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{“en”:”Hello. Welcome. “Speak American English with Lyman Holton” My name is Lyman Holton. In this lesson you and me are going to have a conversation… as two people discussing directions to the library. Are you ready? Let’s begin. Repeat everything I say for Lyman and Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to.

My name is Kelly. And, may ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center.

Now, we’ve had our practice reading everything for both conversations. Now, what we’re going to do is begin our 1st conversation. Speak out loud as Kelly. You are Kelly. Just listen when Lyman speaks. I’m Lyman. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes. Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Kelly. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Lyman. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight.

Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Lyman. No problem, Kelly. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it. Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. Let’s begin our second conversation. Let’s switch dialogues. I am still Lyman. You are still Kelly. Excuse me. Where’s the nearest library? Oh, my. I’m afraid the closest one is a couple miles from here. So, there is a library about two miles away? Yes. Are you going to drive there? Yes.

Why do you ask? Because the bus, that will be here shortly, goes there. I see. Could you give me directions for driving? Sure. Ah, what is your name, if you don’t mind me asking? Oh, of course not. I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to be rude. That’s all right. I just like to know who I’m talking to. My name is Lyman. And, may I ask what yours is as well? I’m Kelly. Now, to get to the library, drive that way to the fifth stoplight. Okay. I go to the fifth stoplight. Then what? Turn left and go about one mile, and you’ll see the library on the right. All right. Do you know the name of the street where I turn left? I’m not sure. I think it’s 2nd Avenue. Okay. Thanks for the information, Kelly. No problem, Lyman. I hope you don’t have any trouble finding it.

Oh, I’m sure I’ll find it okay. Oh, yeah. I just remembered. The library is next to a shopping center. And, that concludes our conversation for this lesson. I hope you enjoyed it… and if you have any questions please feel free to post them below. Goodbye for now.. “}

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{“en”:”Hello. My name is Emma and in today’s video I am going to teach you about a very important piece of vocabulary — it’s also very important when it comes to grammar — and that is the expression: “Just in case” or we can also say: “in case”. So, we use this a lot in English, so it’s very… It’s something very important for you to learn. So let’s talk about what it means and how we use it.

So, we use: “in case” or “just in case”-we use both-when we are talking about doing something to prevent a problem. Okay? So we’re talking about… Or doing something to prepare for a problem. So, we’re looking at a problem and we’re looking at preparation or prevention of that problem. Okay? So, for example: “Tonight, I am going to a restaurant.” I’m very excited. Now, the problem is I get cold very easily, and when I’m cold I’m not a very nice person; I get very cranky, and I’m not a good person to be with when I’m cold. So my problem is I get cold easily. What is my prevention or preparation for this problem? Well: “I will bring a sweater just in case I get cold.” Okay? And that way I will have a great time at the restaurant, hopefully. So my problem is being cold, and my preparation is I’m going to bring a sweater.

So, as you can see, if you think about life, we have a lot of these types of problems and we do a lot of things to prepare for these types of problems. So let’s look at some other examples. Okay, a problem is when it rains… Okay? A lot of the times when it rains, you know, I don’t like getting wet, so what do I do? Well, my preparation or prevention is I bring an umbrella, or maybe I’ll bring a rain jacket.

Okay? So: “I will bring an umbrella just in case it rains.” Another problem is if you work at 9am, you know, a lot of the times there’s a lot of cars; everybody’s going to work at the same time, there’s a lot of traffic. And if there’s a lot of traffic maybe you’ll be late for work. So what will you do for this problem? So, traffic is the problem or maybe going to work late is the problem, but what you can do to prevent or prepare for this problem is you can leave your house early.

So: “I leave my house early every day just in case there’s traffic.” Another example of a problem is maybe you’re going to visit your friend, and your friend gives you their address. Now, if you don’t write down their address, you’re going to be lost. I don’t know where they live. I need to go to my friends’ house, I forget their address; I don’t know where they live. So this is the problem. Especially if you’re very forgetful like me or you always forget people’s phone numbers or, you know, where people live, this is a big problem.

So what do you do to prevent this problem? Well, you write down their address. Okay? On a piece of paper, your friend tells you their address, you write it down. Why do you write it down? “You write down their address just in case you forget it.” Okay? You forget their address. So I’ve just given you some examples of where we would use “just in case”. There are a lot of examples for “just in case”. I want you to think about your life.

Is there something that happens every day to you, maybe you have some sort of problem or something you worry about? So think about that for a second. Is there something you worry about every day, and what do you do to prepare for that or to prevent a problem from happening? Okay? Maybe, you know, you’re worried about failing your test, so you might create a study group just in case. Okay? Or maybe, you know, your teacher gives you homework. Maybe you will do the homework just in case they want to see it. So, you see what I’m saying? There’s a lot of problems you might have, and a lot of preventions or preparations you do for those problems.

So try to think of one in your own life. Okay, so now we are going to look at the grammar of “just in case” or “in case”. Okay, so we’ve already looked at what are problems, and how we prepare or prevent problems. Now let’s look at some examples of: How do we create this sentence in a grammatical fashion? So, I have here the sentence: “I will bring an umbrella in case it rains.” Do you remember what the problem is? The problem is it rains, and the preparation is bringing an umbrella.

I have another sentence. “I will leave my house early in case there is traffic.” So, again, traffic is the problem, and leaving my house early is the preparation or the prevention of a problem. So, I have a couple of questions for you about the grammar. Okay? I want you to look at the sentences, both of these sentences: Is the problem…? So the problem we’re talking about, do you see the problem before or after the expression “in case”? So where is the problem? So we find “in case”.

Is the problem before “in case”, up here; or is the problem after “in case”? It’s after, right? So, “it rains” is the problem, so: “in case it rains”, these go together. What about down here? “…in case”, is the problem before the word “in case” or is it after the word “in case”? Well, the problem is traffic, so the problem comes after the word “in case”. Okay? So if it helps you to remember: “in case”… So we wouldn’t write this in a sentence. This is… We won’t put these brackets in a sentence, but just to help you in your head to remember: “in case” is with the problem, so these are like one unit, if that makes sense. Okay. And so if the problem comes after “in case”, what comes before “in case”? The preparation or the prevention. So after “in case” is the problem, before is the prevention or the preparation. Okay, so what verb tense comes after “in case”? So when we’re talking about the problem, what is the verb tense that we use when we’re talking about the problem? So I want you to look, here’s the verb and here is the other verb.

Is this the past, the present, or the future? If you said the present, you are correct. We use the present tense when we use “in case”. Okay? And so: “in case it rains”, we could put this… You know, imagine if I said: “I will bring a sweater in case it gets cold”, so the part after “in case” is always in the present tense. Okay. So another question you might be wondering: “Do ‘in case’ and ‘just in case’ mean the same thing? Can I use either, ‘in case’ or ‘just in case?'” “I will bring an umbrella just in case it rains” or “in case it rains”, they’re both correct. It’s your choice; you can use whichever one you prefer.

Okay, and these two sentences use the word “will”: “I will leave my house early”, “I will bring an umbrella”, so this is talking about, you know, doing something in the future, right? “In the future I will bring an umbrella”, or “In the future I will leave my house early”. Do we always use “will” when we use…? When we’re making these types of sentences? Can I say: “I always bring an umbrella in case it rains” or “I brought an umbrella in case it rains”? Can I use the past, present, or future, or is it always the future? Actually for “just in case”, you can use “will”, you can use the past tense, or you can use the present tense when you’re talking about the preparation. So the problem… We’re talking about a future problem, this stays in the present tense; but in terms of the preparation, it depends on when you do the preparation. So the key question here is: When did you prepare, or when did you prevent the problem? So I’ll give you some examples. Imagine for this one: Yesterday I brought an umbrella to work because today I knew it would rain.

So if in the past, if yesterday or earlier today, you know, I brought an umbrella, we could change this to: “brought”. “I brought an umbrella in case it rains”. “…in case it rains” stays the same. Okay? It’s always in the present. But before the preparation we can use the past. Or what about if, you know… For example, the second sentence, imagine I always leave my house early, every day. Okay? I always do it. It’s a routine. “I will leave my house early in case there’s traffic.” If it’s a routine and it always happens, I can use the present tense here, I can say: “I always leave my house early in case there is traffic.” Okay? Or if we’re talking about something I’ll do in the future to prepare: “I will leave my house early in case there is traffic.” So, bottom line, the key point here, the thing that you really got to remember: After “in case” this is always the present.

Okay? So, after the words “in case”, the verb is the present; but when you’re talking about what you’re doing, the preparation, it depends on when you prepare. If you’re preparing… If the action of preparing is in the past, you use the past; if it’s a routine that you always do, you use the present; or if it’s something you’re going to do, use the future. Okay? So let me think if I can give you another example. Okay, if we think about a test and studying, I can say: “I studied hard for my test yesterday in case my test is hard.” Or, sorry: I studied…

Yeah. “I really studied for my test yesterday in case the test is hard”, so we have it in the past, I studied in the past. Now if, you know, maybe I always study for a test and I always really study hard for a test, I can say it in the present: “I always study for a test in case it’s hard.” Or, you know, maybe I’ve never done that before, but maybe tomorrow I’m going to study, I can say: “I will study, you know, for my test in case it’s hard.” Okay? So it depends on when you’re doing that action. All right, so we’re going to look at a couple more examples, you know, to get you more practice and more familiar with “in case” and “just in case”. Okay, so in my life I get hungry a lot. And just like when I get cold I’m not really a happy person, when I get hungry I’m not a happy person.

So in order to make sure I stay happy, I always try to have food with me. So, for example, I’ve made a sentence with “just in case” or “in case”: “I brought a sandwich today in case I get hungry.” So what’s the problem here? The problem is when Emma’s hungry she’s a horrible person to be around. Okay? So, we have a problem: Emma’s hungry. So, what do we do to make sure Emma, you know, stays like a happy person? Well, we make sure she takes a sandwich with her, so that’s the preparation. Okay? And, again, after “in case” we have the problem, before we have the preparation. Okay, and this, again, is in the present tense. And this one is in the past tense because I already brought the sandwich. Okay? This is something I did this morning. Now, it is possible to change the structure of the sentence around.

You don’t have to, so if you think: “Wow, Emma, today I learned a lot, I don’t want to, you know, learn anymore”, that’s okay, you’ve learned a lot. But if you’re interested, we can also change the sentence and put it in the opposite way. So what do I mean by that? Well, in this case “in case” is the second part of the sentence; we can also put it as the first part of the sentence. “In case I get hungry,”-so it’s the exact same words, we just add a comma-“I brought a sandwich”. So it’s your choice, they have the exact same meaning. You can start with “In case” or “in case” can be in the middle of the sentence. But when you start with “In case”, just make sure you remember the comma. Up here there’s no comma. Okay? So, for a lot of people this is easier because they, you know, forget their commas, but we do use both. Okay, let’s look at another example. “I always keep medicine at home in case I _______ sick.” Okay? So if you think about it, a lot of people will have medicine for headaches, or for when they catch a cold, they keep medicine at home.

So what’s the problem here? The problem is getting sick. Okay? So, the problem is getting sick, and how do we prepare for that? Well, we have medicine at home. So, after “in case” I want to use the verb “get” here. What do I need to do to the verb “get”? Is it going to be in the past tense as in “got”, do I say “get”, or “will get”? What tense do I use? If you said “get”, which is the present tense, you are correct. Yay. Good for you. I hope you got that. “I always keep medicine at home in case I get sick.” And, again, this is in the present because it’s something we do as a routine, we’re always doing this. Okay, so the last example: “I’ll go early just in case there is a line.” So imagine you’re going to the movie theatre, and you know a lot of the times with movie theatres there’s a long line up -that’s a problem.

A long line up is a problem, so what do you do to prevent that problem or to prepare for it? Well, you go to the movie theatre early so you can line up and make sure you get a good seat. So, in this case I’ve used the word “just in case”. “I’ll go early to the movie theatre just in case there is a long line.” Do I need to use, like, all of this? Can I just say: “I’ll go early just in case”, and not even say this? That’s possible. So if you don’t even want to do this, you can actually just say: “I’ll go early just in case” as long as the person you’re talking to knows, like, the context and can understand what you’re talking about, and it’s obvious, you know, what you’re doing, you can just use “just in case” instead of the full sentence.

