “the dog”, but then we get our first exception, which is confusing because this word begins with an E which is a vowel letter, but the way it’s pronounced, it has a “ya” at the beginning: “Ya. European. European”, so we say: “Thuh European”, okay? So that’s a slight confusion to be aware of. Continuing on: “The flowers”, “the house”, “the man”, “the people”.

Another exception again because this word begins with a U, which is a vowel letter, but the actual sound when you say this sound is a “ya”, “university”, “university”. It’s not: “university”, it’s “university”. So: “thUH university”, okay? And finally: “The woman, the woman”. So that’s “the” before a consonant sound. So, let’s have a look at the other column. Before the vowel sound we say “thee”, so: “The apple”, “the elephant”, “the ice cream”, “the orange”, “the umbrella”. You can see here “umbrella” also begins with a U, just like “university”, but it’s not pronounced: “yumbrella”, it’s pronounced: “umbrella”, so: “thee umbrella, the umbrella”. Okay. And finally, here’s another funny one, it begins with an H, so you might think: “Well, that’s a consonant”, but it is actually a vowel sound because we don’t pronounce the H in this word.

You may know the word “heir”, which we had in another lesson about using “a” and “an”. The heir is usually, well, male, and the heiress, female; but often the word “heir” is used for female as well nowadays for reasons of equality. So, but: “the heiress”, “e”, so it’s an “e”, “heiress”, so that’s a vowel sound, so: “the heiress”. Okay? So that’s another one to remember, along with the “ya” sound here. So, it’s purely the way you say it which decides whether it’s “thuh” or “thee”. Okay? So now we’ll move on to a second screen, and we’ll do some sentences for you to work out how to pronounce each time the word “the” or “the” appears, so… Okay, so what I should have said at the end of the last section was the word “heir” and “heiress”, I didn’t explain what they meant. So, if you hadn’t seen the other lesson you wouldn’t… You might not know that, so “an heir” or “an heiress” is someone who inherits something, often money or property, something like that. So, okay. Right, so here is the test for you of how to pronounce the word “t-h-e”: “thuh” or “thee”, and as you can see, we have some sentences here.

And every time the word appears I’ve underlined it in red just to help you to see it. So, first sentence: “The ferry crossed the Irish Sea.” So, how would you pronounce the word there? Okay. So: “thuh” goes before a consonant sound, so “f” is a consonant, so: “Thuh fairy. The fairy crossed”, and what about this one? “I” is a vowel sound, so it’s “thee Irish Sea, the Irish Sea”. So: “The fairy crossed the Irish Sea.” Okay? Next one: “The right way is the only way.” Okay, so how would you pronounce those two? So, “r” is a consonant, so: “Thuh right way. The right way is”, “only”, that begins with an “o”, which is a vowel, “only”.

So: “thee only way. The right way is the only way.” Okay? Next one, we have three examples in this sentence, so: “The answer is at the back of the book.” So, what would you do there? “The answer, the back, the book”, so “answer” begins with “a”, which is a vowel, so it’s: “Thee answer. The answer is at”. “Back” and “book” begin with “b”, which is a consonant, so: “Thuh back of thuh book.” Okay. Next one: “The fire hasn’t reached the upper floor”. “Upper” means at the top of the building, up at the top. Okay, so: “fire” begins with an “f”, so that’s a consonant, so: “thuh fire. The fire hasn’t reached”, “upper” begins with “u” which is a vowel sound, so it’s: “thee upper floor. The fire hasn’t reached the upper floor.” Okay. Right. Next one: “The girl felt at home in the empty house.” So if you feel at home, you feel comfortable, you like your surroundings.

Okay. So: “girl” begins with “g” which is a consonant, so: “thuh girl. The girl felt at home in”, “empty” begins with “e” which is a vowel, so: “thee empty house. The girl felt at home in the empty house.” Okay. Next one: “I will join the union in the morning.” So, “union” is a… To do with your profession, for your employment rights and so on, and you pay a subscription to join. So: “I will join”, “union” begins with a “u” which is a vowel sound, so…

Ah, no, hang on. This is one of those exceptions. “Yunion”, so… I nearly caught myself out there. It’s a “ya” sound, so: “thuh union”. It’s not “thee” onion, because “onion” is a different word altogether, with an “o”, an onion is a vegetable, so this is the union. Okay, so: “I will join thuh union in”, “m” consonant, “thuh morning, the morning”. Okay. So that’s a funny little exception, there. Next one, say you’re in a big department store with lots of floors and they have escalators going up and down, and you can’t decide which department to go to first, so you’re with a friend, you might say: “Shall we take the up escalator or the down escalator?” Okay, so which one would you use? “Thuh” or “thee”? So, before “up”, “up”, letter “u” is a vowel sound, “up”, so it’s: “thee up, the up”.

“Shall we take the up escalator or”, then before “down”, “d” is a consonant, so: “thuh, the down escalator”. Okay? And then finally, here’s another one, a little exception because there’s an “h” here, which is not pronounced. So the word “honour”, “honourable”, it sounds like an “o”, we don’t pronounce the “h”, so: “It’s the honourable thing to do.” Which? Which would you use there? Okay, so: “It’s thee honourable”, this one. “…the honourable thing to do”. Okay, so I’m sure you got those all right, and we also have a quiz for you to test that a little bit further on the website, www.engvid.com, so do go to that and try that, see how many points you can get. And see you again soon. Okay. Bye for now.. “}

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Hypnotherapy in Brighton

English Conversation Study in COLORADO – American English

{“en”:”In this American English pronunciation video, youu2019re going to come with me and my parents to Colorado. Youu2019ll get to see some of the natural beauty of this state, and study American English pronunciation in real life. Todayu2019s topics: How to pronounce u2018riveru2019, gorge, the noun and the verb, the idioms u2018to keep your eyes peeledu2019 and u2018keep an eye outu2019. Also, the pronunciation of u2018mooseu2019 and u2018elku2019. >> One neat feature of Colorado is the Colorado river. Now, it might not look like too much here, but this is the river that carved out the Grand Canyon in Arizona. I was lucky enough to visit the Grand Canyon on my Epic Road Trip Across America this summer. >> The word u2018riveru2019 is a two-syllable word with stress on the first syllable. DA-da. River. It begins with an R consonant.

When the R comes at the beginning of a word, the lips to make a tight circle for that, rr, and the tongue is pulled back. For me, the middle part is touching the roof of the mouth about here, rr, the tip isnu2019t touching anything. Then we have the IH vowel, so the jaw will drop just a bit and the tongue will come forward. Riv-. >> Then for the V, the bottom lip will come up and make contact with the bottom of the top front teeth. Riv-er. Then we have the schwa-R ending, so the tongue will come back into position for the R. The jaw doesnu2019t need to drop.

