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{“en”:”Hello. I’m Gill from engVid, and today’s lesson is about the little word “the”, and how to say it, how to pronounce it. You might think: “What? I know how to pronounce that word”, but there are two different ways of pronouncing it, and this lesson is designed to show you how to work out which way to say it. Okay. So, the simple rule is: Before a consonant you say “thuh”, but before a vowel sound you say “thee”. So it’s either “thuh” or “thee”.

So, let me just go through some examples to show you how that works. So, before a consonant sound: “thuh”. “The banana”, “the dog”, but then we get our first exception, which is confusing because this word begins with an E which is a vowel letter, but the way it’s pronounced, it has a “ya” at the beginning: “Ya. European. European”, so we say: “Thuh European”, okay? So that’s a slight confusion to be aware of. Continuing on: “The flowers”, “the house”, “the man”, “the people”.

Another exception again because this word begins with a U, which is a vowel letter, but the actual sound when you say this sound is a “ya”, “university”, “university”. It’s not: “university”, it’s “university”. So: “thUH university”, okay? And finally: “The woman, the woman”. So that’s “the” before a consonant sound. So, let’s have a look at the other column. Before the vowel sound we say “thee”, so: “The apple”, “the elephant”, “the ice cream”, “the orange”, “the umbrella”. You can see here “umbrella” also begins with a U, just like “university”, but it’s not pronounced: “yumbrella”, it’s pronounced: “umbrella”, so: “thee umbrella, the umbrella”. Okay. And finally, here’s another funny one, it begins with an H, so you might think: “Well, that’s a consonant”, but it is actually a vowel sound because we don’t pronounce the H in this word.

You may know the word “heir”, which we had in another lesson about using “a” and “an”. The heir is usually, well, male, and the heiress, female; but often the word “heir” is used for female as well nowadays for reasons of equality. So, but: “the heiress”, “e”, so it’s an “e”, “heiress”, so that’s a vowel sound, so: “the heiress”. Okay? So that’s another one to remember, along with the “ya” sound here. So, it’s purely the way you say it which decides whether it’s “thuh” or “thee”. Okay? So now we’ll move on to a second screen, and we’ll do some sentences for you to work out how to pronounce each time the word “the” or “the” appears, so… Okay, so what I should have said at the end of the last section was the word “heir” and “heiress”, I didn’t explain what they meant. So, if you hadn’t seen the other lesson you wouldn’t… You might not know that, so “an heir” or “an heiress” is someone who inherits something, often money or property, something like that. So, okay. Right, so here is the test for you of how to pronounce the word “t-h-e”: “thuh” or “thee”, and as you can see, we have some sentences here.

And every time the word appears I’ve underlined it in red just to help you to see it. So, first sentence: “The ferry crossed the Irish Sea.” So, how would you pronounce the word there? Okay. So: “thuh” goes before a consonant sound, so “f” is a consonant, so: “Thuh fairy. The fairy crossed”, and what about this one? “I” is a vowel sound, so it’s “thee Irish Sea, the Irish Sea”. So: “The fairy crossed the Irish Sea.” Okay? Next one: “The right way is the only way.” Okay, so how would you pronounce those two? So, “r” is a consonant, so: “Thuh right way. The right way is”, “only”, that begins with an “o”, which is a vowel, “only”.

So: “thee only way. The right way is the only way.” Okay? Next one, we have three examples in this sentence, so: “The answer is at the back of the book.” So, what would you do there? “The answer, the back, the book”, so “answer” begins with “a”, which is a vowel, so it’s: “Thee answer. The answer is at”. “Back” and “book” begin with “b”, which is a consonant, so: “Thuh back of thuh book.” Okay. Next one: “The fire hasn’t reached the upper floor”. “Upper” means at the top of the building, up at the top. Okay, so: “fire” begins with an “f”, so that’s a consonant, so: “thuh fire. The fire hasn’t reached”, “upper” begins with “u” which is a vowel sound, so it’s: “thee upper floor. The fire hasn’t reached the upper floor.” Okay. Right. Next one: “The girl felt at home in the empty house.” So if you feel at home, you feel comfortable, you like your surroundings.

Okay. So: “girl” begins with “g” which is a consonant, so: “thuh girl. The girl felt at home in”, “empty” begins with “e” which is a vowel, so: “thee empty house. The girl felt at home in the empty house.” Okay. Next one: “I will join the union in the morning.” So, “union” is a… To do with your profession, for your employment rights and so on, and you pay a subscription to join. So: “I will join”, “union” begins with a “u” which is a vowel sound, so…

Ah, no, hang on. This is one of those exceptions. “Yunion”, so… I nearly caught myself out there. It’s a “ya” sound, so: “thuh union”. It’s not “thee” onion, because “onion” is a different word altogether, with an “o”, an onion is a vegetable, so this is the union. Okay, so: “I will join thuh union in”, “m” consonant, “thuh morning, the morning”. Okay. So that’s a funny little exception, there. Next one, say you’re in a big department store with lots of floors and they have escalators going up and down, and you can’t decide which department to go to first, so you’re with a friend, you might say: “Shall we take the up escalator or the down escalator?” Okay, so which one would you use? “Thuh” or “thee”? So, before “up”, “up”, letter “u” is a vowel sound, “up”, so it’s: “thee up, the up”.

“Shall we take the up escalator or”, then before “down”, “d” is a consonant, so: “thuh, the down escalator”. Okay? And then finally, here’s another one, a little exception because there’s an “h” here, which is not pronounced. So the word “honour”, “honourable”, it sounds like an “o”, we don’t pronounce the “h”, so: “It’s the honourable thing to do.” Which? Which would you use there? Okay, so: “It’s thee honourable”, this one. “…the honourable thing to do”. Okay, so I’m sure you got those all right, and we also have a quiz for you to test that a little bit further on the website, www.engvid.com, so do go to that and try that, see how many points you can get. And see you again soon. Okay. Bye for now.. “}

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{“en”:”In this American English pronunciation video, youu2019re going to come with me and my parents to Colorado. Youu2019ll get to see some of the natural beauty of this state, and study American English pronunciation in real life. Todayu2019s topics: How to pronounce u2018riveru2019, gorge, the noun and the verb, the idioms u2018to keep your eyes peeledu2019 and u2018keep an eye outu2019. Also, the pronunciation of u2018mooseu2019 and u2018elku2019. >> One neat feature of Colorado is the Colorado river. Now, it might not look like too much here, but this is the river that carved out the Grand Canyon in Arizona. I was lucky enough to visit the Grand Canyon on my Epic Road Trip Across America this summer. >> The word u2018riveru2019 is a two-syllable word with stress on the first syllable. DA-da. River. It begins with an R consonant.

When the R comes at the beginning of a word, the lips to make a tight circle for that, rr, and the tongue is pulled back. For me, the middle part is touching the roof of the mouth about here, rr, the tip isnu2019t touching anything. Then we have the IH vowel, so the jaw will drop just a bit and the tongue will come forward. Riv-. >> Then for the V, the bottom lip will come up and make contact with the bottom of the top front teeth. Riv-er. Then we have the schwa-R ending, so the tongue will come back into position for the R. The jaw doesnu2019t need to drop.

River, river. River. >> Weu2019ve stopped here to take a look at the Byeru2019s Gorge. A gorge is a deep, rocky ravine. And, as you can see, we have these nice, beautiful rock faces going up on either side. And I think itu2019s just beautiful. In this case, the Colorado river is whatu2019s flowing down, uh, in the middle. I suppose it is what has worn the edges of the mountains down. >> Gorge is sort of a tricky word. It starts with the G consonant, then it has the AW as in LAW, but the tongue must pull straight back for the R consonant, gor-, gor-, -ge.

And it ends with the J as in JAR consonant sound. Gorge. Itu2019s gorgeous! >> Well gorge also has the meaning of eating too much food, when you gorge out. >> Thatu2019s true. >> On a bunch of food. >> Thatu2019s true. So this is the noun gorge, and the verb gorge: stuffing your face, basically. >> Thatu2019s right. >> Yeah. >> And itu2019s sort of funny in that, in the one, gorge is hollowing out, cutting away >> Right.

>> u2026this big ravine >> Yeah. >> u2026 in the mountains, and on the other, gorge is filling up. >> Right. Stuffing! >> Way too much. >> Thatu2019s interesting. So, gorge the noun is a narrow valley, like you saw, typically with rock walls and a river or stream running through it. The verb has a completely different meaning, to eat a lot of food, to stuff yourself. The word comes from a word meaning throat. Next we drove to Rocky Mountain national park to see elk and moose. >> Okay, so keep your eyes peeled for both elk and moose. Keep your eyes peeled means to watch for something. We use it with u2018foru2019, which you know we like to reduce. Keep your eyes peeled for moose and elk. >> So keep your eyes peeled for both elk and moose. >> Dad, whatu2019s the other idiom we came up with for this? >> Uh, keep an eye out for elk and moose.

>> Yes. As we drive, weu2019ll keep an eye out for moose and elk. >> Keep an eye out for elk and moose. >> Yes. Keep an eye out is not the same thing as keep an eye on. >> No. Thatu2019s correct. >> If we had some elk here, we could keep an eye on them. But since we donu2019t have any and weu2019re looking for them, weu2019re keeping an eye out for them. Keep an eye on means to watch or pay attention to something. For example, keep an eye on the time so youu2019re not late. >> Elk has the EH as in BED vowel. A lot of jaw drop. Then the Dark L, so the back part of your tongue has to pull back, el-k. Then the K. So lift your tongue to the soft palate, and release. Elk. >> Itu2019s fun being able to get so close. Thereu2019s two here, which brings me to the point that the plural of elk is elk.