Okay? So, even up here: “I always keep medicine at home”, you probably keep medicine at home in order… Like, in case you get sick, it’s kind of obvious, so if you wanted to, you can just say: “…just in case”. Okay? So there’s a couple of ways we can use “just in case”. You’ve learned a couple of different ways today. You will hear all of these different variations in conversation, in movies, on TV. Again, “just in case” and “in case” is very common and very important; we use it a lot.

So you might hear any of these variations of it. So, I hope you have enjoyed this lesson. And just in case you want to practice more, you can come visit our website at www.engvid.com, and there you can do our quiz. Now, in case, you know, maybe you didn’t understand the video, like, completely or maybe there’s some confusion, in case you’re confused, watch the video again.

Okay? You can get a lot from watching these videos multiple times. I also want to invite you to come subscribe to our channel; there you can find lots of other videos on things like pronunciation, vocabulary, writing, IELTS. You know, we have so many different types of videos and, you know, on a lot of useful things like grammar and, you know, all sorts of different types of topics. So I really recommend you check that out. Until next time, thanks for watching and take care.. “}

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{“en”:”My name is Steve Pinker, and Iu2019m Professor of Psychology at Harvard University.  And today Iu2019m going to speak to you about language.  ufeffIu2019m actually not a linguist, but a cognitive scientist.  Iu2019m not so much interested as language as an object in its own right, but as a window to the human mind.ufeff Language is one of the fundamental topics in the human sciences.

 Itu2019s the trait that most conspicuously distinguishes humans from other species, itu2019s essential to human cooperation; we accomplish amazing things by sharing our knowledge or coordinating our actions by means of words.  It poses profound scientific mysteries such as, how did language evolve in this particular species?  How does the brain compute language? But also, language has many practical applications not surprisingly given how central it is to human life. ufeff Language comes so naturally to us that weu2019re apt to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is.

 But think about what youu2019re doing for the next hour.   Youu2019re going to be listening patiently as a guy makes noise as he exhales.  Now, why would you do something like that?  Itu2019s not that I can claim that the sounds Iu2019m going to make are particularly mellifluous, but rather Iu2019ve coded information into the exact sequences of hisses and hums and squeaks and pops that Iu2019ll be making.  You have the ability to recover the information from that stream of noises allowing us to share ideas. Now, the ideas we are going to share are about this talent, language, but with a slightly different sequence of hisses and squeaks, I could cause you to be thinking thoughts about a vast array of topics, anything from the latest developments in your favorite reality show to theories of the origin of the universe.

 This is what I think of as the miracle of language, its vast expressive power, and itu2019s a phenomenon that still fills me with wonder, even after having studied language for 35 years.  And it is the prime phenomenon that the science of language aims to explain.  ufeff Not surprisingly, language is central to human life.  The Biblical story of the Tower of Babel reminds us that humans accomplish great things because they can exchange information about their knowledge and intentions via the medium of language.  Language, moreover, is not a peculiarity of one culture, but it has been found in every society ever studied by anthropologists.ufeff Thereu2019s some 6,000 languages spoken on Earth, all of them complex, and no one has ever discovered a human society that lacks complex language.  For this and other reasons, Charles Darwin wrote, u201cMan has an instinctive tendency to speak as we see in the babble of our young children while no child has an instinctive tendency to bake, brew or write.u201d ufeff Language is an intricate talent and itu2019s not surprising that the science of language should be a complex discipline.

ufeffIt includes the study of how language itself works including:  grammar, the assembly of words, phrases and sentences; phonology, the study of sound; semantics, the study of meaning; and pragmatics, the study of the use of language in conversation. ufeff ufeffScientists interested in language also study how it is processed in real time, a field called psycholinguistics; how is it acquired by children, the study of language acquisition.  And how it is computed in the brain, the discipline called neurolinguistics. ufeffu2028 Now, before we begin, itu2019s important to not to confuse language with three other things that are closely related to language.  One of them is written language.  Unlike spoken language, which is found in all human cultures throughout history, writing was invented a very small number of times in human history, about 5,000 years ago.

 ufeff And alphabetic writing where each mark on the page stands for a vowel or a consonant, appears to have been invented only once in all of human history by the Canaanites about 3,700 years ago.  And as Darwin pointed out, children have no instinctive tendency to write, but have to learn it through construction and schooling.ufeff A second thing not to confuse language with is proper grammar.

 Linguists distinguish between descriptive grammar – the rules, that characterize how people to speak – and prescriptive grammar – rules that characterize how people ought to speak if they are writing careful written prose.  ufeff A dirty secret from linguistics is that not only are these not the same kinds of rules, but many of the prescriptive rules of language make no sense whatsoever.  Take one of the most famous of these rules, the rule not to split infinitives.  ufeff According to this rule, Captain Kirk made a grievous grammatical error when he said that the mission of the Enterprise was u201cto boldly go where no man has gone before.u201d  He should have said, according to these editors, u201cto go boldly where no man has gone before,u201d which immediately clashes with the rhythm and structure of ordinary English.  In fact, this prescriptive rule was based on a clumsy analogy with Latin where you canu2019t splint an infinitive because itu2019s a single word, as in facary[ph] to do.

 Julius Caesar couldnu2019t have split an infinitive if he wanted to.  That rule was translated literally over into English where it really should not apply.  ufeff Another famous prescriptive rule is that, one should never use a so-called double negative.  Mick Jagger should not have sung, u201cI canu2019t get no satisfaction,u201d he really should have sung, u201cI canu2019t get any satisfaction.u201d  Now, this is often promoted as a rule of logical speaking, but u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201canyu201d is just as much of a double negative as u201ccanu2019tu201d and u201cno.u201d  The only reason that u201ccanu2019t get any satisfactionu201d is deemed correct and u201ccanu2019t get no satisfactionu201d is deemed ungrammatical is that the dialect of English spoken in the south of England in the 17th century used u201ccanu2019tu201d u201canyu201d rather than u201ccanu2019tu201d u201cno.u201d  ufeff If the capital of England had been in the north of the country instead of the south of the country, then u201ccanu2019t get no,u201d would have been correct and u201ccanu2019t get any,u201d would have been deemed incorrect.

ufeff Thereu2019s nothing special about a language that happens to be chosen as the standard for a given country.  In fact, if you compare the rules of languages and so-called dialects, each one is complex in different ways.  Take for example, African-American vernacular English, also called Black English or Ebonics.  There is a construction in African-American where you can say, u201cHe be workin,u201d which is not an error or bastardization or a corruption of Standard English, but in fact conveys a subtle distinction, one thatu2019s different than simply, u201cHe workin.u201d  u201cHe be workin,u201d means that he is employed; he has a job, u201cHe workin,u201d means that he happens to be working at the moment that you and I are speaking.  ufeff Now, this is a tense difference that can be made in African-American English that is not made in Standard English, one of many examples in which the dialects have their own set of rules that is just as sophisticated and complex as the one in the standard language.

 ufeff Now, a third thing, not to confuse language with is thought.  Many people report that they think in language, but commune of psychologists have shown that there are many kinds of thought that donu2019t actually take place in the form of sentences.  ufeff (1.) Babies (and other mammals) communicate without speech ufeffFor example, we know from ingenious experiments that non-linguistic creatures, such as babies before theyu2019ve learned to speak, or other kinds of animals, have sophisticated kinds of cognition, they register cause and effect and objects and the intentions of other people, all without the benefit of speech.  ufeff (2.) Types of thinking go on without language–visual thinkingufeff We also know that even in creatures that do have language, namely adults, a lot of thinking goes on in forms other than language, for example, visual imagery.  If you look at the top two three-dimensional figures in this display, and I would ask you, do they have the same shape or a different shape?  People donu2019t solve that problem by describing those strings of cubes in words, but rather by taking an image of one and mentally rotating it into the orientation of the other, a form of non-linguistic thinking.

 ufeff (3.) We use tacit knowledge to understand language and remember the gistufeff For that matter, even when you understand language, what you come away with is not in itself the actual language that you hear.  Another important finding in cognitive psychology is that long-term memory for verbal material records the gist or the meaning or the content of the words rather than the exact form of the words.  ufeff For example, I like to think that you retain some memory of what I have been saying for the last 10 minutes.

 But I suspect that if I were to ask you to reproduce any sentence that I have uttered, you would be incapable of doing so.  What sticks in memory is far more abstract than the actual sentences, something that we can call meaning or content or semantics.  ufeff In fact, when it even comes to   understanding a sentence, the actual words are the tip of a vast iceberg of a very rapid, unconscious, non-linguistic processing thatu2019s necessary even to make sense of the language itself.  And Iu2019ll illustrate this with a classic bit of poetry, the lines from the shampoo bottle.

 u201cWet hair, lather, rinse, repeat.u201d  ufeff Now, in understanding that very simple snatch of language, you have to know, for example, that when you repeat, you donu2019t wet your hair a second time because its already wet, and when you get to the end of it and you see u201crepeat,u201d you donu2019t keep repeating over and over in infinite loop, repeat here means, u201crepeat just once.u201d  Now this tacit knowledge of what the writers **** of language had in mind is necessary to understand language, but it, itself, is not language. ufeff (4.) If language is thinking, then where did it come from?ufeff Finally, if language were really thought, it would raise the question of where language would come from if it were incapable of thinking without language.  After all, the English language was not designed by some committee of Martians who came down to Earth and gave it to us.  Rather, language is a grassroots phenomenon.  Itu2019s the original wiki, which aggregates the contributions of hundreds of thousands of people who invent jargon and slang and new constructions, some of them get accumulated into the language as people seek out new ways of expressing their thoughts, and thatu2019s how we get a language in the first place.

 ufeff Now, this not to deny that language can affect thought and linguistics has long been interested in what has sometimes been called, the linguistic relativity hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (note correct spelling, named after the two linguists who first formulated it, namely that language can affect thought.  Thereu2019s a lot of controversy over the status of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, but no one believes that language is the same thing as thought and that all of our mental life consists of reciting sentences.

 ufeff Now that we have set aside what language is not, letu2019s turn to what language is beginning with the question of how language works. In a nutshell, you can divide language into three topics.  ufeff There are the words that are the basic components of sentences that are stored in a part of long-term memory that we can call the mental lexicon or the mental dictionary.  There are rules, the recipes or algorithms that we use to assemble bits of language into more complex stretches of language including syntax, the rules that allow us to assemble words into phrases and sentences; Morphology, the rules that allow us to assemble bits of words, like prefixes and suffixes into complex words; Phonology, the rules that allow us to combine vowels and consonants into the smallest words.

 And then all of this knowledge of language has to connect to the world through interfaces that allow us to understand language coming from others to produce language that others can understand us, the language interfaces.ufeff Letu2019s start with words.ufeff The basic principle of a word was identified by the Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, more than 100 years ago when he called attention to the arbitrariness of the sign.  Take for example the word, u201cduck.u201d  The word, u201cducku201d doesnu2019t look like a duck or walk like a duck or quack like a duck, but I can use it to get you to think the thought of a duck because all of us at some point in our lives have memorized that brute force association between that sound and that meaning, which means that it has to be stored in memory in some format, in a very simplified form and an entry in the mental lexicon might look something like this.

 There is a symbol for the word itself, there is some kind of specification of its sound and thereu2019s some kind of specification of its meaning.  ufeff Now, one of the remarkable facts about the mental lexicon is how capacious it is.  Using dictionary sampling techniques where you say, take the top left-hand word on every 20th page of the dictionary, give it to people in a multiple choice test, correct for guessing, and multiply by the size of the dictionary, you can estimate that a typical high school graduate has a vocabulary of around 60,000 words, which works out to a rate of learning of about one new word every two hours starting from the age of one.  When you think that every one of these words is arbitrary as a telephone number of a date in history, youu2019re reminded about the remarkable capacity of human long-term memory to store the meanings and sounds of words.

 ufeff But of course, we donu2019t just blurt out individual words, we combine them into phrases and sentences.  And that brings up the second major component of language; namely, grammar.  ufeff Now the modern study of grammar is inseparable to the contributions of one linguist, the famous scholar, Noam Chomsky, who set the agenda for the field of linguistics for the last 60 years. ufeff To begin with, Chomsky noted that the main puzzle that we have to explain in understanding language is creativity or as linguists often call it productivity, the ability to produce and understand new sentences.  ufeff Except for a small number of clichu00e9d formulas, just about any sentence that you produce or understand is a brand new combination produced for the first time perhaps in your life, perhaps even in the history of the species.