River, river. River. >> Weu2019ve stopped here to take a look at the Byeru2019s Gorge. A gorge is a deep, rocky ravine. And, as you can see, we have these nice, beautiful rock faces going up on either side. And I think itu2019s just beautiful. In this case, the Colorado river is whatu2019s flowing down, uh, in the middle. I suppose it is what has worn the edges of the mountains down. >> Gorge is sort of a tricky word. It starts with the G consonant, then it has the AW as in LAW, but the tongue must pull straight back for the R consonant, gor-, gor-, -ge.

And it ends with the J as in JAR consonant sound. Gorge. Itu2019s gorgeous! >> Well gorge also has the meaning of eating too much food, when you gorge out. >> Thatu2019s true. >> On a bunch of food. >> Thatu2019s true. So this is the noun gorge, and the verb gorge: stuffing your face, basically. >> Thatu2019s right. >> Yeah. >> And itu2019s sort of funny in that, in the one, gorge is hollowing out, cutting away >> Right.

>> u2026this big ravine >> Yeah. >> u2026 in the mountains, and on the other, gorge is filling up. >> Right. Stuffing! >> Way too much. >> Thatu2019s interesting. So, gorge the noun is a narrow valley, like you saw, typically with rock walls and a river or stream running through it. The verb has a completely different meaning, to eat a lot of food, to stuff yourself. The word comes from a word meaning throat. Next we drove to Rocky Mountain national park to see elk and moose. >> Okay, so keep your eyes peeled for both elk and moose. Keep your eyes peeled means to watch for something. We use it with u2018foru2019, which you know we like to reduce. Keep your eyes peeled for moose and elk. >> So keep your eyes peeled for both elk and moose. >> Dad, whatu2019s the other idiom we came up with for this? >> Uh, keep an eye out for elk and moose.

>> Yes. As we drive, weu2019ll keep an eye out for moose and elk. >> Keep an eye out for elk and moose. >> Yes. Keep an eye out is not the same thing as keep an eye on. >> No. Thatu2019s correct. >> If we had some elk here, we could keep an eye on them. But since we donu2019t have any and weu2019re looking for them, weu2019re keeping an eye out for them. Keep an eye on means to watch or pay attention to something. For example, keep an eye on the time so youu2019re not late. >> Elk has the EH as in BED vowel. A lot of jaw drop. Then the Dark L, so the back part of your tongue has to pull back, el-k. Then the K. So lift your tongue to the soft palate, and release. Elk. >> Itu2019s fun being able to get so close. Thereu2019s two here, which brings me to the point that the plural of elk is elk.

You donu2019t add an S or anything. One elk, two elk. We got lots of good views of elk. But I really wanted to see a moose. I only saw them at a distance, sitting down. We had been looking the whole day, and I was starting to think I wouldnu2019t see one. Then, just before it was dark outu2026 >> I feel very luck to be seeing my first moose. Moose is an easy pronunciation. Itu2019s the M consonant sound, the OO as in BOO vowel, and the S consonant sound. Plural, just like u2018elku2019, adds no s. Itu2019s still just moose. One moose, a herd of moose. Isnu2019t it beautiful? This is a female, so it doesnu2019t have the antlers. I hope you enjoyed this study of real life American English in the beautiful Rocky Mountain National Park.

Thatu2019s it, and thanks so much for using Rachelu2019s English.. “}

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Hypnotherapy in Brighton

Can these English teachers fool you?

{“en”:”Ready for an April Foolu2019s Day lesson? Wait. Does everyone watching know what April Foolu2019s Day is? I can sum it up in a single line: itu2019s a day when people play silly jokes on one another. Right. We try to fool friends and family. Itu2019s all done in fun. And when people discover that itu2019s a joke, the joker can say, u201cApril Foolu2019s!u201d So five of us teachers have come together to see if we can fool you. Weu2019re each going to ask a true-false question. Some of us will tell the truth. Others are going to try to fool you. Do I look like a person who can handle weapons? Actually, I know how to use three types of weapons. True or false? True. I briefly studied tae kwon do.

And thatu2019s when I learned how to use a long staff, a short stick, and nunchucks. Double and single. Did you hear how I stated my list? A long staff, a short stick, and nunchucks. A common pattern is to use rising intonation on all but the last item of a list, as in one, two, and three. We use falling intonation on the last item. For more information and practice, please check out my lesson on intonation patterns for stating lists and presenting alternatives. I’m from the United States of America but do you know which state I currently live in? Well, if you follow ‘go Natural English’ you probably know the answer.

I live in Missouri. True or false? The answer is false. I made one of the Go Natural videos in Missouri when I was visiting family. My father lives there. But I am not from there and I don’t currently live there. But you can see the video I made and learn about how to use words stress correctly to sound more like a natural English speaker. I went to graduate school to study Linguistics. True or false? False! I went to graduate school to study opera singing. Check out this video I made about intonation in American English and how it can help you sound more native. I have a short clip of me singing opera in that video! Iu2019m British and this is my husband, Jay.

Heu2019s American. Thatu2019s true! So he says tomahto and I say tomayto. Is that true or false? Itu2019s false! Itu2019s the other way round. I say tomayto and she says tomahto. So watch our video on British and American pronunciation differences to learn more. Check this out. I used to work at a fish market. True or false? True! Actually I worked at a fish market for six summers when I was a teenager. Did you notice the rhythm while I was speaking? Did you? When we speak, we stress the words that are most important for people to understand. Those words are on the beat in English. The other words – usually little grammar words – they shrink, they get smaller, or link together. That’s the shrinking and linking. If you’re interested in this topic – so important for practicing English, please check out this video I made.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Learn English – Travel Vocabulary

{“en”:”Hi. James, from EngVid. I was just about to plan my vacation. I’m going to take a long flight to Europe. I’m trying to remember luggage and baggage things, you know? It’s kind of hard to do. But this is a lesson for you if you’ve been working a lot, you need some time off. Now, there’s a video I would like you to go check out. That’s on time off. It goes with this one. You might want to go away somewhere and not just stay home, right? So this video is for you. This is basic vocabulary on vacation. When you leave and maybe you go to an English speaking country and you want to practice your English, this stuff will be good for you to enjoy your time there, also to make it easy for you when you arrive. Are you ready? Let’s go to the board. Mr. E, Mr. E! It’s a mystery where he is. It’s no mystery. And you thought I forgot. Mr. E has been on vacation with me, and he’s enjoying this particular attraction.

So let’s go to the board. Now, if you’re going to go on vacation, one of the first things you will have to do if you’re leaving your country is you’re going to need some travel documents. What are those? Documents. A “document” is a paper or something with information that tells you something is okay or outlines it for you. For example, your passport is a document given by the government with your picture on it that says you are a citizen of this country, and you are legal. You are a good person. Okay? Now, when you’re leaving for a flight, or you want to go to another country, you’re going to need travel documents first.

