IELTS Speaking Test Band 9

Good morning ma’am may I come in, yes please thank you so much this is the speaking test of the International English Language Testing system taking place on Saturday the 21st of October at the Falcon Center the Center number is FC two six zero one the candidate is Harish Rao and the candidate number is zero zero zero eight five zero zero the examiner is Manjita Osta and the examiner number is two zero zero five zero one good afternoon what’s your full name please my name is Harish Rao and what should I call you you can call me Harish now in this first part I’d like to ask you questions about yourself let’s talk about where you live where do you live in your country? I live in a place called Bombay which is now called Mumbai it belongs to the west part of India in the state of Maharashtra it’s called the city of dreams because many people aspire to make it big in Indian films which is called Bollywood.

Would you recommend others to visit it and why? yes definitely I would definitely recommend people coming into Bombay for few things especially to witness the amazing enthusiasm when it comes to Bollywood and cricket and in order to taste mouth-watering food in the city and also be part of the array of processions which happen for different festivals across the nation at different times of the year. Has it changed in the last decade and how? yes definitely I think there are a lot of changes which have happened in the past decade few things notably changed are pollution and population. I think they have increased an alarming rate property prices have also skyrocketed due to which it’s costing an arm and leg for a middle-class family to afford a decent place in the city mainly where there are facilities available like highly accessible public transport good schools and colleges and also shops to shop your groceries or to buy clothes it’s become really very costly on the upside though they have been a lot of changes in the infrastructure in the city they have been a lot of colleges which have come up due to which numerous number of people are going to colleges as compared to before there have been a lot of malls which have come up due to which a lot of spending habits which has been seen amongst people of the city there are lot of varieties of things to shop these days because of these things now let’s talk about interests and hobbies what’s a favorite hobby? Coming from the city of Mumbai it gives me an opportunity and platform to you know pursue a lot of hobbies few would be food related hobbies and movie related ones I am a foodie so I like to try out a lot of cuisines plethora of them available in streets of Mumbai or probably in fancy restaurants I am also a movie buff so I like to watch movies on action genre more than the comedy ones especially the Transformers and the Mission Impossible and The Matrix it’s just amazing to watch so many of them and also a couple of Bollywood movies where our actors show amazing movie action which are really entertaining.

What hobbies and interest you had when you were in school? Well I was an avid Philatelist and had a hobby of collecting a lot of stamps from different countries in the world I was fond of history and a lot of historical monuments like Statue of Liberty and Taj Mahal being part of the stamps used to really make me collect those and also you know different historical figures like Queen Elizabeth or Gandhi or Hitler will also make me make me feel that the stamp is quite significant in it’s value that’s nice do you think one should be encouraged to take up hobbies professionally? Well I believe that hobbies can be taken up professionally and I’ve seen a lot of examples in the world who have taken hobbies professionally and they made it big in their in their passion all right now let’s move on to food so what cuisines are famous in your city? well there are lot of cuisines available in the city which I I cannot recollect a lot of stuff but there are three main dishes which are which I’m really fond of namely Vada Pao Pao Bhaji and Pani Puri there are amazing street food available in the city of Mumbai and probably available 24 by 7 if you want to hunt those in the streets and I really love them which this you enjoy the most as a child? the one which I loved the most was Vada Pav it’s an amazing potato dumpling which is deep fried and then it’s available at practically any Street which you go where you see street food available and it’s it’s wrapped up into a hot bread and so with a lot of spices should the restaurant modify their cuisines as per the customers need or should they stick to the original recipe? the world is becoming a global village and Fusion is becoming the mantra these days I believe that customizing the food as per the spice level and the allergens should definitely be encouraged by the restaurants now I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes you have one minute to think about what you are going to say and you can make some notes if you wish do you understand? Sure.

I’d like you to describe a sport which you think is underappreciated okay so you have one to two minutes to speak on this topic don’t worry if I stop you I’ll let you know by the timer is up you may start to speak now please according to me table tennis is a sport is underappreciated it’s commonly called as ping pong if it’s played in leisure but it is also called as table tennis if it’s played as a serious sport table tennis as a sport is practiced almost in all countries in the world and it’s also part of the Olympics and the Commonwealth Games the equipment needed for it is a good blade a nice set of rubbers which are quite speedy and spinny a rock solid table a net which which doesn’t sag a really firm flooring which gives good grip to your foot and you don’t slip and many other things probably a good Robo if you want to increase your agility and reflexes or if you don’t have a training partner so you can use the robot to play with I think even after having so many positives in this sport it is still under appreciated because of various aspects like few other sports for example in India cricket or badminton now or tennis they are highly marketed because of the commercial aspect of it I am not saying that the players in belonging to the sport don’t do a lot, yes they practice a lot but there are various and commercial aspects from money perspective from a power and influence perspective because of which these games are highly seen in India which probably overshadows table tennis I would say that cricket majorly overshadows table tennis because there are so many people who follow cricket as a religion more than a sport there’s a lot of betting going on when it comes to cricket probably a match you might see about a billion dollars in bet mainly because it’s so much popular in the inner most cities and inner most villages in India because people love the spirit of cricket.

Would you like to play this sport ever? actually I do play the sport and I treat it very seriously mainly because it helps me in my agility and my day to day hand eye coordination different kinds of neuro related activities and it definitely develops a lot of senses basic senses in you so I love to play table tennis and I would like to take it to a professional level at some stage thank you can I have the paper and the pen back please, yes, thank you. now you’ve been telling me about sports so I’d like to ask you some more questions related to it let’s talk about the attitude to in sports do you think sports should be given the same importance as academics in your country? well I believe yes it should be given the same importance of the academies in my country because I believe that sports and academics go hand in hand and why do you think that because a human body does a lot in terms of academics by consuming its mental energy so there has to be some compensation to that by giving some physical energy emitting some physical energy so I believe that in order to have a complete stable state of mind and body you need to play sports as well and it also helps in developing a lot of neurological skills reflexes agility which also help in being really alert in your academics and also having a good presence of mind overall.