 We have to explain how people are capable of doing it.  It shows that when we know a language, we havenu2019t just memorized a very long list of sentences, but rather have internalized a grammar or algorithm or recipe for combining elements into brand new assemblies.  For that reason, Chomsky has insisted that linguistics is really properly a branch of psychology and is a window into the human mind. ufeff A second insight is that languages have a syntax which canu2019t be identified with their meaning.  Now, the only quotation that I know of, of a linguist that has actually made it into Bartlettu2019s Familiar Quotations, is the following sentence from Chomsky, from 1956, u201cColorless, green ideas sleep furiously.u201d  Well, whatu2019s the point of that sentence?  The point is that it is very close to meaningless.

 On the other hand, any English speaker can instantly recognize that it conforms to the patterns of English syntax.  Compare, for example, u201cfuriously sleep ideas dream colorless,u201d which is also meaningless, but we perceive as a word salad.  ufeff A third insight is that syntax doesnu2019t consist of a string of word by word associations as in stimulus response theories in psychology where producing a word is a response which you then hear and it becomes a stimulus to producing the next word, and so on.  Again, the sentence, u201ccolorless green ideas sleep furiously,u201d can help make this point.  Because if you look at the word by word transition probabilities in that sentence, for example, colorless and then green; how often have you heard colorless and green in succession.  Probably zero times.  Green and ideas, those two words never occur together, ideas and sleep, sleep and furiously.  Every one of the transition probabilities is very close to zero, nonetheless, the sentence as a whole can be perceived as a well-formed English sentence.

 ufeff Language in general has long distance dependencies.  The word in one position in a sentence can dictate the choice of the word several positions downstream.  For example, if you begin a sentence with u201ceither,u201d somewhere down the line, there has to be an u201cor.u201d  If you have an u201cif,u201d generally, you expect somewhere down the line there to be a u201cthen.u201d  Thereu2019s a story about a child who says to his father, u201cDaddy, why did you bring that book that I donu2019t want to be read to out of, up for?u201d  Where you have a set of nested or embedded long distance dependencies.

 ufeff Indeed, one of the applications of linguistics to the study of good prose style is that sentences can be rendered difficult to understand if they have too many long distance dependencies because that could put a strain on the short-term memory of the reader or listener while trying to understand them.  ufeff Rather than a set of word by word associations, sentences are assembled in a hierarchical structure that looks like an upside down tree.  Let me give you an example of how that works in the case of English.  One of the basic rules of English is that a sentence consists of a noun phrase, the subject, followed by a verb phrase, the predicate.ufeff A second rule in turn expands the verb phrase.  A very phrase consists of a verb followed by a noun phrase, the object, followed by a sentence, the complement as, u201cI told him that it was sunny outside.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, why do linguists insist that language must be composed out of  phrase structural rules?  ufeff (1.) Rules allow for open-ended creativity ufeffWell for one thing, that helps explain the main phenomenon that we want to explain, mainly the open-ended creativity of language.

 ufeff (2.) Rules allow for expression of unfamiliar meaningufeff It allows us to express unfamiliar meanings.  Thereu2019s a clichu00e9 in journalism for example, that when a dog bites a man, that isnu2019t news, but when a man bites a dog, that is news.  The beauty of grammar is that it allows us to convey news by assembling into familiar word in brand new combinations.  Also, because of the way phrase structure rules work, they produce a vast number of possible combinations. ufeff (3.) Rules allow for production of vast numbers of combinationsufeff Moreover, the number of different thoughts that we can express through the combinatorial power of grammar is not just humongous, but in a technical sense, itu2019s infinite.  Now of course, no one lives an infinite number of years, and therefore can shell off their ability to understand an infinite number of sentences, but you can make the point in the same way that a mathematician can say that someone who understands the rules of arithmetic knows that there are an infinite number of numbers, namely if anyone ever claimed to have found the longest one, you can always come up with one thatu2019s even bigger by adding a one to it.

 And you can do the same thing with language.  ufeff Let me illustrate it in the following way.  As a matter of fact, there has been a claim that there is a worldu2019s longest sentence.  ufeff Who would make such a claim?  Well, who else?  The Guinness Book of World Records.  You can look it up.  There is an entry for the Worldu2019s Longest Sentence.  It is 1,300 words long.  And it comes from a novel by William Faulkner.  Now I wonu2019t read all 1,300 words, but Iu2019ll just tell you how it begins.

 ufeff u201cThey both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltationu2026u201d and it runs on from there. ufeff But Iu2019m here to tell you that in fact, this is not the worldu2019s longest sentence.  And Iu2019ve been tempted to obtain immortality in Guinness by submitting the following record breaker.  “Faulkner wrote, they both bore it as though in deliberate flatulent exaltation.u201d  But sadly, this would not be immortality after all but only the proverbial 15 minutes of fame because based on what you now know, you could submit a record breaker for the record breaker namely, “Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote” or “Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wrote”, or “who cares that Pinker mentioned that Guinness noted that Faulkner wroteu2026”  ufeff Take for example, the following wonderfully ambiguous sentence that appeared in TV Guide.

 u201cOn tonightu2019s program, Conan will discuss sex with Dr. Ruth.u201d  ufeff Now this has a perfectly innocent meaning in which the verb, u201cdiscussu201d involves two things, namely the topic of discussion, u201csexu201d and the person with who itu2019s being discussed, in this case, with Dr. Ruth.  But is has a somewhat naughtier meaning if you rearrange the words into phrases according to a different structure in which case u201csex with Dr. Ruthu201d is the topic of conversation, and thatu2019s whatu2019s being discussed.  ufeff Now, phrase structure not only can account for our ability to produce so many sentences, but itu2019s also necessary for us to understand what they mean.  The geometry of branches in a phrase structure is essential to figuring out who did what to whom.ufeff Another important contribution of Chomsky to the science of language is the focus on language acquisition by children.

Now, children canu2019t memorize sentences because knowledge of language isnu2019t just one long list of memorized sentences, but somehow they must distill out or abstract out the rules that goes into assembling sentences based on what they hear coming out of their parentu2019s mouths when they were little.  And the talent of using rules to produce combinations is in evidence from the moment that kids begin to speak.  ufeff Children create sentences unheard from adultsufeff At the two-word stage, which you typically see in children who are 18 months or a bit older, kids are producing the smallest sentences that deserve to be counted as sentences, namely two words long.  But already itu2019s clear that they are putting them together using rules in their own mind.  To take an example, a child might say, u201cmore outside,u201d meaning, take them outside or let them stay outside.  Now, adults donu2019t say, u201cmore outside.u201d  So itu2019s not a phrase that the child simply memorized by rote, but it shows that already children are using these rules to put together new combinations.

 ufeff Another example, a child having jam washed from his fingers said to his mother ‘all gone sticky’.ufeff Again, not a phrase that you could ever have copied from a parent, but one that shows the child producing new combinations.  ufeff Past tense ruleufeff An easy way of showing that children assimilate rules of grammar unconsciously from the moment they begin to speak, is the use of the past tense rule. ufeff For example, children go through a long stage in which they make errors like, u201cWe holded the baby rabbitsu201d or u201cHe teared the paper and then he sticked it.u201d  Cases in which they over generalize the regular rule of forming the past tense, add u2018edu2019 to irregular verbs like u201chold,u201d u201csticku201d or u201ctear.u201d  And itu2019s easy to showu2026 itu2019s easy to get children to flaunt this ability to apply rules productively in a laboratory demonstration called the Wug Test.

 You bring a kid into a lab.  You show them a picture of a little bird and you say, u201cThis is a wug.u201d  And you show them another picture and you say, u201cWell, now there are two of them.u201d  There are two and children will fill in the gap by saying u201cwugs.u201d  Again, a form they could not have memorize because itu2019s invented for the experiment, but it shows that they have productive mastery of the regular plural rule in English.  ufeff And famously, Chomsky claimed that children solved the problem of language acquisition by having the general design of language already wired into them in the form of a universal grammar.  ufeff A spec sheet for what the rules of any language have to look like.  ufeff What is the evidence that children are born with a universal grammar?  Well, surprisingly, Chomsky didnu2019t propose this by actually studying kids in the lab or kids in the home, but through a more abstract argument called, u201cThe poverty of the input.u201d  Namely, if you look at what goes into the ears of a child and look at the talent they end up with as adults, there is a big chasm between them that can only be filled in by assuming that the child has a lot of knowledge of the way that language works already built in.

 ufeff Hereu2019s how the argument works.  One of the things that children have to learn when they learn English is how to form a question.  Now, children will get evidence from parentu2019s speech to how the question rule works, such as sentences like, u201cThe man is here,u201d ufeffand the corresponding question, u201cIs the man here?u201dufeff   Now, logically speaking, a child getting that kind of input could posit two different kinds of rules.

ufeffThereu2019s a simple word by word linear rule.  In this case, find the first u201cisu201d in the sentence and move it to the front.  u201cThe man is here,u201d u201cIs the man here?u201d Now thereu2019s a more complex rule that the child could posit called a structure dependent rule, one that looks at the geometry of the phrase structure tree.  In this case, the rule would be:  find the first u201cisu201d after the subject noun phrase and move that to the front of the sentence.  A diagram of what that rule would look like is as follows:  you look for the u201cisu201d that occurs after the subject noun phrase and thatu2019s what gets moved to the front of the sentence.  Now, whatu2019s the difference between the simple word-by-word rule and the more complex structured dependent rule?  Well, you can see the difference when it comes to performing the question from a slightly more complex sentence like, u201cThe man who is tall is in the room.u201d  ufeff But how is the child supposed to learn that?  How did all of us end up with the correct structured dependent of the rule rather than the far simpler word-by-word version of the rule? ufeff u201cWell,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cif you were actually to look at the kind of language that all of us hear, itu2019s actually quite rare to hear a sentence like, u201cIs the man who is tall in the room?  The kind of input that would logically inform you that the word-by-word rule is wrong and the structure dependent rule is right.

 Nonetheless, we all grow up into adults who unconsciously use the structure dependent rule rather than the word-by-word rule.  Moreover, children donu2019t make errors like, u201cis the man who tall is in the room,u201d as soon as they begin to form complex questions, they use the structure dependent rule.  And that,u201d Chomsky argues, u201cis evidence that structure dependent rules are part of the definition of universal grammar that children are born with.u201d  ufeff Now, though Chomsky has been fantastically influential in the science of language that does not mean that all language scientists agree with him.  And there have been a number of critiques of Chomsky over the years.  For one thing, the critics point out, Chomsky hasnu2019t really shown principles of universal grammar that are specific to language itself as opposed to general ways in which the human mind works across multiple domains, language and vision and control of motion and memory and so on.  We donu2019t really know that universal grammar is specific to language, according to this critique. ufeff Secondly, Chomsky and the linguists working with him have not examined all 6,000 of the worldu2019s languages and shown that the principles of universal grammar apply to all 6,000.

 Theyu2019ve posited it based on a small number of languages and the logic of the poverty of the input, but havenu2019t actually come through with the data that would be necessary to prove that universal grammar is really universal.  ufeff Finally, the critics argue, Chomsky has not shown that more general purpose learning models, such as neuro network models, are incapable of learning language together with all the other things that children learn, and therefore has not proven that there has to be specific knowledge how grammar works in order for the child to learn grammar.

  ufeff  Another component of language governs the sound pattern of language, the ways that the vowels and consonants can be assembled into the minimal units that go into words.  Phonology, as this branch of linguistics is called, consists of formation rules that capture what is a possible word in a language according to the way that it sounds.   To give you an example, the sequence, bluk, is not an English word, but you get a sense that it could be an English word that someone could coin a new formu2026 that someone could coin a new term of English that we pronounce u201cbluk.u201d  But when you hear the sound ****, you instantly know thatthat not only isnu2019t it an English word, but it really couldnu2019t be an English word.