Trust me; show up at the airport and go, “I leave now. I go to Canada.” They will go, “And the car is that way. Go home, crazy man. Okay?” So we need travel documents. So what are “travel documents”? Well, “travel documents” would be your passport, government identification, usually needed at most places the travel. Inside of a country, not necessary for most places. But leaving the country, you have to have it. Okay? So if you’re in the European Union, no problem.

If you’re in Canada and the United States, you don’t need one. But as soon as you leave these countries, you need a passport. What’s another thing you need? Well, you need what’s called a “boarding pass”. If you play soccer, you kick the ball; the other guy, he catches it; you “pass” right? The ball goes from one player to another. A “boarding pass” is what allows you to go from one country to another country. You show the person on the airplane this piece of paper with your passport, and they say, “You know what? You can come on the plane and fly, like the pass.” Kick, catch, other country. Cool? All right. So these are your travel documents. You need those. Now, I should have started with you need to make a plan because you want to go visit some place. You want to go on vacation, right? And if you want to go on vacation, well, going to have to — I said “vacation”. A “vacation” is a holiday, another word for saying “time off from work”. All right? So you want to go on vacation. Sometimes, we say, “We’re going to vacation in Italy.” Or “on my vacation, I want to visit Italy.” Or “I’m taking a holiday in Italy.” Okay? So all these words, when people say, “Well, what are you doing on your time off?” You might go, “I’m going on vacation.” Then they know you’re leaving.

If you just say, “I’m taking time off from work”, you could be home cleaning. But no. You’re saying, “I’m going on vacation.” They’re going to go, “Where are you going to visit? Italy, perhaps? Sicily? Is it going to be a good holiday?” And you go, “Yes. I earned my time.” “Earned” means to work for something. “I earned my time off. I’m going on vacation.” You need a boarding pass, and you need a passport. You know where you’re going. What else is important for a vacation? Usually, you need money.

But when you ask for the money in a different country, we don’t say, “Money. Do you have money?” They will say, “Yes.” And they will say, “Do you have money?” And you will say, “Yes.” But it means nothing. What you need to say is, “What currency do you use?” “Currency” is a very fancy word for “money”. But it means money in a certain country. In Canada, we use dollars. That’s the currency.

In America, they use dollars. But it’s different currency because American and Canadian money are not the same. It’s true. They used to use pesos in Spain. And they also use pesos in Mexico. But the currency was different, meaning the money was different. So you don’t want to say, “What money do I use?” You say, “What currency do I need?” If you go to Europe, you need the euro. If you go to America — United States of America for those people who are very, very special — you use the American dollar, which is not to be confused with the Australian dollar. Careful, right? Not every country has it. I mean, I went to one place — I went to Florence.

I was thinking, “Florence. Do I go to a florist and buy a flower and exchange it?” No that was their currency. All right? Now, when you want to take your money and give it to somebody else and say, “I want your money. What do I need to do?” They will say, “Okay. To get this — oh, sorry. To get this money — Canadian money. See? It’s red and white like our flag — you need two of your poor dollars!” So when you do an exchange rate, it tells you how much of your money do you need to get someone else’s money, or how much of your currency do you need to get someone else’s currency.

I know it seems a little confusing, but trust me. Once you leave your country, these things are going to be things you’re going to go, “I wish somebody told me.” And I’ll say, “I did tell you. You just weren’t listening.” Okay? You need currency to go to different countries. So a good thing to do before you get your flight is to say, “What currency do they use in that country?” Believe me, you don’t want to find out by accident you don’t have the right currency.

It happened to me. Okay. So we’ve got currency; we’ve got our documents; we have to, what we call, “book our flight” or “book our trip” or “our travel arrangements”. Okay? Because you’ve got — you know where you want to go. You’ve got this stuff all going. You need to get your flight. So the flight — they’ll give you the time, the airport — the place where the airplane will be and will land, okay? — and your return. You might have a return ticket or a one-way.

Didn’t talk about that? You should ask this. “Return” means you can come home, all right? You can come home. If you get one-way — [singing] “I’m on a highway to hell!” You ain’t coming back, son! And people ask questions when you buy a one-way ticket. They go, “And when do you plan on coming back, hmm?” Okay? So when you make your travel arrangements or you flight or your trip, okay, this is when you’ll get your boarding pass, right? You’ll do that; they will print up your travel document. It’s called your “itinerary”. An “itinerary” tells me what time the plane will arrive, what time I must be at the airport — not the same. Three hours for international; two hours for domestic. “Domestic” means in the country, okay? All of this will be in your itinerary. Itinerary. I’m going to do that later — no. I’ll do it now. “Itinerary.” I-tin — like a can — er-ary. Okay? Itinerary. It’s one word. And what this means is your arrangements or organization of your travel. And airports will give you an itinerary when you book a flight.

See we have the word here? You book a flight or book your trip, which means you call them and say, “I want to go here at this time.” When you’re ready and you pay your money, they will give you an itinerary which will tell you when you’re flying, when you’re leaving, what airport, how much. And it also, when you’re finished, says you have paid, so you can get your boarding pass and get on the plane. So you’ve got your itinerary. We’re ready to go. What’s next? Well, you’re going to go to the airport. And when you go there, I want you to be aware of something.

It’s called your “luggage” or “baggage”. Depending on what was on your itinerary, it might say how many bags you can take. That’s another thing on your itinerary. There are two types. There are “baggage” and “carry-on”. It’s not exactly the same, and you have to be very careful when you go on vacation. “Carry-on” means you, on your body, can walk on the airplane, and then sit down, put it on the overhead, okay? “Carry-on” is on you. You keep it with you, with your passport. Go on the plane. And then you can put it above. This is not the same as your “luggage” or “baggage” that is — you come with. This is what you’re allowed to.

Sometimes, you’re allowed one. Sometimes, you’re allowed two. You better check because it will really make your vacation very expensive. And I’ll tell you why in a second. If you have luggage, usually, you take it to the airport. You give it to someone. It disappears. And you don’t see it again until you get to the new country. They say, “Carry-on? Do you have anything for carry-on?” You say, “Yes. This bag.” And you walk, and they go, “Okay.” Then, the other one, they take away and say, “Bye-bye, bag! I’ll see you in the new country.” So you got on the carry-on. You’ve got your boarding pass. You walk up with passport. They let you in. Okay? You board. “Board” means you can go on the plane. When they say, “Geraldine Potter, boarding now. Flight 57 is boarding. Ready to leave, to depart.” That’s you. You get on the plane. Okay? So you board the plane, give them your documents. Finally, you’re on the plane. You’re relaxing. The plane comes. It arrives, and comes down.

What’s the first place you go to? Customs. Customs. You get off the plane. They announced you. You showed your passport one time. They’re going to say do you, “Do you have a passport, please, sir? Can we see your passport?” And you have to show the passport again before you can come in the new country. So once you get to Italy, you can’t just walk into Italy. You have to go to customs and show your passport. Then, you can enter, and we can finally begin our vacation. Well, what are you going to do on vacation? You didn’t just go there to go to a hotel. And a “hotel” is a place you pay to sleep at night. And you can buy some food, but you just sleep there. Okay? Or maybe, you have family there.