Why do you think that parents encourage their children to focus more on their studies than on sports activities? well it’s because of the majority of the population back in India they it belongs to the middle class society which has a lot of social economical pressures due to which academics has been always in the forefront because that’s the sole way of earning money in a most natural and a normal way if you consider sports sports requires a lot of commitment and it may also sometimes be possible that you may not succeed and in the sport to the level that you can earn a stable set of income so that’s reason why parents being concerned encourage children to be more on academics than on sports do you think sports is treated merely as a hobby in your country? well it’s perceived to be taken as a hobby in my country kids to take it seriously when they play any sport in childhood but there are social economical pressures which let them take priorities on pursuing academics more than sports after certain age if they belong to a middle class or probably a poor family in order to sustain some good stable income in the future so it is perceived but I am pretty sure that there are a lot of people who want to pursue sport seriously but not given the platform to be successful in that in that sport what are taking or whatever they are talented in but if given a platform I think they would probably take sports as a career if given a choice which sport would you play for the rest of your life and why? I would play table tennis and basketball for the rest of my life because it comes really naturally to me I love the fact that there’s a lot of adrenaline and there’s a lot of you know my senses are kept alive till the day I die when I place these kind of sports so I would keep playing these sports for the rest of my life sure now let’s move on to talk about the gender aspect of sport do you think women are considered to be less strong than men when it comes to sports? On no, women are equally talented as men and in fact sports has its own beauty it’s not at all related to gender it’s actually related to how you perform from an absolute scale perspective and you decide your scale you decide where you want to go you decide how far you want to reach in that sport and it’s absolutely nobody stopping you just because you’re woman or a man.

Thank You Than you very much Harish this is the end of the speaking test. Thank you. Hi welcome back so I hope you’ve made note of the IELTS speaking test format and you understood how to answer each section well I know a lot of you are looking for speaking partners because I get that question a lot in my emails in the comment all my messages which come to me so let me tell you that I personally use Cambly. Cambly is an amazing app it basically helps you do a one-on-one practice lesson with native english-speaking tutors they would basically be from countries like the USA Canada or the UK and no matter where you live in or what time zone you are in you will always have a tutor at hand that’s the beauty of it it has tutors 24/7 all you have to do is just select one future and start speaking or practicing why don’t I do one thing I’ll quickly show you how to use it hey guys hi so this is the Cambly app which I have on my phone so all I need to do is just click onto it set up an account of course and on top you see there is home there is tutors and there is topics so we will click on to tutors and these are the tutors which we will get there are different tutors from different english-speaking countries like UK USA Canada Australia and you can choose which tutor you want so let’s see you will also know that there are these green dots beside each tutor which shows that they are available a red dot would mean that they are busy the moment and you see that faces are changing this means the tutors are being updated as per their time zone so let’s pick up a tutor so I think I will go for let’s say Sarah Sarah has been scored four point nine out of five so there’s a rating if I click onto Sarah this is the profile of Sarah so we know that whom are we talking with and what experience our tutor would have so let’s quickly get on to Sarah.

So Hi I’m Sarah and you are Manjita. Yes Sarah, that’s lovely I’m happy to hear that you could pronounce my name correctly very few do that, I am really glad to meet you how are doing today. I’m really great and hope you’re doing well as well I had prepared to speak on a particular topic and I wanted to have a quick chat with you share that with you and probably understand if I can make it better. (absolutely) so I wanted to speak sure and I wanted to speak on the most memorable day of my life well my last birthday was the most memorable day of my life I went to ski to New Zealand it was great breathtaking experience the snow was good the weather was good I was really excited the equipment’s were heavy but I was happy to use them and the best part is that I was able to ski now I’m really glad about it it was I was happy and it was a great experience so that’s it That is super English Manjita.

Thank you. Usual words are not stronger sometimes in the way that you say things for example you could say the weather was absolutely fabulous okay rather than saying the weather was nice the ski was great the ski was wonderful yes I I guess I got what you are trying to say (I am delighted to be there). yeah yeah nice is a very average word okay it’s a nice day and the weather is nice the pudding is nice the dog is nice but if you’re having the best day of your life things are much better than nice mm-hmm probably I can say that the view was mesmerizing absolutely mesmerizing awesome wonderful superb perfect all right sure great Sarah nice talking to you I think I got a lot of ideas and going ahead (you’re welcome) yeah and and I’ll try adding these adjectives in my preparation as well bye it was a pleasure to talk to you okay bye-bye well it’s that simple this video was done in association with Cambly and they’ve been very kind to help my viewers and subscribers with a special discount so if you’re looking for using this app I highly recommend it and please give it a shot if you are looking for specific links or further description everything is there in the description box below all you have to do is just hit the link and you will get your discount code by the way my dear keep practicing all the very best and you are my rock star and you will be a champion soon best of luck with your IELTS speaking test you you

As found on Youtube

Study English – Series 2, Episode 17: Naturopathic Medicine

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today on Study English, you’ll have the chance to practice your reading comprehension skills. These are important skills, not just for the IELTS reading test, but for general academic studies as well. Today, we’ll focus on the skills you need to answer the range of question types in the IELTS reading test. Let’s begin by taking a look at the text. So there’s our comprehension piece. It seems quite long. But let’s start at the beginning. Read the title. We know that the passage is about naturopathic medicine. Do you know anything about the subject? You know the word medicine, but maybe not naturopathic.

It’s OK if you don’t. You don’t need to understand every word. We can probably figure out the meaning by paying attention to the context the word is used in, or by looking closely at the parts of the word. We know that naturopathic is an adjective, because it qualifies medicine. Now, let’s break naturopathic down. The first part naturo- sounds like nature.

The ending is the suffix -ic. Do you know other words that end in -ic? How about photographic or historic? The suffix -ic means relating to or of. So we could guess that naturopathic means something like relating to nature. Then we can guess that the meaning of naturopathic medicine is something like medicine that heals in a natural way. Can you think of any words you know that might belong to this subject? How about: herbs plants health healing or disease Let’s look at the text again. After you’ve looked at the heading, look for some other clues as to what it is about.

Are there any illustrations or diagrams? What’s the layout like? All these things will help your understanding of the subject. What kind of text do you think this is? It doesn’t look like a newspaper article or an instruction manual. It’s not an advertisement or a timetable. It’s probably an article from a journal. We can tell by the style, the subject and the way it looks. Did you notice the asterisk near the end of the text? When an asterisk is used like this, extra information or explanation is given at the bottom of the page. What we’ve just done is to use the skills of previewing and predicting. We put together all the information we could about the text we are reading.