 ****, by the way, comes from Yiddish and it means kind of to sigh or to moan.  Oi.  Thatu2019s to ****.  ufeff The reason that we recognize that itu2019s not English is because it has sounds like **** and sequences like ****, which arenu2019t part of the formation rules of English phonology.  But together with the rules that define the basic words of a language, there are also phonological rules that make adjustments to the sounds, depending on what the other words the word appears with.  Very few of us realize, for example, in English, that the past tense suffix u201cedu201d ufeffis actually pronounced in three different ways.  When we say, u201cHe walked,u201d ufeffwe pronounce the u201cedu201d like a u201cta,u201d walked.  When we say u201cjogged,u201d ufeffwe pronounce it as a u201cd,u201d jogged.

 And when we say u201cpatted,u201dufeff we stick in a vowel, pat-ted, showing that the same suffix, u201cedu201d can be readjusted in its pronunciation according to the rules of English phonology.  ufeff Now, when someone acquires English as a foreign language or acquires a foreign language in general, they carry over the rules of phonology of their first language and apply it to their second language.  We have a word for it; we call it an u201caccent.u201d  When a language user deliberately manipulates the rules of phonology, that is, when they donu2019t just speak in order to convey content, they pay attention as to what phonological structures are being used; we call it poetry and rhetoric.  ufeff So far, Iu2019ve been talking about knowledge of language, the rules that go into defining what are possible sequences of language.  But those sequences have to get into the brain during speech comprehension and they have to get out during speech production.

 And that takes us to the topic of language interfaces.  ufeff And letu2019s start with production.  ufeff This diagram here is literally a human cadaver that has been sawn in half.  An anatomist took a saw and [sound] allowing it to see in cross section the human vocal tract.  And that can illustrate how we get out knowledge of language out into the world as a sequence of sounds.  ufeff Now, each of us has at the top of our windpipe or trachea, a complex structure called the larynx or voice box; itu2019s behind your Adamu2019s Apple.  And the air coming out of your lungs have to go passed two cartilaginous flaps that vibrate and produce a rich, buzzy sound source, full of harmonics.

 Before that vibrating sound gets out to the world, it has to pass through a gauntlet or chambers of the vocal tract.  The throat behind the tongue, the cavity above the tongue, the cavity formed by the lips, and when you block off airflow through the mouth, it can come out through the nose.  ufeff Now, each one of those cavities has a shape that, thanks to the laws of physics, will amplify some of the harmonics in that buzzy sound source and suppress others.

 We can change the shape of those cavities when we move our tongue around.  When we move our tongue forward and backward, for example, as in u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201caa,u201d we change the shape of the cavity behind the tongue, change the frequencies that are amplified or suppressed and the listener hears them as two different vowels.  ufeff Likewise, when we raise or lower the tongue, we change the shape of the resonant cavity above the tongue as in say, u201ceh,u201d u201cah,u201d u201ceh,u201d u201cah.u201d  Once again, the change in the mixture of harmonics is perceived as a change in the nature of the vowel.  ufeff When we stop the flow of air and then release it as in, u201ct,u201d u201cca,u201d u201cba.u201d  Then we hear a consonant rather than a vowel or even when we restrict the flow of air as in u201cf,u201d u201cssu201d producing a chaotic noisy sound.  Each one of those sounds that gets sculpted by different articulators is perceived by the brain as a qualitatively different vowel or consonant.

 ufeff Now, an interesting peculiarity of the human vocal track is that it obviously co-ops structures that evolved for different purposes for breathing and for swallowing and so on.  And itu2019s anu2026 And itu2019s an interesting fact first noted by Darwin that the larynx over the course of evolution has descended in the throat so that every particle of food going from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach has to pass over the opening into the larynx with some probability of being inhaled leading to the danger of death by choking.

 And in fact, until the invention of the Heimlich Maneuver, several thousand people every year died of choking because of this maladaptive of the human vocal tract. ufeff Why did we evolve a mouth and throat that leaves us vulnerable to choking?  Well, a plausible hypothesis is that itu2019s a compromise that was made in the course of evolution to allow us to speak.  By giving range to a variety of possibilities for alternating the resonant cavities, for moving the tongue back and forth and up and down, we expanded the range of speech sounds we could make, improve the efficiency of language, but suffered the compromise of an increased risk of choking showing that language presumably had some survival advantage that compensated for the disadvantage in choking.

 ufeff What about the flow of information in the other direction, that is from the world into the brain, the process of speech comprehension?  ufeff Speech comprehension turns out to be an extraordinarily complex computational process, which we’re reminded of every time we interact with a voicemail menu on a telephone or you use a dictation on our computers.  For example, One writer, using the state-of-the-art speech-to-text systems dictated the following words into his computer.  He dictated u201cbook tour,u201d and it came out on the screen as u201cback to work.u201d  Another example, he said, u201cI truly couldnu2019t see,u201d and it came out on the screen as, u201ca cruelly good MC.u201d  Even more disconcertingly, he started a letter to his parents by saying, u201cDear mom and dad,u201d and what came out on the screen, u201cThe man is dead.u201d  ufeff ufeff Now, dictation systems have gotten better and better, but they still have a way to go before they can duplicate a human stenographer.  ufeff What is it about the problem of speech understanding that makes it so easy for a human, ufeffbut so hard for a computer? Well, there are two main contributors.

 One of them is the fact that each phony, each vowel or consonant actually comes out very differently, depending on what comes before and what comes after.  A phenomenon sometimes called co-articulation.  ufeff Let me give you an example.  The place called Cape Cod has two u201ccu201d sounds.  ufeff u2028Each of them symbolized by the letter u201cC,u201d the hard u201cC.u201d  Nonetheless, when you pay attention to the way you pronounce them, you notice that in fact, you pronounce them in very different parts of the mouth.  Try it.  Cape Cod, Cape Codu2026 u201cc,u201d u201ccu201d.  In one case, the u201ccu201d is produced way back in the mouth; the other itu2019s produced much farther forward.

 We donu2019t notice that we pronounce u201ccu201d in two different ways depending whether it comes before an u201cau201d or an u201cah,u201d but that difference forms a difference in the shape of the resonant cavity in our mouth which produces a very different wave form.  And unless a computer is specifically programmed to take that variability into account, it will perceive those two different u201ccu2019s,u201d as a different sound that objectively speaking, they really are:  u201cc-ehu201d u201cc-oau201d.  They really are different sounds, but our brain lumps them together.  ufeff The other reason that speech recognition is such a difficult problem is because of the absence of segmentation.  Now we have an illusion when we listen to speech that consists of a sequence to sounds corresponding to words.  But if you actually were to look at the wave form of a sentence on a oscilloscope, there would not be little silences between the words the way there are little bits of white space in printed words on a page, but rather a continuous ribbon in which the end of one word leads right to the beginning of the next.

 ufeff Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware ofu2026 Itu2019s something that weu2019re aware of when we listen to speech in a foreign language when we have no idea where one word ends and the other one begins.  In our own language, we detect the word boundaries simply because in our mental lexicon, we have stretches of sound that correspond to one word that tell us where it ends.

 But you canu2019t get that information from the wave form itself.  ufeff In fact, thereu2019s a whole genre of wordplay that takes advantage of the fact that word boundaries are not physically present in the speech wave.  Novelty songs like Mairzy doats and dozy doats and liddle lamzy diveyufeff u2028A kiddley divey too, wooden shoe? ufeffu2028u2028Now, it turns out that this is actually a grammatical sequence in words in Englishu2026 Mares eat oats and does eat oats and little lambs eat ivy, a kid’ll eat ivy too, wouldnu2019t you?ufeff When it is spoken or sung normally, the boundaries between words are obliterated and so the same sequence of sounds can be perceived either as nonsense or if you know what theyu2019re meant to convey, as sentences.  ufeff Another example familiar to most children, ufeffFuzzy Wuzzy was a bear, Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair.  Fuzzy Wuzzy wasnu2019t very fuzzy, was he?  And the famous dogroll, I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.

ufeff We are generally unaware of how unambiguous language is.  In context, we effortlessly and unconsciously derive the intended meaning of a sentence, but a poor computer not equipped with all of our common sense and human abilities and just going by the words and the rules is often flabbergasted by all the different possibilities.  Take a sentence as simple as u201cMary had a little lamb,u201d ufeffyou might think that thatu2019s a perfectly simple unambiguous sentence.  But now imagine that it was continued with u201cwith mint sauce.u201d  You realize that u201chaveu201d is actually a highly ambiguous word.ufeff As a result, the computer translations can often deliver comically incorrect results.  ufeff According to legend, one of the first computer systems that was designed to translate from English to Russian and back again did the following given the sentence, u201cThe spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak,u201d it translated it back as u201cThe vodka is agreeable, but the meat is rotten.u201d ufeff So why do people understand language so much better than computers?  What is the knowledge that we have that has been so hard to program into our machines?  Well, thereu2019s a third interface between language and the rest of the mind, and that is the subject matter of the branch of linguistics called Pragmatics, namely, how people understand language in context using their knowledge of the world and their expectation about how other speakers communicate.

 ufeff The most important principle of Pragmatics is called u201cthe cooperative principle,u201d namely; assume that your conversational partner is working with you to try to get a meaning across truthfully and clearly.  And our knowledge of Pragmatics, like our knowledge of syntax and phonology and so on, is deployed effortlessly, but involves many intricate computations.  For example, if I were to say, u201cIf you could pass the guacamole, that would be awesome.u201d  You understand that as a polite request meaning, give me the guacamole.  You donu2019t interpret it literally as a rumination about a hypothetical affair, you just assume that the person wanted something and was using that string of words to convey the request politely.  ufeff Often comedies will use the absence of pragmatics in robots as a source of humor.  As in the old u201cGet Smartu201d situation comedy, which had a robot named, Hymie, and a recurring joke in the series would be that Maxwell Smart would say to Hymie, u201cHymie, can you give me a hand?u201d  And then Hymie would go, {sound}, remove his hand and pass it over to Maxwell Smart not understanding that u201cgive me a hand,u201d in context means, help me rather than literally transfer the hand over to me.

 ufeff Or take the following example of Pragmatics in action.  Consider the following dialogue, Martha says, u201cIu2019m leaving you.u201d  John says, u201cWho is he?u201d  Now, understanding language requires finding the antecedents pronouns, in this case who the u201cheu201d refers to, and any competent English speaker knows exactly who the u201cheu201d is, presumably Johnu2019s romantic rival even though it was never stated explicitly in any part of the dialogue.

 This shows how we bring to bear on language understanding a vast store of knowledge about human behavior, human interactions, human relationships.  And we often have to use that background knowledge even to solve mechanical problems like, who does a pronoun like u201cheu201d refer to.  Itu2019s that knowledge thatu2019s extraordinarily difficult, to say the least to program into a computer.  ufeff Language is a miracle of the natural world because it allows us to exchange an unlimited number of ideas using a finite set of mental tools.  Those mental tools comprise a large lexicon of memorized words and a powerful mental grammar that can combine them.  Language thought of in this way should not be confused with writing, with the prescriptive rules of proper grammar or style or with thought itself.  ufeff Modern linguistics is guided by the questions, though not always the answers suggested by the linguist known as Noam Chomsky, namely how is the unlimited creativity of language possible?  What are the abstract mental structures that relate word to one another? How do children acquire them?  ufeff What is universal across languages?  And what does that say about the human mind?  ufeff The study of language has many practical applications including computers that understand and speak, the diagnosis and treatment of language disorders, the teaching of reading, writing, and foreign languages, the interpreting of the language of law, politics and literature.ufeff But for someone like me, language is eternally fascinating because it speaks to such fundamental questions of the human condition.

 ufeff[Language] is really at the center of a number of different concerns of thought, of social relationships, of human biology, of human evolution, that all speak to whatu2019s special about the human species. ufeff Language is the most distinctively human talent.  Language is a window into human nature, and most significantly,ufeff the vast expressive power of language is one of the wonders of the natural world.  Thank you.ufeff. “}

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{“en”:”The building you see in the back is Mara’s branch of Gapa Elementary School. (The only school in Mara Island.) After its last student graduated in 2016, there has been no more student. Is it closed down, then? No. It’s temporarily closed. We’ve been here before for Two Days and One Night. Was that boy the last student? (Two Days and One Night Season 2’s last trip in 2013.) (Soohyun and Youngjoo) (They spent time together with two students.) (With Youngjoo’s graduation last February,) (the school is closed temporarily.) Today’s “Dinner Game” for Two Days and One Night fan trip is the celebrity’s top three virtues that the fan wants.