I didn’t draw a hotel because, well, you probably are going with family, and hotel — you probably know that before you go because you can’t just show up and kind of go, “Okay. I sleep where, now?” You get a hotel. So a hotel or motel are places that you go to. Motels are a little bit cheaper. And hotels are more expensive but can be nicer with bathtubs and everything.

Magnifique. Okay? But they’re places you pay to stay to sleep at night. Okay? There’s also something called “hostel”. Not “hostage”, okay? Not “hostage”. Let’s not go there. “Hostel”. A “hostel” is usually used by students or people who have backpacks that they carry, and they’re very, very cheap, but many people share rooms or showers. So you can spend more money and go to a hotel. Middle money — think “motel” is “middle money”. Not so nice, but you have your own bathroom and your own bed.

And “hostel”, well, everybody sleeps together. Well, no. They don’t. I’m just saying everybody sleeps in a similar room and has the same shower, okay? Those are your three things you can do. So after you get up from your hotel, motel, hostel, you might want to, well, go sightseeing. See the glasses? “Sightseeing” is when you go to places of interest in a country, usually places that are called “tourist attractions” — “attraction”, like a magnet, brings tourists. In Canada, we have the CN Tower. Or in Seattle, the Seattle Space Needle.

Or in Paris, the Arc De Triomphe. Okay? These are places where people go, “Did you go to see MoNA, the Museum of Natural –?” They ask you because you should go to these places in these countries, all right? So if you say to someone, “Hey. I want to go sightseeing. Do you know of any tourist attractions?” They’ll go, “Yes. My house at twelve o’clock. The freaks come out at night.” Joking. What they’ll say is, “Yeah. You should go to this place, Yonge Street. Or this place. And here are some things you’ll like when you get there.” Okay? Now, be careful. Although there are tourist attractions, there are also what we call “tourist traps”. These are places where you spend lots of money for nothing.

You will notice people in the country never go there because they go, “Oh, it’s too much money, and all the tourists are there.” Which means, it’s just made for tourists. It doesn’t mean it’s fantastic or great. It just means there are people there who know tourists are coming, who probably speak foreign languages, and they want to take most of your money. So make sure you make a difference or you ask a local in the country, “Hey. Is this a tourist attraction or a tourist trap?” And you’ll know that because especially if you want to practice your English, there will be more people speaking your language at tourist traps than at tourist attractions. Sometimes, there will be people to help you. But you know, be careful. Now, you’ve gone to attractions, you’ve gone sightseeing. You’ve missed the tourist traps. I’m sorry; your vacation is over. Almost like this lesson. That means you’ve got to go back home.

So you’re going to have to board the plane again, take your luggage, get your carry-on, make sure you have your travel documents — your boarding pass and your passport, okay? “Bye, Italy! It was a nice vacation. I’ll visit you again.” My holiday is over, so Mr. E and I, well, we’re going to take our flight back to our country. It’s going to be a long — see, a long flight is usually, like, hours. A short flight could be an hour. But we really enjoyed the trip. And we love traveling, okay? I’m going to tell my friends about this airline I use because they have a great itinerary.

When I come back to my country, oh, damn it! I have to go through customs again. When you come back, you have to go through with your stuff and show them. Go to customs. But finally, maybe I have some money left. I have their currency, not their money. So I’ll have to go and find out what the exchange rate is, change my money back to my real money, and my trip is over. I hope you enjoyed this little trip. Mr. E, of course, you did. I’ve got some pictures of you and me away, huh? Drinking some beer, yes? In some good countries! Anyway. It’s been a pleasure. And I need you to go somewhere — take a little trip. It’s not much of a flight. But it’s sort of like a vacation because you’re going to learn a different language — English. You don’t need any documents, and you don’t have to go to customs. I want you to go to www.engvid.com.

That’s right. I said it, people. “Eng” as in “English”, “vid” as in video”. That’s EngVid, where you can find myself and other teachers who will take you on a fabulous journey — that’s a word we didn’t use here, a “journey” to English. Don’t forget to watch out for tourist traps, okay? Don’t be a tourist. Come stay with us. We’ll educate you. Have a good one. E! Out!. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

How to write a good essay: Paraphrasing the question

{“en”:”Hi, there. My name is Emma, and in today’s video I’m going to teach you something very important for if you’re taking any type of test that has a writing component. So, if you are taking the IELTS, the TOEFL, the CELPIP, even just a university test, it can be any type of test, but if you’re asked to write something like an essay or a paragraph, this video is for you. Okay? So I’m going to teach you a very important skill that will help improve your marks when it comes to writing on tests. So, let’s get started. So, I have here an essay question. This question is actually… I’ve seen it on the IELTS. You know, you have similar types of questions on the TOEFL, sometimes in university. The question is this: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree or disagree?” Or maybe: “To what extent do you agree or disagree?” So, this is an example of a question you might be asked. Now, a problem a lot of students have is in their answer to this question.

They see this, and they think: “Okay, education is the most important factor in the development of a country, yes, I agree.” So then they… Or: “I disagree”, and they start writing. And what do they write? Usually the very first thing students will write is this: “I agree that education is the single most important factor in the development of a country because…” So, what is the problem with this? Is there any problem to start off your essay with something like this, or to start off your answer? There’s a big problem. So I want you to take a moment and think: “What could be the problem with starting your essay off with this sentence?” Okay, well, if you noticed, you have here the word: “education, education, is, is, the single most important, most important factor”.

If you notice, these are the same. They’re the exact same, except for: “I agree that” and “because”. The student, here, has used the exact same wording that is in the question. So, if you do this on the IELTS-and many students do this, same with on the TOEFL-you actually will lose marks, and same with in university, because you’re not showing your abilities; you’re just copying what somebody else has said or what the essay question is. So, in this video, I’m going to show you first off… First off, I’m going to tell you: Don’t do this, don’t copy. And I’m going to teach you ways in order to improve yourself and your answer by changing this wording. How can you change your introduction so it’s different than what the question is? Okay? So, let’s look at how to make these changes.

Okay, so what we are going to do in order to change the question into a proper answer that doesn’t just copy the question, is we are going to paraphrase. So, the word here is: “paraphrase”. This might be a new word for you. What does it mean to paraphrase something? Well, when we paraphrase, it means we take a sentence that, you know… We take somebody else’s sentence and we change it into our own words. Okay? So, we change the words of a sentence, we also change maybe the sentence structure, but we keep all the same meaning. Okay? So, the meaning from the sentence you copy, it stays the same, same meaning, but different words and different sentence structure. Okay? So it’s in your words, but this other person’s meaning. So, we are going to paraphrase this example of a question into our own words. So, first we’re going to look at how to do that using vocabulary and synonyms. So, we have here the same question: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” How can we put this into new words or our own words that keep the same meaning? Well, we can use synonyms.