We looked for a title, a diagram or any other information set apart – like the asterisk at the end of the text. We also made some educated guesses about what is in the article, by predicting some common words we might expect to see. Previewing and predicting before you start reading can help you process information quickly, because you know what to expect. It can also help you to follow the author’s ideas better, because you’ve prepared yourself for the text before reading it. Let’s get back to the text. How is it organised? It’s divided into paragraphs. Here, we have 2 paragraphs: paragraph A and paragraph B. Usually, a reading passage would have an introductory paragraph, several body paragraphs and a conclusion. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence. The topic sentence will give the main idea or subject of a paragraph. The skill of skimming involves reading over a paragraph very quickly to get a general sense of what it is about.

When you skim a text, you just want to get a general idea of the content. You’re not trying to read every word. If you just read the first and last sentences, you can often get a good idea of the main subject of the paragraph. Let’s try with paragraph A. Naturopathic Medicine Since the earliest beginnings, every known culture has been treating disease with natural therapies. So what is the main subject of paragraph A? Well we read about: the early beginnings of cultures types of natural therapies and cultures and natural therapies Can you choose which one of these things tells us what the text is about most accurately? Number one talks about beginnings of cultures. The text is probably not about that. It’s a bit too broad to be the topic sentence. So you might think it’s number 2 – types of natural therapies. This choice is too narrow. The text is about more than just natural therapies.

It’s number 3 that covers the idea of the whole paragraph. It is about cultures and natural therapies. This is what the topic sentence is expressing. You will be tested on your understanding of main ideas, so it’s a good idea to practice matching headings to paragraphs. When you need to look for specific information, like a name, date or place, you can scan a text. When you scan, your eyes move across the page very quickly looking for specific information. You can then skip over less important words. Let’s try to scan over the text to find answers to some short answer questions. Here’s our question: The early books of which countries mention natural healing methods? We’re going to scan the text, looking for the key words. The first known medical books of China, India and Greece all mention formulas used in healing. So we can answer by writing: China, India and Greece Let’s try another short answer question. Who was the father of Western Medicine? Here are the key words. Let’s scan the text. Hippocrates is the father of Western Medicine.

You can also use these skills when you need to answer multiple-choice questions, label a diagram or complete a table. Let’s take a quick look back over the skills we’ve used today: We looked at using previewing skills to predict what the text was going to be about. We talked about looking at the title, diagrams and style of the layout for clues to what the text might be about. We practised predicting the topic and guessing vocabulary that might be in the text. Next, we practiced skimming to find the topic sentence of the paragraph. Finally, we talked about scanning for keywords. And that’s all for today, but you can try out these skills and more on the Study English website. I’ll see you next time. Bye bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Study English – Series 3, Episode 2: Writing Task Response

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. I’m Margot Politis. Today we’ll look at the Writing Task in the essay section of both the general and academic IELTS tests. IELTS essay topics are of general interest and relate to current issues in society. You can expect to be asked about: The media, education, environment, health, communication, technology and society. Being familiar with issues in these general areas is important. Listening to English language media will help you develop a bank of ideas on topics like this. An issue in health could be about children eating too much and not exercising enough. You could be asked to discuss a statement such as: Children’s eating habits and lifestyles today are more likely to be harmful than beneficial. You should know the essay instructions. These tell you how much time you have and how much you need to write. You are instructed to spend about 40 minutes writing the essay, which has to be at least 250 words.

With practice you’ll know without counting what your 250 words look like. You will also be asked to give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is one of the instructions, so you need to follow it. Reasons are saying why you think something is true or not. You could write: An increasing number of children are becoming obese because they are eating too much junk food. Reasons are supported by examples, like this: For example, aggressive marketing of such foods towards children is one of the contributing factors. Relevant examples are examples like this that are clearly connected to the question. Now let’s look at an essay question, and how to analyse it before you write your answer. How well you do this will help with your task response, which is one of the criteria used to assess the essay. Let’s look at a question topic. Here’s a typical statement: The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation.

With this is something called the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? The essay question is always presented in this way as a statement followed by the question task. First, let’s look at the statement. Read it carefully. The ageing populations of more developed countries are going to cause social and economic problems for society in the future, especially for the younger generation. You should ask yourself ‘who or what must I write about?’ Here, you have to say something about ageing populations, developed countries, society in the future and the younger generation. Highlight these and any other key phrases, such as ’cause social and economic problems’. Think about what these phrases mean. Thinking of synonyms or words that mean something similar can help you do this. And you will need these synonyms later in your essay. Synonyms for ageing populations are: the elderly, retired people, the aged and pensioners.

They’re the people living longer or ageing. Developed countries – refers to modern industrial societies that have to financially support retired people. Synonyms are: western countries, first world countries and advanced economies. Social and economic problems are two kinds of problems. Social problems are problems that affect people, perhaps in areas such as health and education. Economic problems are problems to do with the economy of a country and its ability to pay for the services it provides. Society in the future means the country or nation or state in the future. And the younger generation are younger people or people who work. They’re the people who are not yet part of the ageing population. So you can rephrase or paraphrase the question like this: The younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer. The next thing to look at is the question task: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘To what extent’ means by how much. Here you’re being asked to give your opinion about the statement. You might agree with it or you might think it is wrong.

It’s a good idea to reword this type of question into a ‘yes/no’ question like this: Do you agree that the younger generation will experience social and economic difficulties because people are living longer? Yes or no? You could think, yes, I agree completely or perhaps yes, I agree with some of this, but disagree with other parts of it. But keep in mind that asking how much you agree or disagree tests your ability to look at 2 sides of an issue and present a balanced argument. Even if you say yes and agree completely, you still have to look at the other side of the argument and think about why someone would disagree. You would need to write two body paragraphs in an essay of this type, one saying what you agree with and one saying what you disagree with. In the conclusion of your essay you would state your position on the topic.

Let’s look at another question. Internet access should be under government control to avoid any potential harm to children. Who or what must you write about? The internet, government and children. Now highlight other key phrases – under government control, avoid any potential harm. Let’s think of synonyms. We know what the internet is, but what other words can we use? – the net, the web, online, cyberspace.