It’s called a “Virtue Game”. – I see. / – Oh, I see. We’re going physical. I knew there would be a physical game. For every mission, the first place gets five points, second gets four points and sixth gets zero point. Does that mean if I lose, my fan can’t eat either? Since the fans made a long way to get here, we’ll give rice to everyone. – A bowl of rice. / – Just rice. Depending on the result, you’ll get to choose a side dish. I’m weak at intellectual games. There will probably be some raw garlic left at the end. I should prepare myself. Now, I’ll show you the side dishes you can get. Please bring them out. – My goodness. / – Oh, my. One by one, please. We can put up with it for that. There’s abalone. There’s abalone. – Seafood pajeon. / – There’s jjajang. – Let’s get japchae. / – What’s this? It’s the peak season for damselfish right now. Fusiformis is one of Jeju Island’s regional product, and it’s called elixir plant from the sea.

First place gets to pick three side dishes. Second to fifth places can get two side dishes consecutively. And the last team can pick only one side dish. One team will only get chunjang. It’s either chunjang or the other. The first intellectual mission is speed English quiz. – We’re done for. / – Okay, what’s up? A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N… What’s the problem? I don’t know English at all. – Can you speak English, Mijin? / – No. My gosh. I feel like this will be a battle of idiots. You can’t give any hints using your body. You must only explain in English. (Junho and Minhyung’s team starts first.) Hey. Hey, brother. – I have a set from one to six. / – I’m… (Love fortune number nine) I don’t have that. No. Flip it over and go for six. Okay, six. – Six. / – Yes.

Okay. I’ll show you what sixth sense is. Junho is good at this. I’ll let you know if it’s a proverb or a movie title. Begin. – Let’s go. / – Kkakdugi. This food is famous in Mara Island. Jjajangmyeon. (A fast and accurate answer) Next. After the famous food in Mara Island… – Coffee. / – No, no, no. (Coffee) (Darn it.) Juice. (Crisis comes so early.) – A stick. A stick. / – A straw. No. A stick. – The last letter is a dog. / – What? – The last letter is a dog. / – A puppy? A dog? It’s four words, – and the last… / – A toothpick. Yes. What’s up? (Minhyung understands Junho’s weird explanation.) That’s awesome. This is really awesome. – It’s a movie. / – It’s a movie. – That’s awesome. / – It’s a movie. This is… – “Fantastic Baby”? / – A movie star… – Geungyoung Lee is / – What? in this movie. (He’s in this movie.) (That’s clearly Korean.) You can’t talk to him in Korean.

You can’t do that. No, Geungyoung Lee. (He keeps exclaiming in English) (instead of explaining.) The first letter is… (That) The second letter is… Second? This is so hard. How am I supposed to do this? Can’t I express it physically? Just pass? Skip it. It’s too hard. This is funny. Are you going to be okay with a proverb? A proverb? My cousin… My cousin… You get jealous when your cousin buys a land? (Be jealous of neighbor’s success.) (Amazing) You’re good at reading people.

All I said was “my cousin”. He’s pretty good. The first letter is a cow. The second letter is water. That’s how I should do it. – Cow water? / – Cow water? – No. / – Sommelier? No, no. The first letter is a Chinese character. (Chinese character) – A well. / – Let’s just pass. (Minhyung got it again!) How did he guess that? (Puckering) – What’s that? / – When you kiss, you make this sound. Speaking hesitantly. (He gets the answer despite the poor explanation.) What’s a kissing sound? – What’s that? / – What’s a kissing sound? (Time is over.) – Time is over.

/ – Gosh. He’s awesome. He got it when I made the kissing sound. It’s hard, right? – Did I get it right? / – Yes. Team Junho and Minhyung got four correct in total. – Four? / – They did great. – He’s good at this. / – They got many right. – He’s really good. / – I just said “cousin”, and he got the proverb right. – Which team is up next? / – They were good. – Let’s go. / – Okay. (Defconn and Jinwoong) Defconn is good at this. Listen. Okay? – Okay. / – Yes. Ready? – Go! / – Party time! This broadcasting station, okay? – This broad… / – Yes. Not MBC, okay? – KBS. / – Okay! Okay. (Hairtail) Very long fish. – Look. / – Eel. No, no. In the sea. Sea fish. Very long. Sea eel. (What’s with this guy?) – It’s similar. / – Something like that. Pass. This movie is criminal. (Moving) (He can’t help with the groove.) – You can’t use your hands. / – It’s a movie title.

Minsik Choi. Jungwoo Ha. “Jungwoo Ha”? Just say “Ha Jungwoo”. – Why say “Jungwoo Ha”? / – Very famous. – “Nameless Gangster”. / – Okay! “Jungwoo Ha”. (It means “returning home in glory” in Korean.) First word, gold. – Gold. / – Geum. (The second letter is “Ui” in Korean.) Doctor. (The word doctor in Korean also starts with “Ui”.) – Doctor? / – Take the last part out. (A very simple explanation) – Return home in glory! / – Okay! – Bravo. / – Good job! – It’s a proverb. / – How did he get that? It’s a proverb. Small… (Small) “Small chili peppers are spicy.” – Okay! / – What was that? – What was that? / – Why did you look at mine? (Why did you look at mine?) – I didn’t see it.

/ – Wait a minute. – How dare… / – Little… – Little… / – We shouldn’t count this. – Why did you get it right? / – His face is red. – Stop. / – Gosh. (Time is over.) – You made a gesture. / – What’s wrong with looking? What’s with the last one? All I said was “small”. How did he know? – There aren’t many small things. / – I mean… Defconn and Jinwoong got four correct in total. – It’s okay. / – That’s average. – Good job. / – You got four? Ready, go! (Flippers) Hey. (Junho gives a hint.) Donald Duck. Foot. Donald Duck’s feet. – Flippers? / – Okay. It’s my movie. In 2008… “Scandal Makers”. (She proves that she’s his fan!) (Constipation) Dung. – Dung! / – Constipation. What’s this? She’s good. Party time. I’m an actor. You are a… – Fan? / – Yes. (Samgyeopsal) Meat. It’s part of a meat. Three… He just said “three”. He said “three”.

You want to eat this. – Samgyeopsal! / – Okay. Actor is Taehyun Cha – and… / – Why “Taehyun Cha”? Can’t you say “Cha Taehyun”? – Gianna Jun. / – I can’t understand. – “My Sassy Girl”. / – Okay. Saturday. Four, nine. – “Kill the dog after hunting is over.” / – Okay. – Great. / – That’s amazing. Siyoon and Hwanhee also got four correct. – We’re aiming for five correct answers. / – Choose. – Ready. / – Please, baby. – Go! / – Party time. This island. (Speaking fluently) Jeju Island? – Mara Island. / – Okay. (Patbingsu) Summer food. – Summer food? / – Ice. – Patbingsu. / – Yes. (They have great teamwork.) – I can do this much, too.

/ – And… (Old man) – Charlie’s age. / – That guy. Charlie’s age. – He’s 43. / – No, Charlie’s age. – Defconn’s age. / – Taehyun’s age. Children see him and call him… – Old man! / – Yes. How did she guess that? This is your hometown. – Busan. / – Movie. – “Train to Busan”. / – Yes. – What’s this? / – A four-character idiom. (It means “Beauty and luck seldom go hand in hand.”) Beautiful woman. Beauty? What? Beautiful person… He might not know the meaning. Pass. – See? / – Gosh. (That’s why he only explained the “beauty” part.) (Asian black bear) Bear from Mount Jiri. – Asian black bear. / – Yes. This is – a proverb. / – It’s a proverb. Mother and father fight. Knife. Water. Shot. (He’s trying his best.) Your parents fight. Knife, water, shot. Fight. – She’s confused. / – What is that? Mother and father fight. Mother and father fight? Pass. Your hair… Amazing! – Your hair… / – A bob? A lot of shampoo. Imagine your hair… (Let me show you.) (Silky) – What? Silky? / – Yes. (She got it.) – Great. / – A proverb. – “Silky” was hard. / – Your dictionary no impossible. What? My dictionary… “There is no such word” “as impossible in my dictionary.” “There is no such word as impossible in my dictionary.” (Nothing is impossible for Joonyoung and Soohyun.) Nine tails…

– Stop. / – Gosh. Yes! – Yes! / – How many did they get? – They’re amazing. / – They’re in first place. How did you guess “silky”? – After shampoo, your hair… / – Like this… What’s that? Joonyoung and Soohyun – got seven correct in total. / – Wow. – They got seven. / – Nobody can break this record. – Seriously. / – We’ll get eight correct. How will you get eight? Okay, Jooseob. Yes. – Jooseob. / – Follow me. – Are you okay? / – Yes, I’m sorry. – What? / – I’m sorry.

He’s saying sorry in advance. – Because he’ll do a bad job. / – It’s okay. – Okay. / – That’s okay. Get ready. Go! Party time. (Two Days and One Night) – Your hands. / – You can’t do that. – No gestures. / – You can’t do that. – You can’t do that. / – Don’t do that. – Hey. / – That’s not allowed. (If I can’t use my hands,) (I’ll use my head instead.) – Okay. / – Program. My program. My program. – Program. / – Two Days and One Night. – We need to hold him down. / – Grab him. – Hold him. / – What are you doing? (Binding) – Boom! / – No. “Boom!” isn’t allowed. – You can’t do that. / – Dung! – No onomatopoeias. / – After poop. – After dung. / – Constipation. – What? / – Constipation. – After dung. / – What’s that? – Toilet paper. / – No. After dung! Isn’t it “before”? Before! Before! – Before dung. / – It’s before dung. – It’s before. / – Take a dump? Dung? Gas! “Before dung.” Gas! – Fart! / – Yes! That was too explicit. (It won’t be considered correct.) (Octopus) Head. – Set. / – Head. – Ready. / – Headset. Eight. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight.

Eight food. – Nine? / – Eight food. – Eight. / – Kick away. (That’s cheating.) Eight feet. – No. / – Eight feet. – Eight feet? / – Food. Go away. Foot! What is foot? – Eight. / – Gosh. – Foot. / – Eight. – Eight. / – Stop it. – Eight. / – Don’t do it. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. – What? / – Eight. Eight. Foothold. Foothold. – Foothold? / – What? Which eight? – What is it when a foot becomes an arm? / – A foot… (Laughing) Well… – Octopus! / – Octopus. Hey. – Let me go. / – Octopus. Get away! – Face! / – Gosh. – Face. / – Face… Future. – Future face? / – Face… Face. Look. Future. (Future!) Face… Your face. – Me? / – Future! I think he’ll get it. – Gosh. / – What is it? Skip it. Pass! Pass? (This is even harder.) – He has to guess it. / – Does he know this? Wait a minute. What’s this? Head. – It’s head again? / – Spinning? – Head. / – Set. Good. Head good. – “Head good”? / – Gosh. – My goodness. / – Eat, eat. Head, eat. – Eat a head? / – Me! – Me? / – Eat me? – Head.

/ – It’s a four-character idiom. – Four-character idiom. / – Four idioms. (What is that?) What did he say? (This is ridiculous.) – Head. / – Do whatever you want. – Fish head. / – He failed. – Fish head. / – Skip it. – One, two, three, four, five, six. / – Skip it. – Fish head. Six. / – That’s hard. – Fish-heads and animal-tails? / – Yes. (Taehyun can understand Jongmin’s language.) – I want to play with him.