So, this might be a new word for you, too. A “synonym”. “Synonyms” are words that have the same meaning, but are different words. So, for example: “big” and “large”, they have the same meaning, just like: “huge”, “enormous”, these are synonyms of each other; same meaning, but they’re different words. So, you need to use different synonyms so you don’t just copy these words. You use synonyms to have words that have the same meaning, but are different words. So, let’s look at an example. Our first word, here, is: “education”. What’s another word we can use instead of…? Instead of “education”? Well, there’s different words we can use. Maybe one could be: “schooling”. Okay? So, we could change this word to “schooling”.

“Schooling is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” What’s another word we can change? Well, maybe “most important”. Instead of using the word “most important”, maybe we could use: “most significant” or “most essential”. Okay? So: “essential”, “significant”. There are many words you can use. But the point here is: Find a word that has the same meaning, but is a different word. Okay, here’s another word: “factor”. Can you think of another word for “factor”? Well, sometimes “factor”, it can be an “aspect” or an “element”.

Okay? You can even say sometimes: “a significant role”. Okay? Or: “a part”. So, there’s different words we can use that have similar meanings. In terms of the word “development”, we can change the word “development” to “advancement”, “progression”, “evolution”. Okay? And in terms of the word “country”, another word for “country” is “nation”. Okay? So, these are all synonyms, and this is what you want to do. When you look at the question, think about some new words you can use that have the same meaning. This is also important throughout your essay, because one problem a lot of students have is they keep using the same word again, and again, and again in every sentence. This does not help you with your marks. It’s better to use different words that have the same meaning. At the same time, you have to be careful, here, because some students, they find a new word, they think it’s a great word, but there is a little bit of a difference in meaning. So, you need to be really comfortable with the word you choose, and you need to know what it actually means so it doesn’t sound strange.

Okay, so if we wanted to change this now, instead of saying: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country”, our paraphrase… Our first step in our paraphrase could be changing these words to: “Schooling is the single most significant element in the advancement of a nation.” Okay? So that’s just one example. So, now, let’s look at another thing you can do in order to paraphrase the question on a test or exam.

Okay, another way we can paraphrase is by changing the structure of the sentence. So, for example, you might have a verb and, you know, which is an action, and you might change that into its noun form. So, for example, if your verb is “developing”, you might change that into “development”. You might change, similarly, a noun into a verb. Okay? So, for example, we just said “development” is the noun, it can turn into: “develop” or “developing”. You can also change things into adjectives. So, if, for example, you’re talking about “technology”, which is a noun, you can change this into the adjective form which is “technological”. So, changing the form of the word can help you with paraphrasing.

Also changing placement of the words can help you out. So, for example, in our original sentence or the question was: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” So, I’ve now changed some of the wording, as well as the order. Okay? So, here: “Education” is at the beginning. In my sentence: “The most essential element of a nation’s development is education.” I’ve changed the order of the sentence, so now “education” is at the end, instead of at the beginning. I’ve also started out with: “The most essential”, as my beginning; whereas here, it was in the middle. You’ll also notice we have, here: “in the development of a country”, I’ve changed this to: “nation’s development”.

I could also change this to: “country’s development”, instead of “the development of a country”. So, changing the order of the sentence and changing some of the structures can really help you in terms of paraphrasing. Now let’s learn one other way in which we can improve our marks by paraphrasing. Okay, so the last tip I have about paraphrasing a question is using concessions. So, what is a concession? Well, I want you to look at what the question actually says and my new answer to it. The question, again, same question as before: “Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country.” My answer… Okay, so I’ve changed some words and I’ve also changed the structure a bit, but there’s one other thing I’ve added. “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building, I think education has a far greater impact.” So, what I’ve done here is I’ve added a concession.

A concession is where you say what the opposite opinion is, and then you say what your opinion is. So, you’re giving two opinions; you’re giving your opinion and also what other people might think. This is a great thing to do, especially in essays, and this is something you can do at the beginning of your answer. So, we use here the key word: “Although”. Okay? And you’ll notice that this has two clauses. I don’t want to get too technical with grammar on you today, but what I mean is: If you see, we have the red part: “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building,” and then we have a second part. So, we have two parts to this sentence. “…I think education has a far greater impact.” So, the first part of the sentence is in red and it’s the “Although” part, and the second part of the sentence is in purple-okay?-and that’s: “I think education has a far greater impact.” And they’re separated by a comma.

So, a concession has two parts to it. You say what the other people think first, in this case: “Although many”, “many” meaning people, we could also say: “many people”. “Although many would argue that the economy is the most important factor in nation-building,” okay? So, this is what some people would say. Now I’m going to say what I think. “I think education has a far greater impact.” So, why is this a good idea? Well, one reason is because when you write a concession, when you’re showing what the opposite opinion of yours is, you’re showing that you’ve thought about the issue.

Okay? You’re looking at both sides. You’re not just looking at your opinion. You’re looking at both sides, and then you’re making a judgment. So this shows that you’re thinking about the question, and you’re really giving it some thought. And by representing both sides, you’re really showing critical thinking. So this is a very good idea to do. Okay, so the three things we’ve talked about today in terms of paraphrasing the question is: Changing the words using synonyms, we’ve talked about changing the sentence structure, and we’ve also talked about adding the other perspective using concessions. Okay? So, these are three things you can do in order to change the question so you’re not just copying what is on your test paper. Again, great thing to do if you’re writing a high school essay, university essay, TOEFL, IELTS, CELPIP, all of these things – this skill will really come in handy for you.

Now, you might be wondering: “Okay, this is great, but I don’t know any synonyms. Or I… You know, I don’t know much about this.” Well, what you can do is you can come check out our website at www.engvid.com. There, you can find a lot of other resources, including improving your vocabulary, we even have a video on how to make concessions, you know, we have videos on sentence structure, too. So, there’s a lot of videos you can check out and a lot of resources. You can also come visit our website where you will find a quiz, and by taking that quiz, you can actually practice your paraphrasing skills so you can see, you know: “Am I doing this right? Is this…? You know, is this the right way to do this?” and get more practice. So, I hope you’ve enjoyed this video. And until next time, take care.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

English Conversation Study

In this American English pronunciation video, we’ll go for a hike in Colorado. My dad and I discussed the hike and we’ll talk about interesting pronunciations and vocabulary words that come up in real English conversation. This hike is called Chihuahua Gulch. Chihuahua. Have you heard this word before? It’s a teeny tiny breed of dog. The spelling is pretty strange in American English because this word comes to us from Spanish. The breed originated in Mexico. This hike is called Chihuahua Gulch and it’s about seven miles roundtrip. Roundtrip. The opposite of this phrase is one way. So when you go somewhere and come back, that’s roundtrip. Notice how the D is dropped. Roundtrip. We often drop the D when it comes between two other consonants. Roundtrip. Roundtrip. It’s about seven miles roundtrip and it goes up about 1,900 feet. So this hike ends at a lake? Yeah. You go… you start off going uphill about thirty minutes, then you go through this long valley. Notice how my dad really stretches out the word ‘long’. Why does he do that? When we want to really stress words, we make them longer, and you might do that especially with the word ‘long’ making it longer for dramatic purposes.