You donu2019t add an S or anything. One elk, two elk. We got lots of good views of elk. But I really wanted to see a moose. I only saw them at a distance, sitting down. We had been looking the whole day, and I was starting to think I wouldnu2019t see one. Then, just before it was dark outu2026 >> I feel very luck to be seeing my first moose. Moose is an easy pronunciation. Itu2019s the M consonant sound, the OO as in BOO vowel, and the S consonant sound. Plural, just like u2018elku2019, adds no s. Itu2019s still just moose. One moose, a herd of moose. Isnu2019t it beautiful? This is a female, so it doesnu2019t have the antlers. I hope you enjoyed this study of real life American English in the beautiful Rocky Mountain National Park.

Thatu2019s it, and thanks so much for using Rachelu2019s English.. “}

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{“en”:”Hi, everyone. I’m Jade. What we’re talking about today is some pronunciation tips for British English. Some of them are tips; some of them are observations that you might be interested to know. We’ve got eight of them, so let’s get started. Pronunciation of-ed word endings. This is not specifically a British English issue. If your preference — I don’t know why I can’t speak suddenly in an English pronunciation video, but that’s how it is. If your preference is American English, this also applies to American English. So what I hear a lot at, sort of, around intermediate level — sometimes upper intermediate level if you haven’t had someone to correct you — -ed word endings sound like this.

I can’t even do it because it’s so unnatural for me. “Excite-ed shout-ed, remind-ed.” It’s so unnatural for me. But in fact, it’s not like that. It doesn’t sound like an -ed. It might sound like an /id/; it might sound like a /t/; or it might sound like a /d/. So I’ve got some examples here. This word, even though it’s spelled -ed, makes an /id/ sound. It becomes “excited”. “I’m really excited.” “Shouted.” “He shouted at me.” “Reminded.” “I reminded you to do your homework; didn’t I?” And — yeah.

So now, we can talk about the ones that finish with a t sound. “Finished. Dripped. Laughed.” They don’t have the-ed sound. So that’s an important thing to know about pronunciation. Even if it’s spelled-ed, it doesn’t mean it sounds like that. And what about the ones that end with a d sound, a “duh” sound. “Remembered.” “I remembered what you said to me.” “Called.” “I called you. Didn’t you hear your phone?” “Imagined.” “I imagined a better future for everyone.” So with those, it’s a D sound. How do you know for each one? Go with what feels most natural when you’re saying the word.

The main thing is don’t force the -ed sound at the end of the word because it’s that that gives you an unnatural rhythm when you’re speaking English. So moving on to — this one’s an observation, really. British English pronunciation. We have so many different accents in England. But one of the biggest divisions in our accents is — it’s between the north of the country and the south, and it’s our pronunciation of these words: “bath” and “laugh”, as I say them. I say them in the southern pronunciation. But if I were from the north — if I were from the north of the country, I’d say “bath” and “laugh” because they have a different accent up there. Well, they’ve got loads of different accents, but they don’t speak in the same way as me. So let’s break it down into the actual sound. So if you’re from the North, you say, “a”. But we, in the South, say “au”. So you say “bath”, we say “bauth”. And you say “laf”; we say “laugh”. And you can also hear it in these two words. It doesn’t have to be the first or only a vowel in the word.

In the southern pronunciation, this is “commaund”. But in the northern pronunciation, it’s “command”. And the southern pronunciation of this word is “caust”. The northern pronunciation is “cast”. The cast of Brookside came to London.” “Brookside” was an old soap that’s not on TV anymore, and it was people from Liverpool. And I was just doing the accent. Probably that’s really irrelevant to you.

You will never see that show, but anyway. You know, now. Next tip. I don’t hear this that often, but when I do, it sounds really, really, really wrong. And I think this tip generally — generally a good example of how — just because we write something one way doesn’t mean we say it that way. So in English — American English, too — W sounding words are the same as the “wh” sound in words for spelling. It actually sounds the same. So we’ve got two words here, “wine” and “whine”.

One is spelled with WH, and one is just spelled with I. “Whine” is a kind of moan or a kind of cry. Sometimes, young children whine. Sometimes, women who are upset about something are said to be “whiny”. So we don’t really say that men whine. That’s probably a bit sexist. But, yeah. The point is they sound the same but are spelled differently. So I’ve sometimes heard people try to make the “wh” sound like “hwhine” or something like that or in these words, “which” and “witch” are the same. Some people might say “hwhich”. And that used to be a feature of British English. If you listen to some speakers of British English from a long time ago, like around the 1920s — T.

S. Eliot, although he wasn’t British, he did acquire a really strange British accent. And when he spoke English, he would make the “hwhich” sound. And that was a standard feature of the accent then. But if you say it now, it just sounds a bit weird. So don’t be making the “hwh” sound. And here, two commonly spoken words with that “hwh” sound that you shouldn’t say — so you should say “what” without “hwhat, hwhat, hwhat do you want?” That would be awful.

And “hwhere” — don’t say that. Just say it without the H sound. Let’s take a look at the pronunciation of -ing word endings. So in just relaxed, informal speech, I feel that a lot of dialects don’t pronounce the G. So it would be like this. “I was listening to some music.” You don’t hear the G there. But if we’re making an effort to speak properly and with very good enunciation, you would hear the G slightly. It would sound like this, “I was listening to a wonderful lecture yesterday.” And you hear my G. It’s very soft, but it’s there. Something to say about British English pronunciation is — again, this is a north-south difference — is that they, up there, some of the accents ring the G, so it’s, like, “listening, speaking.

I was speaking to him.” And if that’s a feature of your accent, that’s a feature of your accent. But in standard English, you don’t ring it. You don’t make an extra “guh” or “juh” sound at the end. So the standard way to make the G sound, “reading.” But I’m just letting you know that in relaxed and informal speech, many times, we don’t hear the G. So when we come back we’ll look at the other four rules or tips — tips, really. Tips and observations about pronunciation. Tip No. 5, when we’re saying a word with two or more syllables, very often, the second syllable is not stressed, and it’s what we call a “schwa”. So even though all these words have a different spelling for the second syllable, they become a schwa.

So what some people do is they’ll say the word. And a good example is this word. They will say “En-gland”. But actually, it sounds like this “England”. So the vowel changes to a schwa, and then, it’s — another way to look at it is it becomes a softer sound. So let’s say some of the words. “London”, not “Lon-don”. “London, England, together”, not “togeth-er”. “Together”. “Button”, not “butt-on”. “Button”. “Cousin”. So that’s the schwa, and supposedly the most common sound in the English language, and it’s a pretty confusing sound as well because it’s always spelled in different ways, and it doesn’t actually sound exactly the same when it moves around into different words. So not an easy one to get familiar with. So the main thing to take away from it is that don’t put that very big stress on all your syllables in the word. It won’t sound right.

No. 6, tip No. 6, British English is a non-rhotic accent. This is the sound /r/. In your language, maybe you do that thing where you roll your tongue which I can’t do. I just — I so can’t do it. So like how I can’t do that sound, you might find it really hard to make that sound without rolling your tongue. Okay. It’s hard. Pronunciation is not easy. But you can always work at something and train yourself. So when we make the R sound, the position of the tongue is quite far back in the throat. R, R, R. And it doesn’t have that rhotic sound. And in some dialects, for example, in Scottish, you do hear it. So I’m going to say this sentence in a Scottish accent, “The murderer wore red.” Sorry, Scottish people. But they put the R sound in. I kind of did it then. Maybe I can do it after all. But in my accent, I would say, “the murderer wore red.” So we don’t roll our tongues. And that’s something — if you want to speak standard British English, you could work on that R if you do it.

So if you’re Arabic or if you’re Spanish, Italian as well, you could work on that sound. No. 7, now. So this is a hard sound. I’m going to have to be honest with you. It’s a hard sound for me because I’m a Londoner, and I’m from South London, and we’re not very — we don’t like this sound very much. We like to replace it with an F sound. I’m not too bad making this sound at the beginning of a word, “three”, “thought”, “think”. But sometimes, it’s quite hard for me, like in this word. I want to say “birfday” with an F, but it should be “birthday”. It’s really hard for me. But it’s not just hard for me; it’s hard for people all over the world.

Maybe we should just get rid of this sound. We don’t need it anymore. Some people replace it with D. I’ve got an Italian student who replaces it with D. So he would say “dirty dree”. That’s not an Italian restaurant, but — restaurant? Italian restaurant? Why am I thinking about food? It’s not an Italian accent. Because he can’t say “th”, he replaces it with /d/. But other people might replace it with /v/ as well. So a tip for making the “th” sound, you put your tongue between your teeth. And it’s a kind of whisly sound without the /f/. Your lip is more pursed at the top. So you don’t want to do that when you’re making the “th”. Just try it. I’ll say the words for you. “Three”, “thumbs” — thumbs up if you can make that sound — “birthday”, “thought”, “think”, “bath”. It’s hard for me. I’m trying. I’m trying with you.

We’re learning together today. And rule No. 8, “can’t”. Oh, that’s meant to have that there. A lot of people get confused because sometimes they think, “Did you say a negative there, or did you say the positive?” They get really confused. In British English, we don’t always say the T. We don’t always pronounce the T in this word “can’t”. So it might sound like this, “I can’t understand you.” But it might also sound like this, “I can understand you.” And when I said it the second way, you didn’t hear the T. And the reason that happens is speech just become as little bit more fluid, a little bit more easy to say without the T.

But you don’t need to be confused because, actually, the opposite of “can’t” is “can”. And /caen/ is a different vowel. It’s /ae/, whereas this vowel is /a/. So they would sound completely different. It would be, “I can’t understand you.” Very different to “I can’t understand you” or “I can understand you.” So when you’re listening out for that negative sometimes, know that we might say it with or without a T.