/ – My… – Keep going. / – This is fun. – My mouth… / – Let’s try this under two minutes. – “My mouth”? / – Three. My mouth. (I have three mouths.) – What? / – It’s not a mouth. – “My mouth three”? / – It’s not that. – “My mouth three”. / – My mouth? (The answer means “I have my own fish to fry.”) (It’s impossible to guess the answer.) That’s ridiculous. Three. “I have my own fish to fry!” He got it. – “I have my own fish to fry.” / – Yes! Taehyun already said it. Sorry. (Don’t be blinded by money.) Gold. Look at gold. “Look at gold”? – Look at gold. / – A gold bar. – You saw gold. / – Look at gold. – You saw gold. / – It’s a famous saying. Venus. – That’s not it. – Gold. Gold. – Yes. Gold. / – Look. – Look at gold. / – A gold bar. – “Look at gold”. / – Look at the shoe. You saw gold. Now you look at a shoe? A gold bar and a peak at a shoe? A gold bar. Look at gold.

No. (Awesome explanation) (He’s very serious.) – Look at gold. / – Look at gold. (They even made the camera director laugh.) Hey, no facial expression. I say, no. – Look at gold. / – Look at gold. – My head. / – I say, no. My head. (When you like a celebrity, you become like him.) – Your head. / – Let’s give up. I mean I… – Let’s give up. / – This is the answer. – Try something else. / – Hasn’t it been 100 seconds? It’s been like 300 seconds. (It was so funny, I couldn’t help it.). “}

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{“en”:”(calm music) – Venezuela is a beautiful country. We have great weather, gorgeous mountains, beautiful beaches, people is really friendly, so it’s a really nice place to live. Right now, we are suffering for a lot of issues, political, and it’s not as stable. It was the right time to move forward and look for new opportunities. Hello, my name is Andrea Guevara. I was a student in the Sturm College of Law. I graduated May 2015 from the LLM program in IBT. When I start searching for university, I was looking for ones that have more credibility and certifications and recognitions, and DU met all the requirements. So I needed to improve my English, my writing skills, and it was a step that I need to take over, you know, to move forward and you know have good grades. It was really helpful. I learned a lot of new vocabulary and the ELC I took two classes that it was just focusing on vocabulary. It was just words, all day. I need to learn like a dictionary. DU and the ELC program is really friendly. The professors are so good. They are like moms and dad.

They will help you. They understand like what you’re going through. And they’re there for you, to support you. I think it was really interesting to know other cultures. I met few girls from Saudi Arabia, and I never expect in my life to meet someone and be friends with a Saudi. Denver is an incredible city. You know, to go to the mountains and just go hiking or go to the river and do whatever you want to do. It’s a great place, really interesting. I think my experience overall here in the Sturm College of Law was great as well at the ELC program.. “}

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{“en”:”Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to another episode of Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to listen to a finance report. It’s filled with numbers and amounts, expressed in a variety of ways. It’s important to be able to understand and describe numerical data using decimals, fractions and currencies. Listen to the day’s finance report. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros.

The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. OK, first we’re going to look at decimals, and how you express them. Listen carefully again. Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. In English, decimals are written with a point, not a comma. So we write 4.25, 6.1. When you say the numbers after the decimal point, you say them all separately, as individual numbers. So we have: seventy one point nine five forty seven point one eight nine thousand eight hundred and nine point seven nine Notice that a zero is often spoken as ‘oh’.

Practice saying these numbers: three hundred and twenty six point oh one four point eight nine seven nine hundred and two point three oh eight Listen again: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of on yesterday’s trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily. You can hear that when using numbers, there are often alternatives, and many choices you can make. So conversationally, we would usually say one hundred and eleven point oh three, but will also often hear one hundred and eleven point zero three.

Here, we could say: zero point four two five nought point four two five or even just point four two five Notice that in North America, people usually say zero, not nought or ‘oh’. OK, now the other way of expressing numbers less than one is using fractions. Listen to the fractions here. The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and a half years. She uses the most common fraction – a half. Listen to how we say common fractions: a half a third a quarter two thirds five eights three quarters Notice that once you understand the pattern, you can express any fraction you want. Try these: seven eighteenths 16 thirtieths 14 fortieths OK, now listen again to some of the report. Listen for different currencies: Against other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight drop on yesterday, and euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against the greenback at 1yen.

There were a number of different currencies mentioned in that clip: the pound; the euro; the yen; the greenback. Let’s have a look at them. Lots of countries use a dollar. In Australia, the Australian dollar is usually expressed with the dollar sign. But internationally, it’s written like this AUD. We read this the Australian dollar. In United States, they use the dollar as well. It’s the USD, the United States dollar. But often called the greenback, because it’s green. In Great Britain they use the pound. It is written GBP, but it’s often called the pound sterling. In the European Union, they use the euro dollar, written like this – EUR. In Japan, it’s the yen, written JPY. In China, it’s the yuan, written CNY, and the renminbi, RMB.

Notice that we write the currency before the number, but we say it after the number. So we read: two dollars. or four pounds fifteen. Notice also how we read longer numbers: three thousand, four hundred and seventy Japanese yen one hundred and ninety two Australian dollars Notice that when spoken naturally the one often becomes ‘a’ and the ‘and’ becomes squashed. We don’t say one hundred and ninety two but a hundred n ninety two. Try this one: a hundred and twenty seven thousand, three hundred and twenty two Hong Kong dollars OK, now let’s listen to the report again, and then we’ll look at another important use of numbers. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high.

Notice that she says Tuesday the 11th of November. Saying simple things like the date can be confusing in English, as the way they’re said varies. In Australia, we say the 11th of November, or November the 11th. Notice that it’s written without the words ‘the’, or ‘of’. For the 13th of February 2005, Australians would write this: 13.05.2005. But in North America, they’d write it: 02.13.2005. You’ll need to learn these to make sure you don’t turn up somewhere on the wrong day! So remember that in Australia they write the date: day dot month dot year, but in North America, they write: month dot day dot year. And there is an international standard that says the format should be: year dot month dot day. With numbers, dates, times, there are all sorts of variations. Just make sure you understand the currency, the time and the date, or you could find yourself in all sorts of trouble! And I’ll see you soon for more Study English! Bye bye.. “}