Long Valley. That took a long time. That test was so long. through this long valley with a lot of gorse and little lakes and— Gorse. Hmm…do you know that word? I didn’t either. Let’s find out what it means. With a lot of gorse and little lakes and little streams. Gorse. Gorse are these bushes. Oh! I didn’t…didn’t know that. And you sort of go to the end of the trees where the jeep road ends. Did you understand what he said there? He called this road ‘jeep road’. So a jeep is a really rugged vehicle that has a high clearance. That is a lot of room between the ground and the bottom of a car. You would not be able to drive a regular car on this road. Where the jeep road ends and then it’s just a single path. And you end up at a mountain lake.

And you said that mountain lake: “Eh, if you’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all.” You’ve seen one. You seen them all. This is a phrase you might use to say that something isn’t special. Now the full grammatically correct pronunciation of this phrase would be ‘If you’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all.’ but that’s not how we pronounce it. We like to reduce things in American English especially familiar words and phrases and this is a familiar known phrase.

You’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all. We dropped the word ‘if’, we reduce ‘you’ve’ to just ye– and we reduce ‘them’ to ‘um’. You seen. Seen um. You’ve seen one. You seen them all. Another scenario where you may use this: do you want to visit Paris? Nah, I’m not that into cities. You’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all. Eh, You’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all. A lot of them are pretty similar. A lot of them. My dad also reduced ‘them’ to ‘um’. This is a really common reduction just like in the phrase ‘you’ve seen one, you seen them all’. A lot of them. A lot of them. Practice that with me out loud, smoothly connecting all the words. A lot of them. A lot of them. A lot of them are pretty similar. But you do have a great view? You can see a long way out over the… a couple of different mountain ranges. A couple of different mountain ranges. My dad reduced the word ‘of’ to just the schwa. Uh. A couple of— We do this so much in conversation especially with this phrase: a couple of— A couple of different mountain ranges.

And the lake itself is probably— Probably— This is how we pronounce ‘probably’ most of the time in conversation. You can do it too. It simplifies the word and makes it easier to say. Try it now. Probably. Probably. Probably. Itself is probably hundred yards across and maybe 200 by 400. Does anyone ever swim there? I did see somebody swim in there once.

– Very cold. – Ice cold. Really cold. Listen to the different ways we describe how cold it is. – Very cold. – Ice cold. Really cold. Really cold. Ice cold. Very cold. ‘Really’ and ‘very’ are words we use before adjectives to say there’s a lot of something. Really cold. Very cold. A high amount of coldness. Ice cold is another great way to describe something being very cold. Now this lake is not ice, its water, it’s very cold water.

So describing it as ice cold is an exaggeration, a hyperbole. I know it’s not actually ice. I know it’s just extremely cold water. – Very cold. – Ice cold. Really cold. I had no temptation to do that. Yeah, I don’t think I will either. This is just… you can’t design a better day. There’s not much wind, hardly any clouds, cool but not cold, and this time of year, you have a lot of aspens turning yellow. This time of year. Another example of reducing the word ‘of’ to just the schwa in natural conversation. This time of year. This time of year, you have a lot of aspens turning yellow and these bushes, I mean, they would be green and in the summer. Yeah it looks awesome. I mean, I love, I love the view. Yeah. Sweeping views. And we have seen wildlife along here. Yeah, just a couple hundred yards down. Once, there were four moose. Moose. These animals are fairly rare to see in the wild. One other time when I was in Colorado, we saw one. Click here or in the video description to see that video.

There were four moose grazing right by the path. Further down yet, we saw heard of maybe 10 or 15 antelope. – Wow. – Galloping along. You often see deer. You often see. My dad reduced ‘you’ to ye, changing the vowel to the schwa. This is also a common reduction. Why do we do this? Because in American English, the contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables is really important. So if we can make unstressed syllables even shorter by changing something, then we do that. You often see. You often see deer up here and then on the rocks, you can see marmots sometime and pike which are little tiny animals like and they squeak. How many times have you done this hike? Probably five or six. Probably. There’s another probably to probably reduction. Probably five or six. And to me, it’s the most scenic hike around here especially in September. Scenic. This is a great word you can use to describe a beautiful landscape.

Scenic. Scenic. To me it’s the most scenic hike around here especially in September because the aspen are turning yellow and a lot of these bushes are turning red and in June, July, it’s just the waters too high you’d have to take off your shoes and put on sandals and just wade through. So usually, we wait till August or September to do this one. Wade. This is what you do when you’re walking through water. So you’re not swimming. You’re walking like through a creek. If the water is too deep, then you can’t wade. You have to swim. Take off your shoes and put on sandals and just wade through. Here is David walking over the creek that dad says you have to wade through when the water is higher. We didn’t make it to the top.

Yeah but we got to a good turning around point and we had a fantastic view, we had lunch looking out down the long valley. Couldn’t have been better. Couldn’t have been better. A word here is being reduced to just the schwa. What word is it? We noticed before that the word ‘of’ reduces to just the schwa. But here it’s the word ‘have’. Yes, the word ‘have’ can be changed to just the schwa sound: uh in conversation especially after could, couldn’t, should, shouldn’t, would, wouldn’t.

I’ve actually seen native speakers mess this up and write ‘should of’ instead of ‘should have’. It makes sense because ‘of’ and ‘have’ can both produce the same single sound, the schwa. Shoulda. But if this sound is following could, couldn’t, should, shouldn’t, would, wouldn’t, the word is definitely ‘have’ and reducing ‘have’ to just the schwa after these words will help your English sound natural. Practice. Couldn’t have. Couldn’t have. Notice I’m dropping the T in the contraction. This is how native speakers will say this phrase. Couldn’t have. Couldn’t have. Special thanks to my dad for being in yet another Rachel’s English video. To see more videos that use real English conversation for teaching, check out my Real English playlist..

As found on Youtube

Learn English: 11 ‘mind’ expressions

Hello. My name is Emma and in today’s lesson I am going to teach you a bunch of new vocabulary expressions. These expressions are all very common and very useful. So, the expressions we’re going to learn today all have the word “mind” in them. Okay? And there are a lot. I’m not even covering all of them because there are so many expressions in English with the word “mind”, so we’re only going to cover some of them, but we’re going to cover the main ones. Okay, so, when we talk about “mind”, there are different ways we’re talking about mind. “Mind” can have to do with the brain and with thinking or thoughts. Okay? So, sometimes when we’re talking about mind we’re talking about our brain or we’re talking about our thoughts. Sometimes we’re talking about something totally different with mind. Sometimes when we’re talking about mind we’re actually talking about being polite. For example: “Do you mind?” this is something where you’re being polite. And then we also use “mind” when we’re telling somebody to pay attention to something.