Under government control means controlled by the government. Other words for government are the state or the administration. Potential harm means bad things that might happen. Synonyms for potential are possible or likely. And other words for harm are: damage and hurt. So we could paraphrase this statement as: The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. The same question task we looked at earlier can be used: To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? You are being asked for your opinion. What you need to do here is say what you think.

The state should control access to the web to avoid possible damage to children. Yes or no? Now you should think about reasons for your point of view and why you don’t agree with the opposite view. So, to recap. The way you respond to the question and the instructions is part of what you are being marked on. The examiners call it task response. Make sure you follow the instructions and write the correct number of words.

That’s all for now. Don’t forget to visit our website at: australianetwork.com/studyenglish for more. I’ll see you next time on Study English.. “}

As found on Youtube

Hypnotherapy in Brighton

Study English – Series 2, Episode 6: Lasers

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to learn about lasers – what are they, and how they work. We’ll also practice structuring a description of how something works, and we’ll work on our vocabulary for describing colours. Let’s begin by listening to Imogen Jubb talk about the history and the science of lasers. Lasers are used in all sorts of settings like welding, cutting, surgery, communications, reading bar codes at the supermarket or reading the information stored on a CD or DVD. There are many types of lasers but they all have 3 main parts to them. They all have an energy source, such as a lamp, some sort of feedback mechanism, like this pair of mirrors, and also some medium, like the ruby crystal, which can amplify the light. Now the first laser was built in the 1960s. It was made from a ruby crystal, some lamps and 2 mirrors, one on either side of the crystal.

I’ve got a sort of model of it here. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. Some of this light bounces backwards and forwards between the two mirrors, and passes through the crystal each time. Each time the light goes through the crystal, it gets amplified, stimulating the same energy release in other parts of the crystal. So after many times in between the two mirrors, and many reflections passing through the crystal, you end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light that is just one colour.

One of the mirrors is only partially reflective, so some light passes out as the laser beam. Before Imogen explains the laser to us, she starts with an ‘introduction’, or ‘orientation’. That way, we know what to focus on. If you’re describing a device or a tool, it’s a good idea to introduce it by naming it and describing what it’s used for. This is useful in spoken English, and it’s also a good way to begin if you are writing in formal English. Listen to how Imogen introduces the laser. Lasers are used in all sorts of settings like welding, cutting, surgery, communications, reading bar codes at the supermarket or reading the information stored on a CD or DVD. She talks about the function of the laser and lists a few of the things we use lasers for today. In formal writing, if you were to introduce a discussion of lasers, you could structure your opening paragraph in a few ways.

One idea would be to start like this: A laser is a device designed to intensify a beam of light. Or, you might choose to write: The diagram is of a laser designed to scan barcodes. But Imogen chooses to begin by telling us what lasers are used for. She begins: Lasers are used in all sorts of settings. In your introduction, you could give some background about the device. Once the device has been introduced, you can talk about it in more detail. Let’s listen to Imogen describe the parts of the laser. How many parts are there and what are they? There are many types of lasers but they all have 3 main parts to them.

They all have an energy source, such as a lamp, some sort of feedback mechanism, like this pair of mirrors, and also some medium, like the ruby crystal, which can amplify the light. She talks about three main parts. All lasers have: an energy source, a feedback mechanism, and a medium to amplify light. In formal writing, we could structure this information in a number of ways. We might say that: A laser consists of a number of parts. Or: All lasers are comprised of three parts. Both of these sentences are structured to include a subject, a verb, and an object. You would then follow with a list or another sentence detailing exactly what the three parts are, in order: These are the energy source, the feedback mechanism and, finally, a medium to amplify the light. Imogen then explains how each part of the device functions.

Let’s listen as she describes each part. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. Some of this light bounces backwards and forwards between the two mirrors, and passes through the crystal each time. Each time the light goes through the crystal, it gets amplified, stimulating the same energy release in other parts of the crystal. So you can see how Imogen has built up a clear image of the device. In formal written English, you might finish off by explaining the ‘purpose’ of the device. You could say: The purpose of the laser is to generate an intense beam of light. Let’s hear how Imogen finishes her description. So after many times in between the two mirrors, and many reflections passing through the crystal, you end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light that is just one colour. She finishes by talking about what the purpose of the laser is, what it produces. She says: You end up with a very strong, narrow beam of light.

So let’s review how Imogen has structured her explanation. First, there was an ‘introduction’ to the object. Imogen told us that we were talking about the laser and then gave us some background. She then moved into the ‘body of the description’. She told us that it is made up of three parts, and listed those parts. In your writing, you might write three separate ‘body paragraphs’ – one for each of the parts. Then, you’d finish off with a ‘statement of purpose’ – what the object’s overall purpose is. Now let’s finish by listening to Imogen one more time, and then we’re going to talk about colours. The lamp shines white light onto the crystal, which is represented by this tube. Pumping energy into the crystal actually gives off light at a particular frequency to produce a particular colour. When energy passes through the crystal, it gives off a particular colour of light. Light contains all the colours of the ‘spectrum’, or the ‘rainbow’. These are: red orange yellow green blue indigo violet We talk about shades of colour in different ways – most commonly by using light and dark.

For example: light blue dark blue Or sometimes we refer to nature, for example: sky blue forest green fiery red We also use precious stones to describe colour. For example: sapphire blue emerald green ruby red And that brings us to the end of Study English today. But for more information on structuring descriptions go to our website. You will find notes, exercises and quizzes to help you. Just go to abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish. And I’ll se you next time for more IETLS preparation. Bye bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Hypnotherapy for anxiety

Study English – Series 3, Episode 26: Giving Advice

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis. What should you do to stay healthy? This is a possible question in IELTS. How might you reply to such a question – what language choices do you have? The language function required is “giving advice”. Today we’ll look at language choices in English for giving advice. First, let’s listen to someone giving advice about health: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure.

“Prevention is better than cure”. This is a common saying that means it’s better to avoid getting sick than trying to cure the sickness later. So what does our advisor recommend we do to prevent getting ill? There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep, then we should stay healthy. What sort of language does she use for giving advice? First she uses the modal verb ‘should’. Listen again: There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest. The word ‘should’ is used in a number of ways. Here it indicates advisability – there are several things we should do to keep fit. Listen to another use of should with this meaning: You should try to walk a couple of kilometres every day.