So thank you everybody for watching today. You can do a little bit of extra practice on the EngVid site for this lesson. And if you do like my lesson, please do subscribe because I make lots of different lessons, not just about pronunciation but all other things about learning English as well that I think will be very education and very useful for you in your general development as a learner of English or someone who’s just trying to improve your English. And I’m finished now, so I’m going to go. I’m going to go now, okay? I’ll see you later.. “}

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{“en”:”Hello. My name is Emma and in today’s video I am going to teach you about a very important piece of vocabulary — it’s also very important when it comes to grammar — and that is the expression: “Just in case” or we can also say: “in case”. So, we use this a lot in English, so it’s very… It’s something very important for you to learn. So let’s talk about what it means and how we use it.

So, we use: “in case” or “just in case”-we use both-when we are talking about doing something to prevent a problem. Okay? So we’re talking about… Or doing something to prepare for a problem. So, we’re looking at a problem and we’re looking at preparation or prevention of that problem. Okay? So, for example: “Tonight, I am going to a restaurant.” I’m very excited. Now, the problem is I get cold very easily, and when I’m cold I’m not a very nice person; I get very cranky, and I’m not a good person to be with when I’m cold. So my problem is I get cold easily. What is my prevention or preparation for this problem? Well: “I will bring a sweater just in case I get cold.” Okay? And that way I will have a great time at the restaurant, hopefully. So my problem is being cold, and my preparation is I’m going to bring a sweater.

So, as you can see, if you think about life, we have a lot of these types of problems and we do a lot of things to prepare for these types of problems. So let’s look at some other examples. Okay, a problem is when it rains… Okay? A lot of the times when it rains, you know, I don’t like getting wet, so what do I do? Well, my preparation or prevention is I bring an umbrella, or maybe I’ll bring a rain jacket.

Okay? So: “I will bring an umbrella just in case it rains.” Another problem is if you work at 9am, you know, a lot of the times there’s a lot of cars; everybody’s going to work at the same time, there’s a lot of traffic. And if there’s a lot of traffic maybe you’ll be late for work. So what will you do for this problem? So, traffic is the problem or maybe going to work late is the problem, but what you can do to prevent or prepare for this problem is you can leave your house early.

So: “I leave my house early every day just in case there’s traffic.” Another example of a problem is maybe you’re going to visit your friend, and your friend gives you their address. Now, if you don’t write down their address, you’re going to be lost. I don’t know where they live. I need to go to my friends’ house, I forget their address; I don’t know where they live. So this is the problem. Especially if you’re very forgetful like me or you always forget people’s phone numbers or, you know, where people live, this is a big problem.

So what do you do to prevent this problem? Well, you write down their address. Okay? On a piece of paper, your friend tells you their address, you write it down. Why do you write it down? “You write down their address just in case you forget it.” Okay? You forget their address. So I’ve just given you some examples of where we would use “just in case”. There are a lot of examples for “just in case”. I want you to think about your life.

Is there something that happens every day to you, maybe you have some sort of problem or something you worry about? So think about that for a second. Is there something you worry about every day, and what do you do to prepare for that or to prevent a problem from happening? Okay? Maybe, you know, you’re worried about failing your test, so you might create a study group just in case. Okay? Or maybe, you know, your teacher gives you homework. Maybe you will do the homework just in case they want to see it. So, you see what I’m saying? There’s a lot of problems you might have, and a lot of preventions or preparations you do for those problems.

So try to think of one in your own life. Okay, so now we are going to look at the grammar of “just in case” or “in case”. Okay, so we’ve already looked at what are problems, and how we prepare or prevent problems. Now let’s look at some examples of: How do we create this sentence in a grammatical fashion? So, I have here the sentence: “I will bring an umbrella in case it rains.” Do you remember what the problem is? The problem is it rains, and the preparation is bringing an umbrella.

I have another sentence. “I will leave my house early in case there is traffic.” So, again, traffic is the problem, and leaving my house early is the preparation or the prevention of a problem. So, I have a couple of questions for you about the grammar. Okay? I want you to look at the sentences, both of these sentences: Is the problem…? So the problem we’re talking about, do you see the problem before or after the expression “in case”? So where is the problem? So we find “in case”.

Is the problem before “in case”, up here; or is the problem after “in case”? It’s after, right? So, “it rains” is the problem, so: “in case it rains”, these go together. What about down here? “…in case”, is the problem before the word “in case” or is it after the word “in case”? Well, the problem is traffic, so the problem comes after the word “in case”. Okay? So if it helps you to remember: “in case”… So we wouldn’t write this in a sentence. This is… We won’t put these brackets in a sentence, but just to help you in your head to remember: “in case” is with the problem, so these are like one unit, if that makes sense. Okay. And so if the problem comes after “in case”, what comes before “in case”? The preparation or the prevention. So after “in case” is the problem, before is the prevention or the preparation. Okay, so what verb tense comes after “in case”? So when we’re talking about the problem, what is the verb tense that we use when we’re talking about the problem? So I want you to look, here’s the verb and here is the other verb.

Is this the past, the present, or the future? If you said the present, you are correct. We use the present tense when we use “in case”. Okay? And so: “in case it rains”, we could put this… You know, imagine if I said: “I will bring a sweater in case it gets cold”, so the part after “in case” is always in the present tense. Okay. So another question you might be wondering: “Do ‘in case’ and ‘just in case’ mean the same thing? Can I use either, ‘in case’ or ‘just in case?'” “I will bring an umbrella just in case it rains” or “in case it rains”, they’re both correct. It’s your choice; you can use whichever one you prefer.

Okay, and these two sentences use the word “will”: “I will leave my house early”, “I will bring an umbrella”, so this is talking about, you know, doing something in the future, right? “In the future I will bring an umbrella”, or “In the future I will leave my house early”. Do we always use “will” when we use…? When we’re making these types of sentences? Can I say: “I always bring an umbrella in case it rains” or “I brought an umbrella in case it rains”? Can I use the past, present, or future, or is it always the future? Actually for “just in case”, you can use “will”, you can use the past tense, or you can use the present tense when you’re talking about the preparation. So the problem… We’re talking about a future problem, this stays in the present tense; but in terms of the preparation, it depends on when you do the preparation. So the key question here is: When did you prepare, or when did you prevent the problem? So I’ll give you some examples. Imagine for this one: Yesterday I brought an umbrella to work because today I knew it would rain.

So if in the past, if yesterday or earlier today, you know, I brought an umbrella, we could change this to: “brought”. “I brought an umbrella in case it rains”. “…in case it rains” stays the same. Okay? It’s always in the present. But before the preparation we can use the past. Or what about if, you know… For example, the second sentence, imagine I always leave my house early, every day. Okay? I always do it. It’s a routine. “I will leave my house early in case there’s traffic.” If it’s a routine and it always happens, I can use the present tense here, I can say: “I always leave my house early in case there is traffic.” Okay? Or if we’re talking about something I’ll do in the future to prepare: “I will leave my house early in case there is traffic.” So, bottom line, the key point here, the thing that you really got to remember: After “in case” this is always the present.

Okay? So, after the words “in case”, the verb is the present; but when you’re talking about what you’re doing, the preparation, it depends on when you prepare. If you’re preparing… If the action of preparing is in the past, you use the past; if it’s a routine that you always do, you use the present; or if it’s something you’re going to do, use the future. Okay? So let me think if I can give you another example. Okay, if we think about a test and studying, I can say: “I studied hard for my test yesterday in case my test is hard.” Or, sorry: I studied…

Yeah. “I really studied for my test yesterday in case the test is hard”, so we have it in the past, I studied in the past. Now if, you know, maybe I always study for a test and I always really study hard for a test, I can say it in the present: “I always study for a test in case it’s hard.” Or, you know, maybe I’ve never done that before, but maybe tomorrow I’m going to study, I can say: “I will study, you know, for my test in case it’s hard.” Okay? So it depends on when you’re doing that action. All right, so we’re going to look at a couple more examples, you know, to get you more practice and more familiar with “in case” and “just in case”. Okay, so in my life I get hungry a lot. And just like when I get cold I’m not really a happy person, when I get hungry I’m not a happy person.

So in order to make sure I stay happy, I always try to have food with me. So, for example, I’ve made a sentence with “just in case” or “in case”: “I brought a sandwich today in case I get hungry.” So what’s the problem here? The problem is when Emma’s hungry she’s a horrible person to be around. Okay? So, we have a problem: Emma’s hungry. So, what do we do to make sure Emma, you know, stays like a happy person? Well, we make sure she takes a sandwich with her, so that’s the preparation. Okay? And, again, after “in case” we have the problem, before we have the preparation. Okay, and this, again, is in the present tense. And this one is in the past tense because I already brought the sandwich. Okay? This is something I did this morning. Now, it is possible to change the structure of the sentence around.

You don’t have to, so if you think: “Wow, Emma, today I learned a lot, I don’t want to, you know, learn anymore”, that’s okay, you’ve learned a lot. But if you’re interested, we can also change the sentence and put it in the opposite way. So what do I mean by that? Well, in this case “in case” is the second part of the sentence; we can also put it as the first part of the sentence. “In case I get hungry,”-so it’s the exact same words, we just add a comma-“I brought a sandwich”. So it’s your choice, they have the exact same meaning. You can start with “In case” or “in case” can be in the middle of the sentence. But when you start with “In case”, just make sure you remember the comma. Up here there’s no comma. Okay? So, for a lot of people this is easier because they, you know, forget their commas, but we do use both. Okay, let’s look at another example. “I always keep medicine at home in case I _______ sick.” Okay? So if you think about it, a lot of people will have medicine for headaches, or for when they catch a cold, they keep medicine at home.