For example: “Mind the gap” or “Mind the hole”. So we have these three times where we’re using “mind” and we have a lot of different expressions for each of these different categories. So we’re going to go over each of these. I’m going to teach you a bunch of expressions where “mind” has to do with thought or brain, I’ll teach you a lot of expressions where it has to do with politeness, and then I’m going to teach you a lot of “mind” expressions that have to do with paying attention. But this is pretty much one way you can look at these expressions. So let’s get started by talking about… When we’re talking about mind, and thoughts, and the brain. So, first, when we talk about “mind” one meaning of “mind” can have to do with pretty much the brain, but it’s not exactly the brain. Okay? So your brain is in your head and it’s a physical thing. You can touch the brain, you can feel the brain, you can see the brain, smell the brain, so it’s physical. Mind is not physical.

You can’t see the mind because the mind is where your thoughts are, where your memories are, and these are things you can’t really see or feel, but they’re somewhere in here; we just can’t see them because they’re not physical. So, for example: Einstein, very famous scientist: “Einstein had a brilliant mind.” Okay? So this means Einstein had brilliant thoughts, he was very smart. He had, you know, brilliant ideas. These things are all in his mind. So it’s similar to brain, although not exactly the same thing, it’s very similar to brain.

We can also say: “psychologist”. A psychologist is a job and people who are psychologists, they study the human mind, meaning they look at the brain and they look at people’s memories, they look at the way people have ideas, and they think about: “Where do these things come from?” Okay? So they study the human mind. So, a lot of the times when we use the word “mind”, we’re talking about kind of your brain and your thoughts. You know, we might say: “Oh, Beethoven had an incredible mind”, or you know: “In your opinion, which minds were the greatest of the 20th century? Who had the greatest mind?” Meaning: Who had the greatest ideas, and thoughts, and pretty much brain? Okay, so that’s “mind”. Now, let’s look at another way we use “mind” and that’s in the expression: “on someone’s mind”. So this is a very common expression. In English we often ask: “What’s on your mind?” Or we also say: “I have a lot on my mind.” So, what does: “on my mind” mean? And make sure you have “on someone’s mind”, so it can be: “on my mind”, “on your mind”, “on her mind”, “on John’s mind”, you can pretty much put any person here.

What does it mean? Well, when we talk about “on our mind” we’re usually talking about problems, so we’re usually talking about problems that we are thinking about. These are thoughts, we’re thinking about something so it’s on our mind. So, let me give you an example. If I ask you: “What’s on your mind?” I’m asking you: “What are you thinking about right now? What’s on your mind?” And you might tell me, you know, some problem you’re having. “You know, I had a fight with my brother. That’s on my mind right now, that’s what I’m thinking about.” You can also say: “I have a lot on my mind.” When somebody says this it means they’re saying: “I’m thinking about some problem I’m having”. “I have a lot on my mind”, it means I’m thinking about a lot of problems right now or a big problem I have. So you’ll see often in TV or movies somebody says: -“What’s wrong?” -“Oh, I have a lot on my mind right now, sorry.” Okay? Meaning: “I have a lot of things I’m dealing with at the moment” or “I have a lot of problems in my life”.

Okay? So: “on my mind” has to do with thoughts, often it has to do with problems and thinking about problems. Now, let’s look at some other examples with the word “mind” when we’re talking about thoughts and the brain. Okay, so our next expression also has to do with thinking, thoughts, and the brain, and that’s: “have in mind”. Okay? So: “have in mind”. So, when you have something in mind or someone in mind, what it means is that you are thinking about a person for a position…

So, for example: -“Who are you voting for?” -“I have Trudeau in mind”, so I am thinking about Trudeau for the position of Prime Minister. Or, you know, maybe if you’re following American politics, you know, if Hillary Clinton is running, you might say: -“Who are you voting for?” -“Oh, I have Hillary in mind.” This could also be for a promotion at work. Maybe you need to hire somebody for your company or promote somebody, so you want to give somebody a job. -“Who do you have in mind for the job?” -“Oh, I have my sister in mind” or -“I have George in mind. He’s a good employee.” So it’s where you’re thinking or it’s like your opinion about a person for a position. You think this person is good for this position, so you have this person in mind for this position. We can also use it with a thing also. It doesn’t always have to be a person. For example, when we are thinking about something, some sort of object that is right for a situation.

So, for example, you know, I’m pretty hungry right now, I’m thinking about dinner. So somebody might say: “Oh, what do you have in mind for dinner?” So: -“What are you thinking about for dinner? What is right for dinner?” -“In my opinion, I have pizza in mind.” That’s what I’m thinking about, I’m thinking about pizza. Pizza is right for this situation. Okay? So, again, we can use it either with a person or a thing, but you’re pretty much saying that this is right for this situation in your opinion. Okay. Our next expression is: “lose someone’s mind”. Okay? I really like this expression. When you lose your mind it means you go crazy. So, for example: “I’m losing my mind. The cat is speaking English.” Okay? So this means I’m going crazy because cats, of course, don’t speak English, so I’m losing my mind. We can also use it if somebody’s doing something very strange, you know: “I think my dad has lost his mind. He’s, you know, wearing a winter jacket and it’s summertime. I think my dad has lost his mind.

I think my dad has gone crazy.” So, we use this expression a lot, especially in conversation. All right, now let’s look at some other expressions to do with the mind. Okay, so our next expression is: “cross someone’s mind”, so this could be: “cross my mind”, “cross your mind”, “cross her mind”, “cross his mind”, and what it means is when we think of an idea very quickly. Okay? An idea comes into our head very quickly.

So, for example: “It just crossed my mind that I need to buy bread today.” It means I’ve just really quickly come up with this idea. Or: “It crossed my mind that I should bring an umbrella because it’s going to rain.” So it just means a quick idea. Okay, our next expression: “Give a piece of someone’s mind.” I really like this expression. It means when you’re giving someone an angry opinion. Okay? So, when you give a piece of your mind, you’re usually angry like this. So maybe, you know, you want to call your telephone company and you’ve been waiting, and waiting, and waiting, and nobody’s answering the phone. You might say to yourself: “I’m going to give them a piece of my mind.” It means: “I’m going to give them my angry opinion.