The negative form “shouldn’t” is often used to give advice about what not to do. There are three things that you shouldn’t do. You shouldn’t smoke, you shouldn’t eat too much junk food and you shouldn’t drink too much alcohol. There is another modal verb that is used in the same way as should, but is a more formal choice, ought. It’s used by this man in an interview about immigration to Australia and its impact on the environment: It’s an open question whether people are applying more strain on the environment if they’re living in a flood plain in Bangladesh than if they’re living in Australia. Secondly, I think that if you’re worried about the environmental sustainability of the pattern of economic growth in Australia – and there are good reasons why you might be – then you ought to be looking at policies to reduce, say, carbon dioxide emissions, water usage, regardless of how many foreigners you let in or don’t let in.

“You ought to be looking at policies”. You could also say you should be looking at policies. Advice is suggesting choices, so you don’t use the word must. There is no choice when you say must – it’s an obligation or something you have to do. Sometimes you need to suggest choices in a way that doesn’t upset the person you are advising. Instead of saying ‘You shouldn’t smoke’, you can express it as a question: Shouldn’t you give up smoking? A more formal way of saying this uses the word oughtn’t: Oughtn’t you give up smoking? In the next clip, listen to another way of using should: If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. Here, should expresses the idea that this is likely to happen if the condition – having a good diet – is met. This is called a conditional.

The negative form, shouldn’t, is used in a similar way here: In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. It is a common language feature to use conditionals when giving advice, like this: If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. But you don’t always have to use ‘then’ after the ‘if’ clause: If you feel unusually sick, you need to consult a doctor. And the ‘if’ clause doesn’t need to be at the beginning of the sentence: You need to consult a doctor if you feel unusually sick. There is another structure in English using ‘should’: Should you have any questions, do not hesitate to ask. Here, should means ‘if’ – if you have any questions. It’s a polite invitation which you will often hear on planes. The cabin crew might say to passengers “Should you require any help” Now listen carefully to all the advice and concentrate on what tense is being used for the verbs: Having good health is something we all want. There are several things we should do to keep fit and healthy – eat well, exercise and get plenty of rest.

If we have a good diet, lead an active life and get enough sleep then we should stay healthy. If we get sick, then we need to manage our recovery. There is prevention, and there is cure – but prevention is better than cure. Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables for fibre, and get a good mix of proteins from fish and some meat, and reduce your intake of fatty food, sugar and salt. Exercise every day. You should try to walk a couple of kilometres daily. Playing sport, or going to the gym is an easy way to exercise your body. Exercise helps to relieve stress. You also need to rest. Health experts say we need about 8 hours sleep a night, but some people need less than this. If you feel unusually sick you need to consult a doctor. Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. Did you notice that many of the verbs were the base form, such as avoid or stay.

Listen again: Avoid close contact with others when you are feeling unwell. Stay at home for as long as the doctor advises you. In any case, lead a healthy lifestyle and you shouldn’t get sick. This is called the imperative form and it’s used for giving advice, and also to give orders. For example a teacher may say to a noisy class: Stop talking! Or Be quiet! You also use the imperative when you need to warn someone of danger: Watch out! There’s one more use for the imperative and that’s in instructions.

In the essay section of the IELTS Test you will read: ‘Write at least 250 words.’ In recipes you often see the imperative, like this: Fry the prawns. Chop the leeks. Add the noodles. The negative form of the imperative has don’t in front of it, like this: Make sure you have a balanced diet – don’t overeat and don’t eat the wrong foods. You’ll hear this structure a lot in English. You might hear people, such as parents to their children, say: Don’t forget to telephone. Or Don’t get lost. Finally, you should know the difference between the words advice and advise. Listen to the way they are used by this woman talking about generation Y or gen Y: The baby boomers still like to have face-to-face meetings. They like to chat about certain things. A gen Y would be just as happy for you to send them a text message and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

Advise – spelled with an ‘s’ – is the verb form. Send them a text and advise them of a change of roster. Advice – spelled with a ‘c’ and pronounced with a shorter ‘i’ sound – advice – is the noun. They’re happy to get advice. Listen again: and advise them of a change of roster at work or they’re quite happy to get advice about a new event that’s occurring by text or SMS or even an email.

That’s all for now. For advice on the IELTS Test, visit our Study English website. We strongly advise it. Good luck with your studies. Bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Neuro Linguistic Programming in Brighton

Study English – Series 3, Episode 23: Talking About Food

{“en”:”Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis. The topic of food and the customs around preparing food come up often in the IELTS Speaking Test. It is useful to look at this topic area and think about how to select language and organise a response if you’re asked to talk about food, cooking and diet. Let’s begin by listening to someone talk about the various meals she has during the day: I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner. Let’s go over the language of meals. She mentioned breakfast, the morning meal, lunch, the meal we have in the middle of the day and dinner, which is the evening meal. So what other words are there? In the United States and Britain another word for dinner is supper. In Australia the word supper isn’t used very often and usually refers to a light meal late at night.

In Australia the other word for dinner is tea. Tea can also refer to afternoon tea or high tea, a formal English meal of small sandwiches, scones and a cup of tea. A tea break or a coffee break is a short time during the working day when people have a break with a cup of tea or coffee. Food and drink consumed between meals during the day or night are called snacks. You might hear people talk about ‘brunch’, which is a mid morning meal that combines breakfast and lunch, a bit like the Chinese yum cha. Yumcha is quite familiar to westerners these days and it would be reasonable if asked what your favourite meal is to talk about it as the speaker does here: The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yum cha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. So what might you be asked about meals? You might be asked what you usually have to eat for breakfast or whether you eat breakfast at all. Another common question is ‘What is the main meal of the day?’ How does the speaker answer that? I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner.

Her answer is dinner, but, as would be expected, she expands her answer to talk about other meals too. It is important to distinguish between meal and staple. Staple means the basic food most commonly eaten. For most people in Asia this is rice as it is with our speaker: Rice is the main staple in my diet. Staples in other countries are potatoes, and wheat in its various forms such as bread, pasta or couscous. When preparing for the IELTS Test, it is important to brainstorm a variety of topics and issues – to begin to develop your own ideas, and build up possible responses.