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{“en”:”Align:start welcome to a special preview of welcome to a special preview of master English conversation too master English conversation too master English conversation too . Oh . Oh . Oh to learn more about this to learn more about this to learn more about this powerful speaking success video powerful speaking success video powerful speaking success video course click on the button at course click on the button at course click on the button at the top of this video the top of this video the top of this video enjoy i’ll ride hello and enjoy i’ll ride hello and enjoy i’ll ride hello and welcome to the phrase builder welcome to the phrase builder welcome to the phrase builder lesson lesson lesson I’m excited to see you again and I’m excited to see you again and I’m excited to see you again and you in as you can see behind me you in as you can see behind me you in as you can see behind me I’ve got a lovely new backdrop I’ve got a lovely new backdrop I’ve got a lovely new backdrop i’m actually at a friend of i’m actually at a friend of i’m actually at a friend of Mines house right now but enough Mines house right now but enough Mines house right now but enough about that about that about that all right the first phrase will all right the first phrase will all right the first phrase will go over is two for the price of go over is two for the price of go over is two for the price of one one one you will see this regularly you will see this regularly you will see this regularly almost every day if you go almost every day if you go almost every day if you go shopping somewhere in an shopping somewhere in an shopping somewhere in an english-speaking country like english-speaking country like english-speaking country like America America America two for the price of one two for the price of one two for the price of one or you could have three for the or you could have three for the or you could have three for the price of one or four for the price of one or four for the price of one or four for the price of one price of one price of one so if you buy two things of so if you buy two things of so if you buy two things of yogurt it’s kind of like buy one yogurt it’s kind of like buy one yogurt it’s kind of like buy one get one free get one free get one free buy one get one free there are buy one get one free there are buy one get one free there are lots of ways to say the same lots of ways to say the same lots of ways to say the same thing but the kind of joke that thing but the kind of joke that thing but the kind of joke that I make at the beginning of the I make at the beginning of the I make at the beginning of the conversation lesson is two for conversation lesson is two for conversation lesson is two for the price of one the price of one the price of one now listen carefully to how it now listen carefully to how it now listen carefully to how it blends two for the price of 12 blends two for the price of 12 blends two for the price of 12 for the price of one for the price of one for the price of one the of becomes more of a two for the of becomes more of a two for the of becomes more of a two for the price of 12 for the price of the price of 12 for the price of the price of 12 for the price of one one one next up is a four letter words next up is a four letter words next up is a four letter words four letter words now four four letter words now four four letter words now four letter words the what we usually letter words the what we usually letter words the what we usually described as a four letter word described as a four letter word described as a four letter word is a curse word like damn shit is a curse word like damn shit is a curse word like damn shit fuck fuck fuck but in front of children or but in front of children or but in front of children or other people we call this polite other people we call this polite other people we call this polite company in front of polite company in front of polite company in front of polite company company company you don’t want to say shit fuck you don’t want to say shit fuck you don’t want to say shit fuck damn you know all of these other damn you know all of these other damn you know all of these other words they all happen to have words they all happen to have words they all happen to have four letters so we call them four letters so we call them four letters so we call them four letter words four letter words four letter words so you can just use it the so you can just use it the so you can just use it the pronunciation is quite simple pronunciation is quite simple pronunciation is quite simple four letter words for less four letter words for less four letter words for less tender words four letter word tender words four letter word tender words four letter word next up on cue on cue next up on cue on cue next up on cue on cue when you q someone that’s when when you q someone that’s when when you q someone that’s when you tell them to begin doing you tell them to begin doing you tell them to begin doing something something something let’s say i am making a movie so let’s say i am making a movie so let’s say i am making a movie so yesterday i was making a movie yesterday i was making a movie yesterday i was making a movie and on cue the actor has to say and on cue the actor has to say and on cue the actor has to say how are you doing today so I how are you doing today so I how are you doing today so I give him a queue and he says how give him a queue and he says how give him a queue and he says how are you doing today are you doing today are you doing today this is to do something on cue this is to do something on cue this is to do something on cue when we talk about children just when we talk about children just when we talk about children just like we were talking about kids like we were talking about kids like we were talking about kids in the conversation lesson we in the conversation lesson we in the conversation lesson we were trying to make Dustin son were trying to make Dustin son were trying to make Dustin son say things i would say say say things i would say say say things i would say say what’s your name what’s your name what’s your name how are you pink pig purple just how are you pink pig purple just how are you pink pig purple just getting him to say things and getting him to say things and getting him to say things and with kids kids especially very with kids kids especially very with kids kids especially very very small kids they do things very small kids they do things very small kids they do things when they want to do them when they want to do them when they want to do them so even if you try to make them so even if you try to make them so even if you try to make them do something on cue do something on cue do something on cue usually they will not so I say usually they will not so I say usually they will not so I say say hello and he just looks at say hello and he just looks at say hello and he just looks at me he doesn’t want to do it on me he doesn’t want to do it on me he doesn’t want to do it on cue on cue cue on cue cue on cue next get to know get to know to next get to know get to know to next get to know get to know to get to know something is another get to know something is another get to know something is another way of saying become familiar or way of saying become familiar or way of saying become familiar or to kind of get closer or have a to kind of get closer or have a to kind of get closer or have a better relationship with someone better relationship with someone better relationship with someone yesterday I met some people at a yesterday I met some people at a yesterday I met some people at a park I was just walking around park I was just walking around park I was just walking around and I saw some people and I was and I saw some people and I was and I saw some people and I was asking what are they doing asking what are they doing asking what are they doing and by asking kind of small and by asking kind of small and by asking kind of small questions i was getting to know questions i was getting to know questions i was getting to know them I was learning about them them I was learning about them them I was learning about them get to know get to know we’re get to know get to know we’re get to know get to know we’re getting to know getting to know getting to know getting to know getting to know getting to know again we have the TT sound get again we have the TT sound get again we have the TT sound get to know and it becomes get to to know and it becomes get to to know and it becomes get to know get to know get to know know get to know get to know know get to know get to know it’s still kind of atty sound it’s still kind of atty sound it’s still kind of atty sound but if you have the getting it but if you have the getting it but if you have the getting it becomes more of a d getting to becomes more of a d getting to becomes more of a d getting to know getting to know there’s know getting to know there’s know getting to know there’s actually a famous song that’s actually a famous song that’s actually a famous song that’s like getting to know like getting to know like getting to know you I don’t remember how it goes you I don’t remember how it goes you I don’t remember how it goes exactly but i’m sure you can exactly but i’m sure you can exactly but i’m sure you can find it on youtube next one way find it on youtube next one way find it on youtube next one way or the other one way or the or the other one way or the or the other one way or the other other other in this sentence where this in this sentence where this in this sentence where this phrase you will do something in phrase you will do something in phrase you will do something in this way or a different way and this way or a different way and this way or a different way and you often see this in movies you often see this in movies you often see this in movies almost every year there is some almost every year there is some almost every year there is some movie and there is a good person movie and there is a good person movie and there is a good person or a bad person in the movie or a bad person in the movie or a bad person in the movie that says one way or the other that says one way or the other that says one way or the other we will figure this out one way we will figure this out one way we will figure this out one way or the other we will stop him or the other we will stop him or the other we will stop him it’s all basically the same it’s all basically the same it’s all basically the same thing so it just means either we thing so it just means either we thing so it just means either we will do something one way or we will do something one way or we will do something one way or we will do something another but will do something another but will do something another but you don’t have to say exactly you don’t have to say exactly you don’t have to say exactly what you’re doing it just means what you’re doing it just means what you’re doing it just means you will figure out some way to you will figure out some way to you will figure out some way to do it do it do it so one way or the other you will so one way or the other you will so one way or the other you will figure out a way to get fluent figure out a way to get fluent figure out a way to get fluent one way or the other one way or the other one way or the other either you will read books or either you will read books or either you will read books or you will listen two videos or you will listen two videos or you will listen two videos or watch movies or do many other watch movies or do many other watch movies or do many other things like that but you will things like that but you will things like that but you will get fluent next get fluent next get fluent next grease the wheels greased the grease the wheels greased the grease the wheels greased the wheels wheels wheels now this is one of my favorite now this is one of my favorite now this is one of my favorite phrases and Dustin was using phrases and Dustin was using phrases and Dustin was using this to describe his this to describe his this to describe his relationship with his wife’s relationship with his wife’s relationship with his wife’s parents to grease the wheels it parents to grease the wheels it parents to grease the wheels it could be many different things could be many different things could be many different things that you do you could be giving that you do you could be giving that you do you could be giving money you could be trying to be money you could be trying to be money you could be trying to be nice or be extra helpful to nice or be extra helpful to nice or be extra helpful to people but a regular wheel like people but a regular wheel like people but a regular wheel like a physical wheel on your tire a physical wheel on your tire a physical wheel on your tire like a bicycle or a car you have like a bicycle or a car you have like a bicycle or a car you have to put grease a lubricant to to put grease a lubricant to to put grease a lubricant to make it run smoothly so make it run smoothly so make it run smoothly so sometimes the wheels will get sometimes the wheels will get sometimes the wheels will get dry if they don’t have any oil dry if they don’t have any oil dry if they don’t have any oil the oil is the grease or the the oil is the grease or the the oil is the grease or the lubricant that makes it run lubricant that makes it run lubricant that makes it run smoothly so for social smoothly so for social smoothly so for social relationships we talk about relationships we talk about relationships we talk about greasing the wheels of things in greasing the wheels of things in greasing the wheels of things in order to make them run more order to make them run more order to make them run more smoothly so it’s exactly the smoothly so it’s exactly the smoothly so it’s exactly the same idea but you could be same idea but you could be same idea but you could be giving money like let’s say I giving money like let’s say I giving money like let’s say I want to open up a company here want to open up a company here want to open up a company here in Japan in Japan in Japan and I talked to the government and I talked to the government and I talked to the government officials and it’s taking a officials and it’s taking a officials and it’s taking a really long time so the wheels really long time so the wheels really long time so the wheels are not moving very slowly so I are not moving very slowly so I are not moving very slowly so I talked to one of the guys there talked to one of the guys there talked to one of the guys there as a hey I’ll give you some as a hey I’ll give you some as a hey I’ll give you some money if you you know maybe a if money if you you know maybe a if money if you you know maybe a if you help us move this along a you help us move this along a you help us move this along a little bit faster little bit faster little bit faster so I am greasing the wheels a so I am greasing the wheels a so I am greasing the wheels a little bit to grease the wheels little bit to grease the wheels little bit to grease the wheels the next expression is I can’t the next expression is I can’t the next expression is I can’t say thank you enough say thank you enough say thank you enough I can’t say thank you enough I can’t say thank you enough I can’t say thank you enough this is an excellent phrase that this is an excellent phrase that this is an excellent phrase that you can use when you’re speaking you can use when you’re speaking you can use when you’re speaking with people in regular with people in regular with people in regular conversations or especially at conversations or especially at conversations or especially at work work work if somebody does something for if somebody does something for if somebody does something for you or somebody works really you or somebody works really you or somebody works really hard and is helpful hard and is helpful hard and is helpful you can say i can’t say thank you can say i can’t say thank you can say i can’t say thank you enough you enough you enough a kind of typical way of a kind of typical way of a kind of typical way of expressing yourself you can just expressing yourself you can just expressing yourself you can just say thank you to someone say thank you to someone say thank you to someone thank you is kind of at this thank you is kind of at this thank you is kind of at this level here there’s thanks level here there’s thanks level here there’s thanks thank you thank you very much thank you thank you very much thank you thank you very much and I can’t say thank you enough and I can’t say thank you enough and I can’t say thank you enough now you can use this for many now you can use this for many now you can use this for many different words i can’t i can’t different words i can’t i can’t different words i can’t i can’t be helpful enough be helpful enough be helpful enough I can’t recommend this enough so I can’t recommend this enough so I can’t recommend this enough so maybe if you are like a waiter maybe if you are like a waiter maybe if you are like a waiter at a restaurant at a restaurant at a restaurant I go to a restaurant and the I go to a restaurant and the I go to a restaurant and the waiter says to me waiter says to me waiter says to me what are you interested in and I what are you interested in and I what are you interested in and I asked well what are the specials asked well what are the specials asked well what are the specials what do you recommend and he what do you recommend and he what do you recommend and he says I i can’t recommend this says I i can’t recommend this says I i can’t recommend this enough enough enough it just means i really recommend it just means i really recommend it just means i really recommend something next get off on the something next get off on the something next get off on the right foot right foot right foot get off on the right foot to get get off on the right foot to get get off on the right foot to get off on the right foot means to off on the right foot means to off on the right foot means to begin a relationship with begin a relationship with begin a relationship with someone in the right way you’ll someone in the right way you’ll someone in the right way you’ll really hear this a lot for really hear this a lot for really hear this a lot for businesses especially if you’re businesses especially if you’re businesses especially if you’re on sales and you were going and on sales and you were going and on sales and you were going and meeting new people at different meeting new people at different meeting new people at different companies companies companies you want to begin a relationship you want to begin a relationship you want to begin a relationship in the right way and this is an in the right way and this is an in the right way and this is an expression for that to get off expression for that to get off expression for that to get off on the right foot on the right foot on the right foot it just means to begin a it just means to begin a it just means to begin a relationship in the right way relationship in the right way relationship in the right way yesterday I was actually meeting yesterday I was actually meeting yesterday I was actually meeting somebody for lunch and it was a somebody for lunch and it was a somebody for lunch and it was a person I’ve never met before but person I’ve never met before but person I’ve never met before but i was introduced to them by i was introduced to them by i was introduced to them by another friend of mine another friend of mine another friend of mine and I really wanted to get off and I really wanted to get off and I really wanted to get off on the right foot with them so I on the right foot with them so I on the right foot with them so I i prepared like a little speech i prepared like a little speech i prepared like a little speech and I had kind of practice a and I had kind of practice a and I had kind of practice a little bit little bit little bit so to get off on the right foot so to get off on the right foot so to get off on the right foot i was able to introduce my i was able to introduce my i was able to introduce my weapon introduce myself well and weapon introduce myself well and weapon introduce myself well and begin having a relationship with begin having a relationship with begin having a relationship with them in a good way so be sure to them in a good way so be sure to them in a good way so be sure to get off on the right foot get off on the right foot get off on the right foot listen carefully to how the listen carefully to how the listen carefully to how the pronunciation changes as you pronunciation changes as you pronunciation changes as you blended together and remember to blended together and remember to blended together and remember to practice everything as one practice everything as one practice everything as one smooth unit the way I do get off smooth unit the way I do get off smooth unit the way I do get off on the right foot on the right foot on the right foot get da off on the right foot get da off on the right foot get da off on the right foot get da off on the right foot get da off on the right foot get da off on the right foot get off on the right foot get get off on the right foot get get off on the right foot get off on the right foot off on the right foot off on the right foot next and this is one of my next and this is one of my next and this is one of my favorites i know i always say i favorites i know i always say i favorites i know i always say i have a lot of favorite have a lot of favorite have a lot of favorite expressions that i use but this expressions that i use but this expressions that i use but this one in particular one in particular one in particular I stand corrected I stand corrected I stand corrected I stand corrected I stand I stand corrected I stand I stand corrected I stand corrected it just means i accept corrected it just means i accept corrected it just means i accept that i have been corrected about that i have been corrected about that i have been corrected about something so let’s say I am something so let’s say I am something so let’s say I am having an argument with a friend having an argument with a friend having an argument with a friend of mine and he says of mine and he says of mine and he says frogs are green and I say no no frogs are green and I say no no frogs are green and I say no no frogs are pink frogs are pink frogs are pink everybody knows frogs are pink everybody knows frogs are pink everybody knows frogs are pink and he says no no there are no and he says no no there are no and he says no no there are no pink frogs there are no pink pink frogs there are no pink pink frogs there are no pink frogs and so he and I are frogs and so he and I are frogs and so he and I are arguing he says frogs are green arguing he says frogs are green arguing he says frogs are green or other colors and I say frogs or other colors and I say frogs or other colors and I say frogs are pink and maybe there are no are pink and maybe there are no are pink and maybe there are no pink frogs I don’t know but pink frogs I don’t know but pink frogs I don’t know but so we go search online because so we go search online because so we go search online because we want to find out the answer we want to find out the answer we want to find out the answer so he thinks he is correct and i so he thinks he is correct and i so he thinks he is correct and i think i am correct think i am correct think i am correct so we go search online are there so we go search online are there so we go search online are there any pink frogs and actually any pink frogs and actually any pink frogs and actually there are some pink frogs there are some pink frogs there are some pink frogs if you didn’t know there are so if you didn’t know there are so if you didn’t know there are so there are some pink frogs and so there are some pink frogs and so there are some pink frogs and so my friend he was looking online my friend he was looking online my friend he was looking online and he says wow I stand and he says wow I stand and he says wow I stand corrected corrected corrected it just means I I admit I was it just means I I admit I was it just means I I admit I was wrong about something like that wrong about something like that wrong about something like that so this is a great way if you’re so this is a great way if you’re so this is a great way if you’re in an argument or a discussion in an argument or a discussion in an argument or a discussion with something with something with something it’s a great way to be humble so it’s a great way to be humble so it’s a great way to be humble so you don’t have to keep fighting you don’t have to keep fighting you don’t have to keep fighting if you really want the truth of if you really want the truth of if you really want the truth of something that’s the most something that’s the most something that’s the most important thing important thing important thing next next next fatherly advice fatherly advice fatherly advice fatherly advice fatherly advice fatherly advice you’ll get something like this you’ll get something like this you’ll get something like this from your mother also but really from your mother also but really from your mother also but really fatherly advice is the big kind fatherly advice is the big kind fatherly advice is the big kind of cultural thing where we’re of cultural thing where we’re of cultural thing where we’re getting advice and information getting advice and information getting advice and information from our dad about you should do from our dad about you should do from our dad about you should do this or you shouldn’t do that this or you shouldn’t do that this or you shouldn’t do that so for many years as I was so for many years as I was so for many years as I was growing up and even now my growing up and even now my growing up and even now my father will give me some advice father will give me some advice father will give me some advice about something i’ll say dad about something i’ll say dad about something i’ll say dad how do you do this or what how do you do this or what how do you do this or what should i do for your business or should i do for your business or should i do for your business or for relationships or other for relationships or other for relationships or other things and then he will give me things and then he will give me things and then he will give me fatherly advice fatherly advice fatherly advice you can call it just regular you can call it just regular you can call it just regular advice but fatherly advice is advice but fatherly advice is advice but fatherly advice is kind of a very specific type of kind of a very specific type of kind of a very specific type of advice where a son or daughter advice where a son or daughter advice where a son or daughter but usually a son receives but usually a son receives but usually a son receives information from his father information from his father information from his father about something so fatherly about something so fatherly about something so fatherly advice advice advice so in the conversation i was so in the conversation i was so in the conversation i was talking with dustin and saying talking with dustin and saying talking with dustin and saying can you give me some fatherly can you give me some fatherly can you give me some fatherly advice or give some fatherly advice or give some fatherly advice or give some fatherly advice to your son advice to your son advice to your son so if you are a father or you so if you are a father or you so if you are a father or you are getting information from are getting information from are getting information from your father or you are asking your father or you are asking your father or you are asking specifically for maybe some help specifically for maybe some help specifically for maybe some help from somebody else that’s an from somebody else that’s an from somebody else that’s an English speaker English speaker English speaker you can say would you give me you can say would you give me you can say would you give me some fatherly advice about some fatherly advice about some fatherly advice about something something something the last one is take the the last one is take the the last one is take the initiative take the initiative initiative take the initiative initiative take the initiative to take the initiative means you to take the initiative means you to take the initiative means you need to be the one to start need to be the one to start need to be the one to start something or you need to be the something or you need to be the something or you need to be the leader leader leader so right now i am taking the so right now i am taking the so right now i am taking the initiative and teaching you initiative and teaching you initiative and teaching you something something something or let’s say you have a group of or let’s say you have a group of or let’s say you have a group of people it’s maybe you’ve seen people it’s maybe you’ve seen people it’s maybe you’ve seen this before in movies you have this before in movies you have this before in movies you have maybe a group of young men and maybe a group of young men and maybe a group of young men and young women young women and they young women young women and they young women young women and they are kind of nervous about are kind of nervous about are kind of nervous about dancing with each other at dancing with each other at dancing with each other at party but one young man he takes party but one young man he takes party but one young man he takes the initiative and walks over the initiative and walks over the initiative and walks over and tries to find one to dance and tries to find one to dance and tries to find one to dance with with with so to take the initiative means so to take the initiative means so to take the initiative means to do something you become the to do something you become the to do something you become the leader leader leader you take the challenge and you you take the challenge and you you take the challenge and you do something first do something first do something first so take the initiative when you so take the initiative when you so take the initiative when you have an opportunity to speak or have an opportunity to speak or have an opportunity to speak or use your English at work or use your English at work or use your English at work or wherever you are wherever else wherever you are wherever else wherever you are wherever else you are take the initiative you are take the initiative you are take the initiative don’t wait don’t sit back don’t don’t wait don’t sit back don’t don’t wait don’t sit back don’t relax take the initiative and go relax take the initiative and go relax take the initiative and go out and get what you want out and get what you want out and get what you want the opportunities are usually the opportunities are usually the opportunities are usually there but you have to take the there but you have to take the there but you have to take the initiative take the initiative initiative take the initiative initiative take the initiative take the initiative in take the initiative in take the initiative in initiative initiative initiative initiative initiative initiative well i hope you enjoyed this well i hope you enjoyed this well i hope you enjoyed this lesson listen carefully go back lesson listen carefully go back lesson listen carefully go back and review these many many times and review these many many times and review these many many times practice using them in your practice using them in your practice using them in your conversations at work in your conversations at work in your conversations at work in your personal life in your writing personal life in your writing personal life in your writing online and then listen carefully online and then listen carefully online and then listen carefully for them as they appear as they for them as they appear as they for them as they appear as they come up in the conversation come up in the conversation come up in the conversation lesson in the master class video lesson in the master class video lesson in the master class video have an excellent day and I will have an excellent day and I will have an excellent day and I will see you next time bye bye”}