So what’s the problem here? The problem is getting sick. Okay? So, the problem is getting sick, and how do we prepare for that? Well, we have medicine at home. So, after “in case” I want to use the verb “get” here. What do I need to do to the verb “get”? Is it going to be in the past tense as in “got”, do I say “get”, or “will get”? What tense do I use? If you said “get”, which is the present tense, you are correct. Yay. Good for you. I hope you got that. “I always keep medicine at home in case I get sick.” And, again, this is in the present because it’s something we do as a routine, we’re always doing this. Okay, so the last example: “I’ll go early just in case there is a line.” So imagine you’re going to the movie theatre, and you know a lot of the times with movie theatres there’s a long line up -that’s a problem.

A long line up is a problem, so what do you do to prevent that problem or to prepare for it? Well, you go to the movie theatre early so you can line up and make sure you get a good seat. So, in this case I’ve used the word “just in case”. “I’ll go early to the movie theatre just in case there is a long line.” Do I need to use, like, all of this? Can I just say: “I’ll go early just in case”, and not even say this? That’s possible. So if you don’t even want to do this, you can actually just say: “I’ll go early just in case” as long as the person you’re talking to knows, like, the context and can understand what you’re talking about, and it’s obvious, you know, what you’re doing, you can just use “just in case” instead of the full sentence.

Okay? So, even up here: “I always keep medicine at home”, you probably keep medicine at home in order… Like, in case you get sick, it’s kind of obvious, so if you wanted to, you can just say: “…just in case”. Okay? So there’s a couple of ways we can use “just in case”. You’ve learned a couple of different ways today. You will hear all of these different variations in conversation, in movies, on TV. Again, “just in case” and “in case” is very common and very important; we use it a lot.

So you might hear any of these variations of it. So, I hope you have enjoyed this lesson. And just in case you want to practice more, you can come visit our website at www.engvid.com, and there you can do our quiz. Now, in case, you know, maybe you didn’t understand the video, like, completely or maybe there’s some confusion, in case you’re confused, watch the video again.

Okay? You can get a lot from watching these videos multiple times. I also want to invite you to come subscribe to our channel; there you can find lots of other videos on things like pronunciation, vocabulary, writing, IELTS. You know, we have so many different types of videos and, you know, on a lot of useful things like grammar and, you know, all sorts of different types of topics. So I really recommend you check that out. Until next time, thanks for watching and take care.. “}

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{“en”:”Hello. We’re doing the zero conditional today. It’s a useful grammatical structure in English. Perhaps it’s used for, particularly to those who are rules-based people, who like knowing that A is going to result in B. My little nephew is like this. Hi, Alex. So, we’re doing the zero conditional. And this is about something that is generally true, like a scientific fact. If I press the toilet button, it flushes. Okay? “If”, condition, result. “If I do”, “If I play, this happens.” So this is in present simple, and the result also in the present simple. “If you heat ice, it melts.” So it’s like a scientific fact, it’s like something… This always happens in this same way. The condition always has the same result. Now, the result, this bit here, it can also be in the imperative rather than the present simple. So, I’ve put a little example here: “If you do…” “If you visit Devon,” -a place in the southwest of England-“go to Chagford.” Where I was born.

Okay? It’s a great place. So, it’s like “go to”, it’s an imperative. I’m telling you to do that. So this is a structure of command. “If you arrive late to my class again, you”, and then I’m going to need to… “You will have to go to the head master.” Okay? It’s the condition equals the result. It’s always the same. So if you’re late, you have to go to the head master. Okay? Condition, result, always the same relationship between the two. Now, we can have a couple of different, alternative options here. Instead of “if” we could also use “when” or “unless”.

I’ve written that unless… You know when… When’s talking about time, obviously. But “unless” means kind of if not, followed by the condition and result. Condition always in the present. So: “Unless if not he proposes”, obviously that’s quite weird, formal English. The translation would be something like… Or the simplification: “If he does not propose to marry you,”-to propose to marry you. Would you like to marry me?- “refuse to go on holiday with him again.” Okay? So: “refuse to go”, there you’ve got your imperative.

Okay? Now, we can change the order and put the result before the condition, and throw in a bit of “if” and “when” and “unless” right there in the middle just to mix things up, mix the bowl up. So, the result here is at the beginning. “The boss, my leader, the person who is in charge is angry” -again, notice present tense-“when I dance on my table.” Obviously, “when” could also be replaced by “if” there. “…if I dance on my table”. So, “when” would imply that I maybe dance on my table quite a lot. But “if”, I’m so scared of my boss that I don’t want to dance on my table. And “unless” would change it, so you’d have to have probably a different condition there. “The boss is angry unless I stay seated.” Okay, so let’s just have another quick recap. Something that’s generally true, like a scientific fact, like: “If I cross the road without looking, I get knocked over.” Sorry, that’s what the traffic’s like in London.

Pay attention. Look to your left, look to your right before it’s safe to go. “If”, condition, result. Present simple, present simple unless we’re using the imperative. “You will go to Chagford if you visit Devon.” And then we can mix in a bit of “when” and “unless”, meaning changing the positive, negative affirmation, so: “Unless he proposes to marry you,” blah, blah, blah, this will be the result. This will always be the result unless you do this. And then you can also have the result here and the condition here. The boss is angry if you don’t do the quiz right now and subscribe to my YouTube channel, and check out Exquisite English. Good night. God bless. See ya next time.. “}

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Steps to Learning English: Where should you start?

{“en”:”[Singing] Hi. James. Greer. James Greer. From engVid. [Laughs]. Not Bond, and I know you think I was going to say Bond. I know. But listen, Bond always has an important mission he’s got to do, right? 007. And so do I. Today we have a mission. We’re going to learn how to study English. I know in many places, many websites, they tell you, and to teach you grammar and idioms and phrasal verbs.

But then, there’s the big question of you, and: How do you study, and how do you choose what is important for you at this moment? Maybe you’re advanced. Maybe you’re a beginner. Maybe you know this, and maybe you don’t. After today’s lesson and we do our mission, you’ll know exactly what you have to do. Okay? So, we’re going to go to the board in a second, and take a look. What steps should we take in order to learn? By the time you’re done this video, you’ll know exactly… Or you should know where you are, where you need to go, and when you’re going to be done. Ready? Let’s go. E. E is standing here saying: “Where do I start? Grammar, vocabulary, or speaking?” Common, and seems to make sense, I mean, you go to learn a language-right?-you go on a website, they start throwing things at you. You go to a school, they say you need this, this, and this.

But you don’t really know. So, I’m going to give you the tools to decide that. First thing we’re going to do is: What’s the first thing you need? Grammar? No. What? Conversation? No. Vocabulary. What? Well, look. If you can’t say: “bathroom” when you go to a country, you’re going to pee yourself. Okay? “Hungry”, you won’t get food. You don’t need to know everything to get basic information done. And that’s what we should look at first. Basic information for a beginner really is vocabulary. And instead of all the fancy stuff you need, you don’t need much. You need you, and a little bit of time, and to have some fun. Why? I’m going to suggest: For basic communication, get vocabulary. I’m telling you right now if I see you or any English-speaking person sees you, and you see… You say: “Drink. Thirsty.” There’s no grammar, but they’ll go: “Oh, the bar is over there.” If you say: “Washroom. Please”, they’ll go: “Oh, toilet is over there.” They use sentence, you use words.

Sometimes you just touch your belly and go: “Ahh!” They’ll go: “Oh, you want food.” You don’t need all that stuff. People will tell you you need to learn grammar, and this and that. You don’t. And here’s how you get your first vocabulary. Do what you love to do. Play video games. I’ve had… I don’t know how many students play video games, say they learned how to fire, duck, words that we wouldn’t teach them for a while, because they were playing games. Other people come in: “Dah-dah-dah-dah-dah, [sings]”, singing. I go: -“What the hell?” -“I love to sing”, and they sing a song, they sound like they’re just, you know, from this country.

Then they speak very terrible accent. You know what I’m saying, right? [Laughs] But when they sing, it’s like the gods have come down. I mean, literally, you go: “Are you…? You were born here, right?” Cool slang. You know? YOLO, you only live once. Right? ASAP, as soon as possible. When you do these things, you’re learning because you want to learn. You’re not even realising you’re learning, and it’s going to make you want to learn more because… You know, we’ll get to the second one and you’ll understand. But you want to communicate in a much better way. Okay? So, get the meaning of basic words. “Hungry”, “food”, “toilet”, “money”. You know that one, right? You need those things. If you have those things, you can start your adventure in learning English. Okay? And you’re going to do it by doing things you love. Video games, music, cool slang.

Right? Come on. Now we’re making language fun and easy for you, and that’s what we should do, because you’ll learn it faster. All right? And then here’s the bad news: Hard work is on its way, so let’s move over to the intermediate. So if you’re still on vocabulary and you can’t put a sentence together, you’re a beginner. Okay? But at least you’re better than other people. You know words in a foreign language. Cool. Intermediate is when we start, and I think you should introduce grammar. This is when your vocabulary is rich enough that you can say things like: “Need water.” Where? It’s not a sentence, so you kind of sound stupid. I’m saying it right out. You sound stupid. Had many students, brilliant people, sounding like… I called them kids. And I loved them. I thought they were great people, but I would call them kids because they sound like two and five year olds.

“Mommy, water, now.” Understand. Sentence? Not really. Grammar. Some teachers don’t think it’s necessary. It is. It’s like a skeleton in a body. Right? When you’re crawling on the floor, you still need a skeleton, something to hold everything together, but really it’s the muscles and everything else that make you move. But the skeleton is necessary or needed. Those are those bones. Right? These are the bones of the language. You got, you know, your vocabulary, but these hold everything together, that skeleton. Now, when you learn grammar, we do this to be understood.