You should: think of examples think of reasons think of useful vocabulary To start you could divide the topic of food into various aspects such as: meat, fish, vegetables and herbs and spices. Cooking styles: boiling, frying and steaming. Cuisines: Italian, Indian and Japanese. Cooking utensils: pots, pans and woks. Eating utensils: plate, bowl, knife, fork, spoon, chopsticks. There are many things to say and ask about these things.

With food types, you might want to say that you don’t eat meat and that you are a vegetarian. You may even avoid eggs, milk and fish as well, in which case you are a vegan. You could be asked why people choose to be a vegetarian or a vegan. A good reason to be vegetarian is that it is a healthy diet, something our speaker is aware of: I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. You may be asked about what healthy food is or if junk food is bad for you and why. With utensils it’s possible that you may be asked to compare chopsticks with forks with a question like: Do you prefer to eat with chopsticks or a fork? Now let’s see if you can work out what question might have prompted our speaker’s reply. Listen to the clip, and think what question might have been asked.

Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. Perhaps she was asked: ‘Describe what you usually eat?’ That would require describing in the answer. Or ‘What do you usually eat?’, where you would have to identify what you eat. Which question is more likely? Listen again: Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables. She’s identified or named the things she usually eats, so the most likely question would be: ‘What do you usually eat?’ Let’s try it again. What question? Think about the language function she uses: The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague.

What about: ‘Is it better to eat alone or with others?’ That needs you to give an opinion. She talks about eating alone, but doesn’t say that it’s better or worse than eating with others. So that’s not right. She explains who she eats with and when, so it’s more likely to be: ‘Who do you usually eat with?’ Does the answer fit? Let’s try it. The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. Let’s try one more. What might the question be? I don’t cook much.

My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite. What about ‘Can you cook?’ She doesn’t really say if she can or can’t. She just says she doesn’t cook much. It’s probably: ‘Who does the cooking where you live?’ I don’t cook much. My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite.

These questions might be asked individually in Part 1 of the Speaking Test, or joined together in Part 2. Part 2 is the long turn, where you have to talk for one to two minutes in response to a prompt card like this: Talk about what you usually eat every day. You should say: what you eat who you eat with, and who does the cooking where you live Let’s listen to the response: I usually have breakfast every morning, and lunch in the early afternoon, a sandwich usually or some instant noodles, but the main meal of the day for me is normally dinner. That often consists of some meat, maybe grilled, some steamed vegetables and rice. Rice is the main staple in my diet. I try and have a healthy, balanced diet – not much fried, fatty food, and a good mix of fruit and vegetables.

The family usually gets together on Sunday for a traditional Chinese banquet, or yumcha, either at home or in China town, but usually I eat on my own, or have lunch at work with a colleague. I don’t cook much. My mother is a good cook, and can create great meals just from a wok! We have many dishes including roast duck – my favourite. That’s all for now. To find more information about the IELTS Speaking Test, visit our Study English website. Good luck with your studies.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Study English – Series 1, Episode 22: Finance Report

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to another episode of Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to listen to a finance report. It’s filled with numbers and amounts, expressed in a variety of ways. It’s important to be able to understand and describe numerical data using decimals, fractions and currencies. Listen to the day’s finance report. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros.

The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. OK, first we’re going to look at decimals, and how you express them. Listen carefully again. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. In English, decimals are written with a point, not a comma. So we write 4.25, 6.1. When you say the numbers after the decimal point, you say them all separately, as individual numbers. So we have: seventy one point nine five forty seven point one eight nine thousand eight hundred and nine point seven nine Notice that a zero is often spoken as ‘oh’.

Practice saying these numbers: three hundred and twenty six point oh one four point eight nine seven nine hundred and two point three oh eight Listen again: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. You can hear that when using numbers, there are often alternatives, and many choices you can make. So conversationally, we would usually say one hundred and eleven point oh three, but will also often hear one hundred and eleven point zero three.

Here, we could say: zero point four two five nought point four two five or even just point four two five Notice that in North America, people usually say zero, not nought or ‘oh’. OK, now the other way of expressing numbers less than one is using fractions. Listen to the fractions here. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. She uses the most common fraction – a half. Listen to how we say common fractions: a half a third a quarter two thirds five eights three quarters Notice that once you understand the pattern, you can express any fraction you want. Try these: seven eighteenths 16 thirtieths 14 fortieths OK, now listen again to some of the report. Listen for different currencies: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen.

There were a number of different currencies mentioned in that clip: the pound; the euro; the yen; the greenback. Let’s have a look at them. Lots of countries use a dollar. In Australia, the Australian dollar is usually expressed with the dollar sign. But internationally, it’s written like this AUD. We read this the Australian dollar. In United States, they use the dollar as well. It’s the USD, the United States dollar. But often called the greenback, because it’s green. In Great Britain they use the pound. It is written GBP, but it’s often called the pound sterling. In the European Union, they use the euro dollar, written like this – EUR. In Japan, it’s the yen, written JPY. In China, it’s the yuan, written CNY, and the renminbi, RMB.

Notice that we write the currency before the number, but we say it after the number. So we read: two dollars. or four pounds fifteen. Notice also how we read longer numbers: three thousand, four hundred and seventy Japanese yen one hundred and ninety two Australian dollars Notice that when spoken naturally the one often becomes ‘a’ and the ‘and’ becomes squashed. We don’t say one hundred and ninety two but a hundred n ninety two. Try this one: a hundred and twenty seven thousand, three hundred and twenty two Hong Kong dollars OK, now let’s listen to the report again, and then we’ll look at another important use of numbers. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high.

Notice that she says Tuesday the 11th of November. Saying simple things like the date can be confusing in English, as the way they’re said varies. In Australia, we say the 11th of November, or November the 11th. Notice that it’s written without the words ‘the’, or ‘of’. For the 13th of February 2005, Australians would write this: 13.05.2005. But in North America, they’d write it: 02.13.2005. You’ll need to learn these to make sure you don’t turn up somewhere on the wrong day! So remember that in Australia they write the date: day dot month dot year, but in North America, they write: month dot day dot year. And there is an international standard that says the format should be: year dot month dot day. With numbers, dates, times, there are all sorts of variations. Just make sure you understand the currency, the time and the date, or you could find yourself in all sorts of trouble! And I’ll see you soon for more Study English! Bye bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Study English – Series 1, Episode 5: Global Warming

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to look at a topic you’ve probably heard a lot about – global warming and the environment. First we’re going to look at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas. Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global warming. While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is. OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip. What were some of the ideas you saw? What has caused global warming? We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down. So if you made those notes, you’d get an idea that these were the things causing global warming. Now let’s listen to someone talk about the causes. Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.

Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else? So what is global warming? It’s the result of billions of decisions. It’s caused by decisions made by individuals – like driving big cars rather than small cars. And it’s caused by decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the atmosphere. Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the atmosphere. OK, so you’ve looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and you’ve made notes about some of the causes of global warming. Now let’s look for some of the effects. So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect on weather patterns, and on nature. Listen to the speaker. Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global weather patterns. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So there’s been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave. So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from a text you’ve read, or from listening to someone speak.

This is how you can take notes. Once you’ve got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences. Let’s look at a couple of different ways. The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of statements. This can sometimes be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen. Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills. From the sequence of information, we realise that birds are laying their eggs earlier because gases are making the earth warmer. So a simple list of statements can show a cause and effect relationship. But there are other ways too. You can use the language of cause and effect. We can say: X causes Y. Driving cars causes air pollution. There are many other word choices as well. Driving cars leads to air pollution. Driving cars results in air pollution. Notice you can also turn the sentence around. Air pollution is caused by driving cars.

Air pollution is the result of driving cars. Air pollution is due to driving cars. Listen to an example here. There have been changes in global weather patterns. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. He’s talking about global warming. Global warming is the result of billions of decisions. Global warming is due to billions of decisions. And remember we can turn the sentence around, and change the phrase: Billions of decisions cause global warming. Billions of decisions result in global warming. Billions of decisions lead to global warming. When you’re writing about causes and effects, make sure you use a variety of these kinds of phrases. There are many to choose from. You should make lists of cause and effect language, and the kinds of vocabulary you can use to describe cause and effect relationships.

Now listen to another clip. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills. So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. When you’re writing up your notes using cause and effect language, you’ll need to be able to follow or track the subject of the text. Let’s look at that now. What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. The word ‘it’ here is called a referent. We use referents to identify and track subjects through a conversation or a piece of writing.

If you repeat the subject too many times, your work will sound boring. Listen to this: The woman came into the room. The woman sat down. The woman drank her tea. Look at how we use referents: The woman came into the room. She sat down. She drank her tea. When you are reading, you’ll need to be able to understand referents, and follow the subject through the text. Other referents are: this, that, these, those. Here’s the clip again. Listen to the way the referents are used. What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.

The word it here refers to global warming. What is global warming? Global warming is the result of billions of decisions. And here’s another referent: What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He says: You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He means: You can’t manage global warming at the scale of the individual. But notice how the subject changes here. What is global warming? It’s the result of billions of individual decisions.

You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. That’s why it needs international agreements. Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. The subject of this sentence is ‘managing the atmosphere’. That’s why it needs international agreement. So the ‘it’ here no longer refers to global warming. Now ‘it’ is referring to ‘managing the atmosphere’. That’s why managing the atmosphere needs international agreement. When reading and writing, you must be very careful to notice when subjects change, and to be clear about which subject is being referred to. This can be quite tricky sometime. Next time you see a paragraph, try to highlight all the referents like: it this that these those he she they Then try to work out what subject they are all referring back to.

It’s a great exercise, and it will help your reading, writing and speaking skills. And that’s all for today. Hope you keep enjoying your English studies and Study English! I’ll see you next time.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in Brighton

Study English – Series 2, Episode 8: Air Archive

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re taking a look at tenses. We’ll focus on the present perfect and simple past tenses, and we’ll hear examples of each. Then, we’ll practice using some adverbs of time. The clip we’re looking at today is about greenhouse gases. Scientists have been measuring the concentration of certain gases, stored in ice in Antarctica. Let’s find out more. The air archived in ice helps prove how much the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has changed in just the last two hundred years.

What we’ve found out is that indeed there were much lower concentrations pre-industrially, around about a third of the methane concentration that we have presently. We’ve seen a big increase in carbon dioxide, so the two main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased. If you look back a half a million years ago, we don’t see concentrations anything like we have presently. We can link those high concentrations of the present day uniquely to activities of man – combusting of fossil fuels, clearing of lands and so on, agricultural activities.

As you know, there is a variety of verb tenses in English – simple, perfect and continuous. Tenses are used to describe ‘past’, ‘present’ and ‘future’ actions. Sometimes, we need to give more information about when an action happened, how long it happened for and whether it is continuing. When an action has been completed, we use the present perfect tense. Listen to Dr Etheridge use it here. What we’ve found out is that indeed there were much lower concentrations pre-industrially, around about a third of the methane concentration that we have presently. We’ve seen a big increase in carbon dioxide, so the two main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased. Dr Etheridge uses the present perfect tense. He says: ‘we’ve found out’ He’s talking about an action that has been completed. He also says: ‘we’ve seen’, and ‘greenhouse gases have increased’. These actions started sometime in the past but have now been completed – they are in the present perfect tense. When an action has only recently been completed, we can highlight this by using the adverb ‘just’.

Listen to the reporter. The air archived in ice helps prove how much the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has changed in just the last two hundred years. She says that: “The level of greenhouse gases has changed in ‘just’ the last two hundred years”. By using the word ‘just’, she is telling us that two hundred years isn’t very long in geological time. It’s only ‘just’ happened. She’s also using the present perfect tense.

Let’s have a look at how we structure the present perfect tense. We use the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ and a past participle. So here’s our auxiliary verb: to have – I have, you have, she has, we have, they have And then a past participle – for example: changed, found out, seen, increased or helped. So we have: I have changed you have found out she has seen we have increased they have helped Now let’s take a look at the simple past tense. We use the simple past tense when an action occurs at a particular time in the past. For example: last Christmas or on the 15th of May or in 1979, or three million years ago. Let’s listen to Dr Etheridge.

What we’ve found out is that indeed there were much lower concentrations pre-industrially, around about a third of the methane concentration that we have presently. He says that: “There were much lower concentrations pre-industrially.” This refers to a particular time in the past – that is, ‘pre-industrially’ or ‘before the industrial revolution’ in Europe. The atmosphere was cleaner then because there weren’t industries producing greenhouse gases and other pollution.