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Theme 2. Time – What time is it? | ESL Song & Story – Learning English for Kids

{“en”:”Theme 2 Time What time is it, dad? It’s seven o’clock. Thank you. What time is it? It’s eight. Time for breakfast. Okay. Coming. Are you ready? Yes, we’re ready. Good. Let’s go to school. Let’s go home. Please wait for me. Okay. It’s late. Time for bed. Okay. Good night, mom. Good night, dad. Good night. Four tickets, please. Mom, I’m hungry. Mom, what time is it? It’s twelve o’clock. Time for lunch! Let’s go! What time is it? Oh, my… It’s one o’clock! We’re late. Let’s hurry! What time is it now? It’s ten o’clock. What time is it there, Hana? It’s six o’clock. What time is it now? It’s ten o’clock.

What time is it there, Hana? It’s six o’clock. What time is it now? What time is it now? It’s seven o’clock, seven o’clock, seven o’clock. What time is it now, Suho? It’s four o’clock, four o’clock, four o’clock. It’s five ten. It’s five twenty. It’s five thirty. Time for homework. Let’s go home. Yes! It’s nine thirty. It’s nine forty. It’s nine fifty. Time for bed. Good night. Good night. What time is it? Itu2019s 12 ou2019clock. Time for lunch. Cinderella, lunch time. Okay. Coming! What time is it? Itu2019s 5:30. Itu2019s party time. Letu2019s go. Please wait for me. Cinderella, close your eyes. Open your eyes, please. Wow! Thanks. Youu2019re welcome. Party time, Cinderella. Time for dancing. What time is it? Itu2019s 11 ou2019clock. Oh, no! Itu2019s late. Good night! Please wait for me. This is Cinderella. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too. What time is it? Itu2019s twelve ou2019clock.

What? Oh, no! Is this yours? Yes, itu2019s mine. No, itu2019s not yours. Is this yours? Yes, itu2019s mine. Oh, itu2019s yours. I love you. It’s late, Toto! Yes, Mom. Toto! What time is it? It’s nine o’clock! Oh, my~! Coni, Coni! Wake up! OK. Ahhh~ Coni! Wake up! It’s late! Ahhh~ OK, Mom. Wake up! Mom, what time is it? It’s nine o’clock. It’s late. What? Nine o’clock? Oh, no! Oh, no! What time is it? It’s twelve o’clock.. “}

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The #1 Grammar Mistake English Language Learners Make

{“en”:”Hi there I’m Drew Badger the world’s number one English Fluency Guide and in this video we’re going to be talking about the number one grammar mistake that English language learners make I get so many questions from learners that have problems with being able to understand grammar or more importantly even if they do understand how grammar works they can’t use it automatically and fluently when they speak so I wanted to begin this video before talking about the actual mistake people make more talking about why you actually have this problem typically people will be not having the ability to use grammar automatically because they have learned it in a way that’s taught them grammar rules but hasn’t taught them how to actually use the grammar without speaking now people are learning the language like a robot or a computer in most traditional language classes they get a list of grammar rules and often even in the videos that you’ll see right here on YouTube with people are teaching grammar they’re doing it the traditional way to give you a list of things written on a whiteboard and they explain its this tense and then if we want to talk about the past then you change it and it basically goes on to explain things that you understand logically but because you haven’t trained yourself to use these things automatically that’s really what stops you from being able to get fluent now this isn’t your fault because this is the way that native speakers have taught non-native speakers for many many years or even people that are non-native speakers that are also trying to help other non-native speakers learn the language I’ve been teaching it it’s just a traditional typical way and this is what we were fighting against with English anyone and trying to help people see that you should be learning things visually and then understanding things and practicing them much more so that you can actually use them confidently and correctly automatically when you speak so the number one mistake people make is not with a particular grammar point it’s more about the learning of grammar in general you may have been learning this way ever since you began learning the English language or any other language you’re studying but it’s now your opportunity to change the way you learn so you can start training yourself to speak because what you really need to do if you want to use correct grammar automatically is to practice using grammar and to learn it the right way the first thing you need to do to become a master of grammar so that you can use it automatically is to learn it visually you don’t want to learn things where you’re just reading it in a textbook and getting a translation of what your verb is to what a verb is in English this is another one of the really big problems that people make and this is why maybe if you do hesitate when you speak this is one of the big reasons why this happens as an example if I’m trying to learn Spanish I don’t actually see somebody running or drinking or whatever and then learn the spanish word for those things i’m just reading in a dictionary maybe I see the word like I don’t know bear for drink if that means drink I don’t remember I took like a little bit of Spanish and failed it in school anyway but this idea of just having something in a textbook where you have to drink and then you have the opposite thing the translation of that next to it and then you’re just supposed to remember what those things are now some people are able to do this but I was not and I know a lot of the people that follow me here watching these videos have trouble understanding in that way as well so what you have to do number one is learn everything in English and the way you do that is doing it visually especially with verbs and this is why we have all these little video clips in these videos and I try to demonstrate things visually as opposed to just writing things up on a blackboard it’s important to see what things look like you know to have the spelling something like that but really the most important thing is connecting the meaning of something that you’re learning with the word that you’re trying to remember so I’m not trying to translate from your language into English but by taking a word where you’re seeing somebody running and then you see I ok the word is to run for that so the first step to grammar mastery is to learn everything visually through English the second step is once you’ve mastered the grammar itself to understand and practice using it by telling it in different ways as an example I could just maybe if I’m speaking in a very simple way talked about yesterday I went to a party or tomorrow I will go to a party so I’m taking something and I’m just making different sentences in my mind by practicing something and again I’m connecting the meaning of something not with a particular verb tense but in the same way children would learn it it’s almost like you know if we look at the verb to eat so if a child is listening to a verb like that and I here as a young someone says I eat dinner and I’m watching them they are eating right now ok I understand what that means I eat but if I here I ate dinner yesterday I’m actually hearing these as two different words it’s not until we get a little bit older that we connect oh these are different tenses of the same thing so we’re actually really getting to the meaning of something just this word eight means to do something in the past tense but then maybe like it’s a little bit easier to see when you have a regular verb but something irregular like to eat when it becomes eight something it becomes a little bit more difficult to understand but again this is why you should be connecting with the meaning directly so the first time you’re connecting with the meaning directly is seeing something visually and the second time is you’re connecting with the tents by hearing that thing and understanding what the meaning of that is so if you understand the time period ok yesterday my friend did something so we’re not talking about right now we’re talking about a period in the past instead of he does something now or he will do something in the future he did something in the past now these are both of the steps that we do in master English conversation but however you like to learn keep these two things in mind and that will help you improve your English grammar and use it and really become a much more competent user of correct grammar automatically well I hope you have enjoyed this quick video really it’s a very simple process for mastering grammar once you stop doing it the traditional way so if you’re trying to learn something like you’re a Spanish speaker and trying to learn English through Spanish or Portuguese or any other language Chinese French Italian you have to remove all of those other languages and connect exactly with the English language through visual exercises so something where you actually get to see what’s happening and learning in the same way a child does and then listening to stories which explain okay we have a particular tense and we’re trying to show you exactly how something works but we’re again connecting with the meaning of that as opposed to trying to drill tenses and remember grammar point all of these things are really simple and will help you improve but you have to actually practice these things so just take a few things maybe a few sentences and then play with that so learn it as a visual thing and then try practicing okay if I did that thing yesterday how would the sentence sound so yesterday I sindh to music today I am listening or right now I am listening to music if you have enjoyed this video do click that like button become a subscriber to the YouTube channel and do share this video with other people who also struggle to use grammar correctly it’s really not difficult to become a master of grammar but you have to stop learning at the traditional way finally if you do want to improve your grammar we can help you do exactly that at English anyone calm with the free quiz that you can take by clicking on the link in this video or on the link in the description below this video it will tell you exactly what you need to focus on whether it’s grammar or your pronunciation or anything else and we can help you improve your confidence in speaking fluency as a result of that so you can get started doing that today absolutely free and I look forward to seeing you at English anyone com bye bye”}

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