We said basic communication. To be understood we need grammar. This is sound… And you can sound like you understand. “Oh! I can’t have your girlfriend and all of your money? Oh. I didn’t know that. I understand.” You sound like you understand someone. You can communicate an idea. “I would like to be a millionaire, but I don’t want to work.” See? I’ve communicated: “I am lazy, but I still want to be rich.” Like everyone in North America. Okay, but we’re going to take our vocabulary…

See, this is when you have the vocabulary, you take it, and you put it with some muscle. You put vocabulary and function words. That’s what grammar is. It’s the words that function. It’s the verbs. Right? It’s the pronouns. It’s all these things that go together. It’s like making a hamburger. Okay? You got your meat. Now you need a bun, some lettuce, and everything else. This is your grammar. This makes it good. Okay? So, now you can sound pretty intelligent, not like a child, but some people have great grammar skills and good vocabulary, but-and this is where we go to the advanced-they don’t sound like us.

They still haven’t got it quite together. We know you’re not from here. This is change it all. And this is something that I find interesting. Some students don’t want to do, they think it’s a waste of time. And then I remind them: In your country, are there people who don’t know how to read and write? What do you call them? Some people say (this is a fancy word): “They are illiterate.” I say: “No. They’re stupid.” Because you say: “Hey, read this.” They go: “I cannot read.” You go: “You’re stupid. Didn’t you go to school, stupid?” Don’t be stupid. Learn to read and write. It’s not just for that reason, for your ego that people…

It makes you feel good. It’s also because it teaches you how to think in the language. Huh? Well, when you write something down, you have to remember the author wrote it three years ago. The author is the writer of the book, could be a male, female, or whoever made it. They wrote it three or four years ago, and you’re not there. So when they write about it, they have to think in a way that you would understand it three years later, and not have to ask questions.

Because if you have to say: “I’m confused. What does he mean? Let me call him up. Yo, E, on page 47 you wrote this thing. It’s an awkward phrase. You got a dangling modifier, so I’m not really sure…” It doesn’t work like that. They have to write it properly so you understand it. This is when we become advanced, because you learn logical thought, how we put it together. When we talk about logical thought, we talk about syntax; how the words go together , how things flow, how we think. Every language is different, and the syntax is a bit different. Okay? This will make you think like a native speaker. You have to put the words and even the sentences in a way that makes sense to us. Okay? Remember I said you sound…? Here I meant not stupid. That was it, you don’t sound stupid. Reading and writing makes you sound intelligent, and there’s a difference.

Suddenly, I want to hear what you have to say, because you seem to know what you’re talking about, and you present your ideas in a way I can understand. It also gives you the time to think about the language, so it goes on in your brain, so it knows how to analyze and present the language for us. This is something people skip, because they want to speak, and don’t realize this is a very important part. Reading gives you an understanding of how we’re thinking. You read, you get that. When you write, you have to write in a way that we would understand it. Powerful stuff. And how does it do that? Well, we have three components or three parts. Number one, the grammar. See? Grammar we talked about. Grammar has to be in something you write. Okay? Then it has to be true.

What you say has to make sense to us. It’s logical. I can’t be just: “I am an alien, and I live in the sea, and I have fins and baby-back ribs.” It doesn’t make any sense, even if the sentence is perfectly grammatically correct. It’s like: “This is not true. I will not listen to you.” And then finally we have to connect them, and this is what we talk about syntax, and when we put all of these things together, suddenly you’re speaking and people understand you. Accent or no accent, you are an English speaker. Not quite. Almost. When we put all these three together, and we go to speaking, and you master speaking, which will happen if you take these steps – you will notice you are being understood when you speak. Not five times: “Sorry? Huh? Sorry? Sor-, sorry? Oh, okay. Oh, I’m sorry. No. Sorry?” No. You will speak, you will be understood. When I speak, and some of you think I speak very quickly. And you’re right. My students actually often laugh go: “You don’t speak quickly on those videos.

You speak quickly in real life.” But I like it when people understand me. You will find that you understand me more. You will have more understanding what I say, and English people say. You won’t be guessing what they’re saying. You will actually understand them. Finally, you know that accent that you really don’t like, and you wish you could get rid of? You will. Speaking and using a practice of speaking helps you with proper pronunciation. That’s what helps you with being understood, and actually helps you with understanding other people, because you realize it’s not the absolute pronunciation, but where you put the stresses, what the meaning is. Right? All this comes with language or speaking. You can communicate and have mastered the language. That’s what we talk about by speaking, and I wrote that for a reason. When you are speaking, it’s right or it’s wrong. There’s no time to think about it. That’s what your practice in reading and writing is for.

Okay? So once you can actually speak, you’re done. Congratulations. You’ve learned a new language. Now, look. I want to do… I want to go through a couple of hints to help you out in a second or two, and then I want you to go out there and practice. Figure out where you are. You’ll know, because I’ve already told you. You’re either a beginner and you got to work on your vocabulary. That means most of what I said you didn’t understand. Or you’re intermediate, you got something out of what I’m saying, but you know you can’t express yourself that way. You’re advanced, you’re already smart enough to be writing every day and reading every day.

Or you’re basically fluent and native. Get outta here. Go outside and play. That’s what you should be doing. You ready? Let’s go through those helpful hints. [Snaps] So, we’ve talked about where you might be as a learner; advanced, beginner, or native. Now, I want to give you some more basic hints on acquiring or getting the language. Are you ready? Okay, basic hint number one: 30 minutes a day goes a long way. Whether you’re a beginner, intermediate, or advanced, 30 minutes. If you’re not willing to spend 30 minutes learning, you really don’t want to learn. All right? You need to practice regularly. Give you a good hint or a good example. When you were a baby, you were trying to walk. You would fall down. You would never stand and walk, you kept falling. But every day you tried, and sometimes hours, hours, hours.

Then one day, you started to walk, then you started to run. If you told that baby that 30 minutes a day was a lot of work, you’d be sitting in a chair for the rest of your life. Right? So, 30 minutes a day. Hey, an engVid video is 15. Boo, half your work’s done. Am I a genius? Yeah. Helped you out. Okay, so 30 minutes a day is a good thing to do. Okay? It goes a long way to help you retain or remember the information. Number two: Spend five minutes and review what you did the day before.

I know, it’s 35 minutes, but it’s still not an hour. Okay? So, before, you know, you do your new lesson, think for five minutes: “What did I do yesterday when I did English? Did I…?” Was it…? Were you reading? Did you write? What did you write about? Were there any things you wanted to change in your writing? Okay? So, remember, in your 30 minutes, that can be 30 minutes of writing, 30 minutes of reading, 30 minutes of going through the dictionary looking for words you need, basic words. Right? Or, I don’t know, listening to, like I said, an engVid video.

Watching it twice. The first time, you watch it; second time, make notes about things you want to learn .Right? That’s 30 minutes. Painless. Five minutes review is good, because it’s like eating food. If you take a burger, just put it in your mouth, it’s not as good as when you take it, and chew it and taste it. When you taste it, that’s where the joy comes from. That’s what you should do with language. Just taste it. Play with it a bit. Number three: Imagine yourself in a situation where you have to use the English you’ve learned. That could be part of your 30 minutes. Read for a little while, stop, put the story in your head, close your eyes, and imagine it. If you imagine it, it becomes real. When it becomes real, it becomes useful. Okay? If you just write some grammar down and you write some rules, and you never think about using it, then guess what? You won’t.

So, why don’t we take a couple minutes with our review? Imagine. Okay? “I just learned this new vocabulary. James said something about a pharmacy. Now, imagine I had to go… What did he say I have to say? ‘Can you help me with…?'” Now, imagine asking the… There you go. Next thing you know, you’re in the situation, the words come out of your mouth. Practice. Number four: Set goals. What do you want to do with your English? I know.

“I want to speak English today.” It’s not going to happen. Sorry. Okay? Just like if you want a burger, you have to actually catch a cow, kill a cow, bring it to the store, grind it up or make meat for it, then put it on the barbecue. It doesn’t happen. Right? There’s many steps to it. So, in this case, set goals. Maybe a five-minute conversation with a native speaker. Two-minute, one-minute conversation. Maybe it’s learn turn… Ten words really well. Okay? So you read a book, you pick out ten words you don’t know, go to the dictionary, write it out, then write out sentences with those words. Talk to…

Try and use them in a conversation with somebody so that they become something you’ve digested, that means taken in and you understand. Okay? You understand it completely. Apply for a job. Here’s one. You… It’s the 21st century, bub. Get on the internet. “I would like to work for your company.” Send it out. Right? See what responses you get back. Now, most of them will say: “Hey, your grammar is really bad.” Right? Or you can do a phone interview. Say: “Hey, can we do a Skype interview for this job?” Practice. Just because you’re not living here right now doesn’t mean you can’t put it into practice. And through your mistakes, you can learn, and then go back and use that for your 30 minutes of work. Right? “They didn’t like my accent. It was too strong. Okay, work on pronunciation. They said my grammar skills seemed to be a bit weak.

Okay, work on grammar skills. My vocabulary was limited. I noticed I kept repeating the same thing. Okay, work on vocabulary. Work on synonyms.” You will start making your own lesson plan based on you, not on what some book or some teacher tells you to do. Finally: Travel. I should do, like, say this. Right? Travel. I know. This is not easy. You don’t have money. Right? You don’t have time. But why are you learning it? Everything you really want, you have to do something. We call it a sacrifice. You have to give something to get something you really want. You want to eat, you buy food.

The food’s not free. Right? You want to really use your language, you got to travel. You don’t have to be… Do a big trip. You can find things on the internet where it’s exchange. Somebody’s family comes to your house, you go to their house for two weeks, or something like that. Governments do exchanges where there’s learning programs. Right? Hey, you can go to startup programs. “Hi. I want to learn English. Send me to a country.” Some people, if you give a good enough story: “I live in a farm out in Lithuania.