So, the simple past tense describes an action that occurred at ‘a specific time’ in the past. But the present perfect tense describes an action that has been completed at ‘some indefinite time’ in the past. We’ve already seen how the reporter uses the adverb ‘just’. ‘Just’ is an adverb of time. There are several adverbs of time. They can be used with the present perfect tense to give a number of different meanings. Listen again. The air archived in ice helps prove how much the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has changed in just the last two hundred years. The reporter uses the adverb ‘just’. When you are using the present perfect to talk about a recently completed action, you can use the adverbs ‘just’, ‘already’, ‘yet’ or ‘still’. For example: The level has changed in ‘just’ two hundred years. The Earth’s atmosphere has ‘already’ been destroyed. The adverbs of time ‘yet’ and ‘still’ are used in question forms and negative constructions. For example: Have you finished your assignment yet? No.

I am still writing the introduction. Or: Have you finished your assignment yet? No I haven’t written the introduction yet. When we’re using the present perfect tense to talk about an action that took place at some ‘indefinite time’ in the past, we can use the adverbs of time ‘ever’ and ‘never’. ‘Ever’ is often used in questions. It means ‘has the thing been done at any time in the past’. Some examples are: Have you ever been to China? No, I’ve never been there. Finally, when we’re talking about an action that took place at a point in the past, up to and including now, we can use the adverbs of time ‘for’ ‘from’ and ‘since’. For example: I have been at this school for three months, since March. So you can see that there are different adverbs of time for different uses of the present perfect. The present perfect is a difficult tense to learn. It’s used in statements about actions that began in the past and are still true now.

But it can take a lot of practice to get right. Using adverbs of time can be useful because they help to clarify the precise use of the tense. Practice using adverbs of time, and you’ll find making the right choice becomes much easier. And that’s all for Study English today. Let’s review what we’ve done. We’ve looked at the simple past tense, and the present perfect tense. And then we talked about using adverbs of time in these present perfect constructions. Don’t forget that you’ll find more on these topics on our website. It’s at abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish. You’ll find all the Study English stories, transcripts, study notes and much more. And I’ll see you next time. Bye bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London

Study English – Series 1, Episode 9: ADHD

{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to talk about acronyms, abbreviations and names, and then we’ll do a bit of vocabulary building as well. The boy in today’s clip is about to have a test to see whether he has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. While you’re watching, listen for some other abbreviations. How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier’s brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers.

If he does have the condition, the ADHD diagnosis will be automatically triggered. Xavier was having a test to see if he has ADHD. ADHD is an abbreviation. An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or a word. We often abbreviate phrases using the first letter of each word. Notice that you use capitals letters for these types of abbreviations. ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD is much quicker and easier to say, and to write. You might recognise some of these common abbreviations: UFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object ASAP means As Soon As Possible Other common abbreviations are: PC, Personal Computer TV for Television and CD-ROM – that’s a Compact Disc with a Read Only Memory! Notice that each letter in the abbreviation is pronounced separately, but the last letter is pronounced more strongly because it carries the primary stress. So we say USA, ASAP, ABC, and TV. Listen for another abbreviation here. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students. Jacques Duff is one of Richard’s PhD students. PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy. Another abbreviation you’ll recognise is IELTS. IELTS stands for International English Language Testing System.

This form of abbreviation is called an acronym. With an acronym, we don’t pronounce the individual letters, we pronounce it as a word. So we say IELTS, not I – E – L – T – S. Some other examples of acronyms are: AIDS, that’s Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and RAM, Random Access Memory Another example is ASEAN – that stands for the Association of South East Asian Nations. There’s one more common shortening in today’s story. Listen for whether it’s an abbreviation or an acronym. An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers.

He says an EEG. That’s an abbreviation. We don’t pronounce it eeg, we say E-E-G. EEG stands for Electro-Encephalograph. That’s a type of brain scan, but you can see why we shorten it to EEG. Notice that in formal academic writing, it’s necessary to write out an abbreviation in full the first time you use it. So if you wanted to write about an EEG, you’d write it out in full the first time, and place the abbreviation in brackets, like this. An Electro – Encephalograph [EEG] can help treat patients. After that in your paper, you can just use the abbreviation on its own. OK. So let’s listen to the clip again, but this time, listen for words to do with universities. How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier’s brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. He refers to the Swinburne researchers. Swinburne is the name of a university in Victoria.

There were also some other university-related words. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and a PhD student. A great way to learn new words is in themes like this, and by organising them into word trees. Let’s look at university words. Students might study for a Diploma, a Bachelor degree, an Honours degree, a Masters degree or a PhD. Jacques Duff is a PhD student, so that’s where he fits into this tree. There are number of different people and places mentioned in today’s story. We don’t see them all, but we hear their names. Listen for the names in this clip. An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier’s brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. The people he mentions are Jacques Duff, Richard and Xavier. If someone has an uncommon name, people will often ask how their name is spelt. For example, Xavier is an uncommon name in Australia. So if I met Xavier, I might ask him, “How do you spell your name?” So it’s a good idea to get used to spelling out your name.

Xavier is spelt like this: X-A-V-I-E-R, Xavier. Jacques is also an uncommon name in English, because it’s a French name. In this case, we have both a first and a last name. His first name is Jacques, and his last name is Duff. A first name is sometimes called a Christian name. It’s also called a given name. It’s the name your family chooses for you. The last name is also called a surname, or family name. That’s usually the name of one parent that’s passed on to their children. Jacques’s first name is spelt J-A-C-Q-U-E-S, and his surname is Duff. Notice that if you asked someone in Australia to spell out the name Duff, they would say: D-U-double F.

But in North America, people would spell it like this D-U-F-F. They don’t use the word double. They say the letter twice instead. So if we asked Jacques Duff to spell out his surname, he would say: D-U-double F. Or, he might say D-U-F-F. You’ll need to be familiar with both ways of spelling out double letters. You should also make sure you know exactly how to spell out your own name in English. That’s all for today. I’m Margot Politis – that’s M-A-R-G-O-T P-O-L-I-T-I-S. See you next time.. “}

As found on Youtube

Study English in London