I’m so angry right now.” So: “She gave them a piece of her mind.” Okay? If I ever meet… You know, like, maybe there’s somebody you don’t like: “If I ever meet Johnny I’m going to give him a piece of my mind.” It means I’m going to tell him my angry opinion about him. Okay? What I don’t like about him. Okay, the next one is also an expression, I love this expression actually. When your “mind goes blank”. Okay? This happens to me all the time. What it means is when you forget everything. Okay? You forget what you’re going to say, you forget what you’re supposed to do, you forget everything, and your mind… You don’t remember what you’re supposed to do. So, for example, if you have ever taken a test and you get the piece of paper, you get the test, and you look at it and suddenly: “Oh my god, I don’t remember anything. Oh my god, I’ve forgotten everything.” That means your mind has gone blank.

Or if somebody asks you a question, you know: “Can…?” Like, you know: “What’s…? What’s your phone number?” Maybe if you’re, like, forgetful, you don’t remember. “Oh, my mind just went blank. I don’t remember. I need to, you know, memorize it.” Okay? So when your mind goes blank it’s usually because you’re nervous or tired and you forget everything. Okay? And then maybe you remember in a minute, but at that moment you don’t remember anything.

Okay, so: “My mind just went blank.” My mind always goes blank. Okay, the final example of these brain expressions with “mind” is: “Make up someone’s mind.” So, when somebody makes up their mind it means they decide something, they decide to do something. Okay? So I can say: “I have made up my mind. I’m going to university.” It means I’ve decided to go to university. We could say: “Philip made up his mind. He’s going to get pizza for dinner tonight.” Or: “Susan made up her mind. She’s going to the prom with Johnny.” Just another example. So, when you make up your mind, you decide to do something.

“I’ve made up my mind. I’m going to be an astronaut.” Another example, okay, of deciding to do something. So now let’s look at some expressions that have to do with “mind” when we’re talking about being polite and politeness. Okay, so we can also use the word “mind” when we are trying to be polite. And usually we use it this way if we are asking permission for something or if we are requesting something. Pretty much we are asking: Is something okay? And this is a very polite way to ask that. So, for example: “Do you mind if _______?”, “Do you mind if I smoke?” So this is a question where you’re politely asking: “Is it okay if I smoke?” Okay? So, we don’t usually… Well, we sometimes talk this way to our friends, but we usually use this in formal situations or with strangers, or with people we don’t really know that well.

But we can also use it with friends, too. “Do you mind if I smoke?” So you’re asking permission. “Is it okay if I smoke?”, “Do you mind if I open the window?”, “Do you mind if I turn off the light?”, “Do you mind if I borrow your books?” Okay? So, again, you’re asking permission. Now, if it’s okay, you can say: “I don’t mind.” This means: “It’s okay”. “I don’t mind if you open the window.”, “I don’t mind if you smoke.”, “I don’t mind if you borrow my books.” You’re saying: “It’s okay if you do this.” You don’t even need this. If you want, you can say: “Sure. I don’t mind.” So, you know, you don’t need the full sentence, you can just say: “I don’t mind”, and that’s okay, too.

What about if you do mind? What about if it’s not okay? If somebody says: “Do you mind if I smoke?” and you’re not okay with it, what you can say is: “I prefer if you didn’t”. -“Do you mind if I open the window?” -“Well, I’d prefer if you didn’t.” Okay? So we say: “I don’t mind” if it’s okay, and we can say it in different ways, but one way is if you have a problem you can say: “I’d prefer it if you didn’t.” Okay, and then we also have another expression which means very similar: “Would you mind _______?” So this is a very polite way to speak, just like: “Do you mind?”, “Would you mind getting me some coffee?” So in this case I’m asking somebody to do something for me, so I’m requesting something. I want somebody to do something for me and I’m asking: “Is it okay? Is it okay for you…? Do you mind if you get me some coffee?”, “Would you mind getting me some coffee?” I’m requesting for the person to do something for me. “Would you mind if I don’t go to the party?”, “Is it okay if I don’t go to the party? Would you mind?” So this, again, is very similar to: “Do you mind?” It’s a polite way to either request something or ask for somebody’s permission to see if something is okay.

So these are all very polite ways to speak. So we’ve now covered “mind” when we’re talking about the brain and thinking, we’ve covered “mind” when we’re talking about being polite and requesting or asking permission for something. And now let’s look at the final way we use “mind”, which is when we’re telling somebody to pay attention to something. Okay, so our next expression has to do with paying attention. It means you’re telling somebody to be careful about some sort of danger, and so that sentence is: “Mind the _______!” and then here you put whatever the danger is.

So, for example: “Mind the gap.” If you’ve ever been on the subway or the tube and you see there’s, like, between the train and the platform, there’s like a hole, sometimes people might trip on that so you’ll see signs saying: “Mind the gap”, which means: “Be careful about the gap. Pay attention for this gap.” Or on a rainy day when it rains, the ground has puddles on it. So, a puddle is like a lot of water, and what you might tell your friend is: “Oh wait, mind the puddle”, meaning: “Pay attention.

There’s a puddle there.” Or maybe you see dog poo on the sidewalk, and you’re about to step in it and your friend says: “Mind the dog shit.” Okay? Or: “Mind the dog poo”, if you want to be more polite. So, you know, you see these different dangers. Sometimes they’re not dangers, but you really don’t want to step in dog doo-doo, so that’s an example. So anytime you’re telling somebody: “Be careful. Pay attention to this” and it’s kind of urgent, you can use: “Mind the _______.” We also have: “Keep in mind”. So, “keep in mind” means you’re telling somebody to pay attention to something and not forget to remember something. Okay? So, for example: “Keep in mind the bus leaves at 8 pm.” This means: “Remember”, or, you know: “Keep this on your mind. Don’t forget this. Pay special attention to this, the bus leaves at 8 pm.” Or imagine your boss is going on vacation and you’re not going to be able to contact them, your boss might tell you: “Keep in mind I’m going on vacation on Tuesday.” Okay? So: “Keep in mind” means: “Please remember this.” You’re pretty much reminding somebody about something, you’re telling them to put…

Or to pay attention to it, to put some sort of focus on it, and to remember it. Okay? So we’ve covered a lot of different expressions, and just to tell you this, when we cover a lot of expressions it’s very easy to forget some of the ones we cover because we have covered many. What I recommend is maybe working on three or four a day, and then just come back to the video, watch again, learn some new expressions, practice those ones, and once you’re comfortable with those ones maybe work on some of the other expressions we’ve covered in this video. You don’t have to learn them all at the same time; you can do a little bit every day, and that way you will remember a lot more.

On that note, I invite you to come check out our website at www.engvid.com and there you can actually find a quiz where we have all of these expressions and you can practice using them in our quiz. So I highly recommend that for practice. Another point is I’d like you to invite you to subscribe to our channel. There, you will find a lot of incredible videos on all sorts of things. We have more vocabulary videos, grammar, pronunciation, IELTS, TOEFL, business English, all sorts of different resources that are very helpful for students. So I highly recommend you check that out. Until next time, take care. And I will see you later..

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