My family is, you know… Always wanted me to do better with my life, and we know English is important. So, my father’s willing to give up three cows to have me go to Canada.” Put it out there. Somebody will go: “Oh, come on, man. I’ll give you the money.” You know, miracles happen. Things can happen, but you got to do something. Travelling is the one thing that makes you go out there, because you got to do something. You can’t pretend you want to learn, because you have to put your money there. That will be hard, and I admit that. But once you do, if you’re doing all of these things, there’s nothing sweeter than getting off a plane, and saying: “Hi. Can you help me this? I’m looking for a friend of mine”, and the other person going: “Sure, no problem.

Let me take you.” And you’re understood. Right? Cool? I think it’s cool. Anyway, where do I start? You know where to start now, whether you’re a beginner, intermediate, advanced, or you’re native. I’ve given you some helpful hints that you can use starting right this minute. Right? You’re watching one video, so 15 minutes of your time is done. Hit the next one, or go do the quiz.

All right? Cool. Listen, hope I’ve done my part for you. Now it’s time for you to do your part. Study, practice, review. And when you can and if you can, and if you can get the help, travel, see the world. All right? Listen, I got to go. You have a great day. All right? Don’t forget to do the quiz. Where? www, eng, as in English, vid, as in video. I probably did that backwards. Right? engVid. Doesn’t matter. You know. Go to www.engvid.com. Don’t forget to subscribe. It’s somewhere around here. Somewhere. Subscribe. And once again and always, thank you very much for being a part of our family. All right? Have a good one. Ciao.. “}

As found on Youtube

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Studying English at a Language School

{“en”:”Hello, folks. So this morning, we’ve come along to a very good language school in London because we want to have a look at what it’s like to be a student in one of these schools. Come, and let’s find out. — Hi, Lee. — Hi, Ben. — So our viewers are learning English on the Internet. What would be an advantage of coming to a language school for a time to learn some English? — I think the key difference is that when you’re at a language school, then you are part of a whole experience. If you’re learning online, it’s great, but it’s for an hour or two, and that’s it.

Whereas if you come to the school, then you have complete immersion in a whole day of English if you like. If you’re staying with a host family, you have English experience before you come to school. All day, you’re speaking English, and if you take part in our social activities in the evening, then you’re carrying on. So it’s constantly learning and taking in and processing of new information. — Sure. So if someone was studying here and staying with a host family, they might share meals with the family. — Yeah. — And I guess there are students coming from many different countries. — Exactly. And of course, then you get this interaction with loads and loads of different students from all over the world, which, again, really challenges you in different ways when you’re learning English, I think. — And do students come here for a couple of weeks? — Some do. Some students come for a couple of weeks. Some students come for a year. It depends on what that student is looking for, what they need, what their plans are. So it can be either-or.

— And I guess it’s very exciting being here in London. You know, we’ve got a lot of English culture around us. — Of course. I mean, the history, the art, the literature, the theatre scene is just really advantageous to learning English. It’s just an amazing city. So to come and study here is a really good thing, I think. — Yeah. I mean, I guess the student can learn more the more they put themselves in an English environment, the more they speak.

— Exactly. If you immerse yourself in something completely, then you’re going to get more out of it, I think. — Cool. Well, is it possible to go and have a look at a class this morning? — Yeah. Absolutely. I think Dan is waiting for you upstairs. — Great. Thank you very much. –You’re welcome. –Let’s go upstairs. So let’s go and have a quick look now at a general English class and what that looks like in a language school. Okay. Come have a look. — Hi, there, Dan. — Hi. — Hi. We’ve just come to have a look at your general English class today. — Hello. — What exactly are you going to be doing in class today? — Today, we’re looking at the difference between literal and non-literal meanings of nine elements of vocabulary.

I was just asking Nir what he thought about the difference between “enough food” and “too much food”. So, sorry. — I think it depends. — Okay. In this meaning, do you think that it’s — if there is “lots of”, is it good or bad? — Yeah. It’s good. — Good? Would you agree, guys? It’s good? — I think it’s bad. — Okay. Hands up if you think it’s good. Nir, you stand alone, my friend. I’m sorry. Hands up if you think it’s bad. — In fact, that’s what I looked like last night at about 10:30. But what other words? Fly. That’s what I’m looking for, “fly”. Read the sentences with your partner.

I want you to decide two things. No. 1, which sentence is the literal meaning? Which sentence is the non-literal meaning. No. 2, what do you think the non-literal meaning means in other languages? Okay. Good. So it’s a word. You can use it, but it doesn’t mean what you think it means here. In this case, you mean “hard”, not “hardly”. — “To question.” “Question” can be a verb? — Yes. Of course. “I question.” Yeah. Good guess. Well done. So that was a great lesson from Dan. They’re really engaging in the teaching, and the students were obviously enjoying it. We’re going to go down to the lunch hall now and grab a bit of lunch. And then, we’ve got a couple of students who we’ll be talking to. They’re from different parts of the world. So I’m hungry. Let’s go and eat. [Crowd chatter] Well, that was a delicious lunch. And we enjoyed having a look at Dan’s class. Now, we’ve got three students at the London School of English here. And firstly, folks, could you tell me what course you’re doing and how long you have learned English for? So starting with Takami.

— I’m taking a Cambridge English examination preparation course. It’s called FCE. So just this course I have studied three weeks. Yeah. I have another five weeks. — Okay. And before, when you were in Japan, how long did you learn? Like, one year, two years learning English? Or — — Honestly, no. Nothing. — Nothing at all? Okay. Wow. Very interesting. Okay. Thanks. And Veronica? — I’ve done the general course for one month, and then I’ve started three weeks ago the CAE course, which is the Cambridge Advanced Exam. And that last — — Why did you choose this course? — The CAE? — Yeah. — Because I needed to get into university, and I’ve also heard that this academy prepares very well students to pass the exams. And I’ve been — — So you’re hoping to study in a university in England? — No, not in England, in Switzerland.

— Okay. — And they are asking for a B in CAE. And yeah. They’ve told me that this academy really will help you to pass the exam successfully. — Good luck to you. — Thank you. — And Francis, tell me, how long have you been learning English, and why did you decide to come and study in England? — I started English in secondary school and some more in university. And I decided to come here because I want to improve my English a lot. But only for pleasure. And for me, the best place to learn English is in London.

— Sure. — So I come here, and I’m learning here in this school. — Cool. Veronica, had you been studying in Spain how to speak English? — I’ve studied English in Spain, but with au pairs. At school as well, but the level in my school was pretty low. So yeah. The au pairs have helped me to get this fluency. — And how do you find the teachers different in London and in a language school compared to in a school where you’re from? — Well, I think that teachers here have more experience, and they do really know which mistakes do students make. Whereas the teachers in Spain, obviously, they are experienced as well, but not as much as a language teacher would be. — So they’re more specific? — Yeah. More specific. They know the mistakes that people from different countries make, and yeah. I think that’s the main reason, I think. — So Takami, do you feel you’re improving your English in a good way? — Yeah.

Just getting better. But of course, I need to more improve. But I feel that day by day getting my English better. — Cool. And so for all of you, it’s been stimulating; it’s been an interesting time being here? You’re obviously making really good friends here. Is it something you’d recommend to people? — Absolutely. You should go. — Yeah, definitely. Yeah. I’ve already spread it all over. — You should come here. It’s a life experience. You have to do it once at least in your life. I enjoy it a lot. I improve my English a lot. I make a lot of friends from different parts of the world.

So it is amazing. I enjoy it a lot. — So guys, I’ve lived in London for six years. And I feel I know it well, but for you coming to London, is it a good place to come to? Is it easy for you to speak to people and practice English being here in London? — Yes. I met some very friendly people in the pubs or wherever you are. And yeah. It’s very easy. For me, as I said, it’s a life experience to be here. So London, for me, it’s the capital of the world. — Wow. — It’s not the United States; it’s not Washington. It’s London. Very cosmopolitan. — London’s on the map. — Yeah. Absolutely. — And are there enough things for you to do? — Definitely. — On the weekends, for example, are there opportunities to do things? — Yeah. You won’t run out of chances or different activities to do.

One weekend, you can go and see a theatre play, a musical, and then visit different areas from the city. It is a very versatile city. You can go to the north of London, and it’s completely different from the south of London. So you won’t ever — — I feel like I’m in a different country in some parts. — Yeah. It’s like a country. So you won’t ever get bored of living here. — Great. So the best way for you guys to learn English, is it from reading? Is it from listening? Is it a mixture? What’s the best way? — I think it’s a mixture because you learn the grammar basics in class. Then, afterwards, you can socialize at lunch. And then afterwards, with the social program, you’re able to talk to everyone and get to know everybody and talk about your country, their country.

You learn different cultures. You — yeah. You get to socialize. — Is it difficult for you to speak English to someone from Spain? — Well, if we — — It was easy the first day that we met each other, so it’s easy. Yeah. If you met someone and you start speaking English, it’s easy to ongoing with that. — And if both of us want to speak English, then it’s okay. Because I know other Spanish students here that they feel that they want to speak Spanish with me, for example. But don’t do that because we are all here to improve our English, and we are interested in learning English, not in speaking our native language. — It’s true. — And here, you have the possibility to speak 24 hours. — That’s why it’s the best way.

— So after school, you can go to the pub. — No sleep. — Exactly. — We are trying to speak English even with same country people. — That’s cool. — It’s important. — Well, thank you so much for coming in and speaking today. It’s been really useful. And I hope there’s been something for you to learn back home. Thank you, guys. — Thank you.. “}

As found on Youtube

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Improve your English the CRAZY way!!!

{“en”:”Hi, there. Are you having problems or difficulties, or do you find it difficult to practice speaking English? Maybe you live in a country where nobody around you speaks English, or you’re the only person you know that speaks English. I’ve got some advice for you. So, how to help you improve your speaking or your talking in English. Goin’ crazy. Usually in English, we never say: “going” or “trying”. We say: “goin'”. So, any time in English you see this, we’re actually missing the “g”. So, probably you should say: “Going crazy trying to speak or practice English”.

But, in slang when regular speech, we say: “Goin’ crazy tryin’ to speak or practice English”. So, I want you to think about one thing. Crazy people, there’s one right here. I’m crazy, little bit. But when I say “crazy people”, I mean people who are mentally disturbed or have something really wrong with their brain. And we like to categorize people as being crazy, but they really are not insane. They just make crazy noises. So if someone is considered crazy, what do they do? Crazy people usually talk to themselves, they hear voices, especially if they’re psychotic, and they will take to anyone or everyone that will listen to them. So, my advice to you, secret number 42 of how to speak English, is act like you’re crazy, or just go crazy learning English.

The first one: crazy people talk to themselves. You are going to talk to yourself. If you want to really put… Bring this off and do it well, you could go on the bus [giggles] or on any kind of trans… Public transportation, go on the street in your city and just talk to yourself on the street. I don’t really recommend that. If you want to do that, you can. But talk to yourself, but record it. So when you do this, you’re actually listening to your English so you can catch your mistakes and you can listen to your pronunciation. And, really, what do you sound like in English? So, rule number one: you’re going to talk to yourself, but you’re going to record it so you can check your mistakes and you can see just how well you do speak. Because I bet you, you speak better than you think. Next one: crazy people talk about hearing voices. Now, I know you inside have a voice. You, like I, have an inner being, a voice inside your head.

Crazy people are known to have more than one voice. If you have this, you might want to seek some help. But when you hear voices, I want you to talk to yourself inside your head in English. When I lived in Japan, I learned to speak Japanese. I didn’t take a course. I don’t like studying. But my inner voice spoke to me in Japanese. So I would come back to Canada or I would go travelling, and I would actually speak to people who spoke English, they would ask me a question, I would answer them in Japanese because my inner voice was still talking to me in Japanese.

So, one really, really important and great thing that you can do is make your inside voice speak to you in English. This sounds crazy, but I guarantee you that it’s one of the ways that you know if you are coming actually bilingual (means you can speak two languages) or trilingual. So, if your inside voice can talk to you in two different languages, this is really amazing, and it means that your English is improving. Everyone has a different timeline. Some people can do this within a year, some people within months, some people it takes three or four years to do this, but once you have achieved this, woohoo, you’re almost there. And the last one: you’ll notice that if you see crazy people on the subway or you see crazy people in your city, they’re going to talk to any or… This means “or”, by the way. Everyone. They don’t care who it is. They’re not going to be picky and go: “I don’t want to talk to that person. I want to talk to everyone.” So, the more people that you can speak to in English, the better.

You don’t have to be picky. That means you don’t have to choose. Is it a beautiful girl? A handsome boy? Young people, old people, babies, children. Anyone that you know that speaks English, try and talk to them. Even in your country, you think: “Ronnie, there’s no one in my country that speaks English”, you might be surprised. You can find people on websites, and you can find other English speakers to talk to. So, go crazy, speak as much as you can, and learn English with me. I’m Ronnie, and I’m crazy. Good bye.. “}

As found on Youtube

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My TOP 5 Writing Tips (for all levels)

{“en”:”Hello. My name is Emma, and in today’s video I am going to teach you some great writing tips. These tips are for both academic writing and non-academic writing. Okay? So it’s for writing in general. Now, this video is going to be in two parts, because I have so many tips, so I’m going to give five tips in this video and five tips in the next video. Okay, so let’s get started. So, there are so many different ways… Or so many different types of writing we do in our lives; we write emails, we write essays if we’re a student, we might write a Facebook post, or we might write a resume or a cover letter.

So it’s very important to develop your writing skills because you will be writing throughout your life a lot. So let’s look at my first tip. My first tip is: It’s very important to think about the genre of what you’re writing. “Genre” is a very fancy word that pretty much means type. So, a genre of writing might be an essay, or it might be a cover letter, or an email, or a tweet. These are all different genres, and each one of these has a different expectation on what you should include and how you should write it. So it’s very important, first step is: Know the genre or know the type, and know what is expected of you.

Also important in this is knowing your audience, or thinking about your audience. So, for example, if you write an email, the language you’re going to use and the way you’re going to write will be different if you write an email to your friend versus an email to your boss. So it’s important to think about: “Who are you writing to?” because this is going to help you decide what to write and how to write it.

Same with, you know, if you are on Twitter and you write a tweet, or on Facebook a Facebook post, you know, it’s important to think about your audience. You know, are you writing this post for friends to see, or is this a post your boss might see, or members of the public? You know, and that could be a problem. So it’s important to think about, especially with this and on other social media, too: Audience. Who will see this and what will they think about it, and what are their expectations? You know, some people work for companies where they’re responsible for social media, so it’s important, too, the type of wording they use when they’re writing on Facebook. If you work at a company and you’re writing for your company, it’s going to be different than if you’re writing for your friends. Same with an essay. An essay has a certain structure, you know, it’s supposed to be a certain amount of pages, it has a certain organization to it, and so knowing what’s expected of you when you write an essay will help you because it’s going to be very different than, for example, a Facebook post.

Same with in business, business reports. Understanding the format of a business report is important if this is something you’re going to be writing, and thinking about your audience. Same with executive summaries, which is a type of thing businesspeople write. If you’re not in business you might not ever write one of these, but if you are in business you need to realize that audience is important because professionals are going to be reading this, and these people are busy, so, you know, knowing your audience and knowing what is expected of you is the very first step to good writing. Let’s look at some other tips. Okay, so we’ve talked about genre or the type of writing you’re doing, and part of this is knowing the expectations for how long what you write should be.

Okay? So you want to know a bit about length expectations before you start writing. This is really important, especially in university where you often have a number of pages you’re allowed to write. It’s important, you know, in the workplace because sometimes, you know, you can’t write a lot. And it’s important, you know, on Twitter because you have a certain number of characters you can use. So length is very important because that’s going to help you decide what to include in your writing. Okay, so let’s look at this a bit more.

When I was younger I used to think long, meaning a lot of writing, was always better, but this is not the case. You know, the more you write, maybe you can include more detail, but a lot of the times the person or your audience who’s reading what you write does not have a lot of time, and so they don’t want to read long pieces of work. Okay? So it’s important to know expectations.

So, for example, I have here the word “short” and “long”, and so this is kind of like the scale. If you write a tweet it’s going to be something short; a Facebook post might be a little bit longer; a paragraph, you might write something like five sentences if in school you have to write a paragraph on something; an email might be a little bit longer than this; a cover letter you might use a full page; a resume maybe you might use two pages but nothing more; and then you might write an essay which might be 5 pages, 10 pages, depending; and then maybe a report which might be 50 pages-who knows?-depending on what’s expected.

So my main point here is that different types of writing have different expectations with length, and it’s really important to follow those expectations. For students who are writing the TOEFL or the IELTS, you only can use a certain number of words, so this is very important for you to know and to really think about. How are you going to get your message across using the right amount of words? This is a key word we often talk about in good writing, and that’s “concise”.

So when you are concise, it means you say something with as few words as possible, but still getting the meaning across. So you are communicating your idea, but you’re doing it in a short way, as short as you can while still keeping the idea there. So, in different cultures you have different rules about this. In some cultures longer is better. In English-speaking cultures usually we really want to get to the point, so we want something to be… We want to communicate our idea, but we want it to be in a concise way, so using our words very carefully so we don’t use too many words.

So main point here: Know how long something you’re writing should be, and paying attention to this when you write. All right? Now let’s look at my next tip. Okay, so my third point might be one of the most important points in this lesson, and that is: When you write something, very important to plan or to think about what you will say before you write it. This is something a lot of people don’t do because they’re busy, they feel like they don’t have a lot of time, or you know, they just don’t have any ideas.

And the thing is, though, that this will really help improve your writing. Okay? And it doesn’t matter what you’re writing; planning out an email can be important, just like planning out an essay can be important. So let’s think about some ways we can plan out what we want to write. There are… There are different ways to do this. Some people like to make a plan by brainstorming. So, for example, imagine you were writing a paragraph about cats, so you might have your subject or your key idea here, and then you might think about: “Okay, what’s something about cats? Hmm. They make great pets”, and then you might write some stuff about that. Maybe they’re quiet, so they make a good pet. They’re cheap.

Okay? And so the thing is just getting out your ideas. Okay? And then you can organize your ideas better. Or maybe, you know, you’re thinking: “Okay, cats, they eat food. What kind of food do they eat?” So you can do the same thing with reports. You can think about: “Okay, what’s the main ideas that I need to talk about in this report?” You know, where you just kind of brainstorm in advance. I usually do that when I write reports, and I find it very helpful actually, just to get my ideas down on paper, and then I organize them. So, this is one method. Another thing you can do is you can just write down everything, just like this, with a dash. So, for example, if I was writing about cats in a paragraph, I might just start thinking…

Writing anything I think: “Quiet, cute, Grumpy Cat”, okay? And I might just write down all the ideas I have. Now, of course, you’re probably not writing an essay or a paragraph on cats; you’re probably writing something very different, but the idea is the same. Okay? The idea being it’s important to plan, and these are different, great ways to get out your ideas, and to think about them before you actually write. Sometimes if you’re writing an essay you might think in advance about your thesis or what your…

The main topic and the main argument of your essay is going to be. So, for example, cats are better than dogs. Maybe that’s something I want to argue in an essay. And then I might organize based on ideas, so I might write, you know, my first main idea: “They’re cleaner”, and then I might put some details about that. My second main idea is that they’re great for apartments, and then I might write some examples or some reasons why. So, my main point is all of these can work. Find what’s… What helps you in terms of planning. There’s many different ways to plan what you’re going to write, but the most important thing is to plan and to take some time to think about what you want to say in advance, because it will really help your writing. And it’s very obvious when somebody hasn’t planned what they’re going to write, because everything’s disorganized and it’s hard to follow. Planning makes it easier for the audience to understand you. Now let’s look at another tip for how to write better. Okay, so remember I said that it’s very important to think about the type of writing you’re doing, and your audience or who’s going to read it? One of the reasons why this is important is because depending on the type of writing, you’re going to write either in a formal way or an informal way.

Okay? And I’ll explain why this is important to know and how it affects your writing. So first let’s talk about what that means. Well, when you write something formally, this means that we choose certain words and certain types of sentences, and we write a certain way, and we write this way because our audience or the people who are going to read this are usually people from work so we want to be professional, so we write formally when we’re being professional. We might write this way to strangers or customers.

Okay? If we work somewhere and we need to write an email, we might use this type of language, formal language. And we also use formal language in high school, in university, in college when we’re writing for an assignment or for our homework, or something that our teacher or professor will read. Okay? So we use formal writing mainly in work settings and in academic or school settings. Now, this is different from informal writing. Informal writing is the type of writing you will be doing with your friends, so maybe for example a text message, that’s informal; you might use this type of writing when you’re talking to children or writing something for children; and also on social media, so if you write a tweet or a Facebook post, usually you’ll be using informal language; and also with your family, too, you usually use informal language.

So, I have here some examples of genres or types of writing that you might use the formal version or the informal version. So, under formal we have essays, if you do that at university or high school, it would be formal; a cover letter, if you want to get a job and you have to write a cover letter then this is going to be formal language you use; a report, if you work at a company and you have to write reports, you’ll be using formal language; or emails to customers you’ll be using formal language. And there’s a lot more; this is just some examples. For informal, if you write a postcard to your family you’ll be using informal language; a text message would be informal; an email to your friend you would use informal language; or maybe a birthday card.

Okay? So it’s important to think in advance what kind of language you’re going to use. Okay, so how can we make something formal or informal with our language? There’s a couple of ways to do this. The first thing you need to think about is the words you’re going to use or your vocabulary. So, different words either fit into the formal category or informal category. So, for example, if we were talking about a lot of something and we want to be informal, we might use the word “lots”. So this is an example of an informal word: “lots”; we’d use this with our friends. If we want to be a bit more formal, we’re writing, you know, at the university level, we might use the word “many”; this word is formal, whereas “lots” is more informal. Okay? Or same with if we’re writing an email and at the very end of the email we sign our name, we usually say something like “From”, but we don’t use the word “From”.

We can say “Cheers” if we’re writing an email, we can say, you know: “Cheers. Emma”, this would be informal. Or if, you know, we’re in a business and we need to be more serious and formal, we might say something like: “Regards” or “Kind regards”. Same with different words, like: “Sorry”. “Sorry” is a little bit more informal, whereas the word “apologize” is more formal. So, it’s very important when you’re choosing your words because a lot of words fit either into this category or this category, and some words fit into both. It’s good to know the level of formality for the words you’re using. Now, if you’re having a lot of trouble with this and you’re thinking: “How am I going to know if the word is formal or informal?” There’s a quick tip you can try; it doesn’t always work, but in general, longer words in English are often more formal.

So, the longer words are usually in this category. It’s not always the case, but just if you really don’t know, it’s a good way to guess. And they’re usually… They come from Latin. So, for anyone who’s watching who’s from France, from Spain, or South America, or Italy, or who speaks a Latin-based language, if you have a word that’s similar in your language, it probably is a formal word in English or it’s probably something you can use in a formal setting. Okay? So usually the shorter words are the more informal words. So now let’s look at some other ways we can look at formality; formal versus informal. Okay, so when we’re talking about formal and informal writing, another thing to think about is contractions. So, what’s a contraction? A contraction is a short form of a pronoun, like: “I”, “you”, “he”, “she”, “we”; and usually part of a verb, like: “am”, “would”, “will”. So, the short form is, in this example: “I am” becomes “I’m”. “I’m” is a contraction. Or: “you would” can become “you’d”, and that’s a contraction.

“We will” becomes “we’ll” for short, and that’s a contraction. So, contractions have an apostrophe here, and it’s where some of the parts of this word we just remove and so it becomes “will”. So, these contractions, and there’s many in English, we use them in informal writing. So if you’re texting someone, if you’re writing an email to a friend – this will make you sound more informal. Now, compare this to if you’re writing an essay or a thesis at university, or you’re writing a report – we don’t want to use contractions because these are informal. So, if we’re writing something formal, we would use something more like this; we do not use contractions for formal writing. Okay? So that’s another reason why we need to know what we’re writing in advance, because we want to decide if we’ll use contractions or not. My next point is about sentence types and sentence lengths. When we’re talking about formal versus informal, you’ll find things that are usually informal are short.

We usually use shorter sentences. And in formal writing, you’ll find sentences tends to be longer. Okay? So, we can call this… For informal we can talk about simple sentences, for example, a simple sentence: “Students are stressed.” It’s a short sentence that if you know about clauses, it only has one clause; if you don’t know about clauses, don’t worry. The point is it’s shorter. Now, compare this to something more complex. “When a student begins university, they often report feeling stressed.” This is more of a complex sentence, it’s longer, and you’ll notice there’s a comma in the middle of it breaking it up into two clauses; and again, if you don’t understand clauses, that’s okay. The main point here is this, complex or longer is usually in formal writing, whereas simple structures or simple sentences are more informal. And again, you know, it’s not always the case, but in general you’ll find longer sentences or more complex sentences are more formal.

You’ll also find informal writing we use relative clauses more. So, if you don’t know what a relative clause is, that’s okay. These are, for example, they use the word: “who”, “which”, “that”, “when” within the sentence. So, an example of a relative clause would be: “Jane Goodall, who works with chimpanzees, is a wonderful woman.” So, if you don’t know about relative clauses, I recommend looking this up. In this video we don’t have enough time to talk about them, but they can really help your writing, especially if you’re writing something in a formal situation. All right, now let’s look at some more tips on how to improve our writing. Okay, so the last thing I’m going to say about formal writing versus informal writing, and I’m talking a lot about this because it’s actually a very important part of writing, is I’m going to talk a little bit about slang, swear words, exaggeration words, and text words, and when to use them. So, slang, it’s words we use with our friends, words like: “cool”, I was going to say “groovy” but nobody says that anymore, so, you know, there’s all sorts of different types of slang.

It’s a word that’s very popular or an expression that’s popular, but it’s not a formal expression. So, “cool” is a really good one, or “awesome”: “That’s awesome”. So, slang we use informally. Same with swear words. Okay? So if you say a bad word, you know, sometimes you might say something to your friend, you might use different swear words when you talk to your friends, hopefully not with strangers, but with people you know well, but you would not use swear words in a formal writing situation. So maybe you might use it in a text, but you wouldn’t use it in a formal writing situation. Also exaggeration words.

What’s an exaggeration word? “Very” is a good example. “He is very funny”, “She is very pretty”, “He is really handsome”, “He’s totally hot”, okay? So these types of words: “very”, “really”, “totally”, we usually save these for informal writing. So if you’re in university and you want to say something is “very”, don’t use the word “very”; there are better words, like, you know… There are a lot of other words you can use as opposed to these ones. Another thing I wanted to say is there’s a lot of words we use now, they’re short forms of words, like, for example: “lol” for “laugh out loud”, “b4” for “before”, “LMAO” for “laugh my ass off”, these are words we use informally.

Okay? We do not use these in formal writing, so it’s important in formal writing to always spell out the word correctly, to use proper spelling, and to avoid some of these words you might be seeing a lot on the internet or in text messaging or on Facebook. Okay, so we’ve covered about formal and informal writing. My last tip for this video is about the importance of using variety in what you’re writing. So what do I mean by “variety”? Well, sometimes when people write, they have certain words that they use again and again and again, and so there’s not a lot of variety in their choice of words. Or you might have somebody else who uses the same sentence structure; maybe they learned the present perfect and they love the present perfect because it took them forever to learn it, so now they use the present perfect in each sentence. So this is not good because we really want variety in what we write, because we want it to be interesting. If you use something too much, it makes what you’re writing look boring.

So, let’s look at an example. I have here a sentence: “Sales have increased. They have increased for many reasons. The increase is because people increasingly like spending money.” Can you tell me: Which word did I use too much? If you said “increase”, you’re correct. I used it one, two, three, four. Okay, so that’s too much in a piece of writing. There are a lot of other words we could be using instead of “increase”. We could be using, you know: “go up”, “rise”. There are a lot of other words. And if you’re not sure of another word for “increase”, a good idea is to check a thesaurus. There are a lot of online thesauruses that can help you add variety to your word choice. So if you make this kind of mistake where you reuse the same word again and again and again, try to learn some other words that have the same meaning. This will really help your writing and make it more interesting. The other thing I wanted to say is that we just talked about how you want variety in words. You also want variety in sentence types. So you want to make sure that, you know, sometimes you use long sentences, and sometimes you use short sentence, sometimes you use, you know, maybe words like: “although”, “when”, “despite”, “in spite of”, and sometimes you might have something a bit simpler.

So instead of reusing the same sentence type and the same sentence structure, try to use different tenses and different structures in the sentences you write. Yeah, so different tenses and try to have different sentence lengths. That will make your writing more interesting. So, thank you for watching this video. I know we covered a lot today, and I have a lot more writing tips coming soon. So, we’ve covered a lot and there’s a lot of things you can practice, so I invite you to come visit our website at www.engvid.com, and there, you can practice what you’ve learned today.

I also invite you to subscribe to my channel; there, you will find a whole bunch of other resources on different grammar points, you know, especially if you’re interested in how to add variety, different videos on vocabulary, on writing, on pronunciation, and all sorts of other topics. So I invite you to check that out. Thank you for watching; and until next time, take care.. “}

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