Hello! Welcome to the very first video training lesson for the imitation technique. Thank you so much for signing up! I know you are going to love this training. Now, imitating something is similar to copying something. Usually, imitating is copying actions or words so this technique is all about copying something that a native speaker is saying, exactly. It teaches you to listen to the sounds and patterns of English and trains you to make those same sounds yourself. You’re training your mouth with your ears. So you’re listening to the sounds and you’re not training your mouth with your eyes by reading and guessing the pronunciation of words, you are training your mouth with your ears.
By practising with this technique, you’ll reduce your accent and pronunciation problems more quickly and become a clearer and more confident English speaker. Now, there are three steps that you’ll need to remember when you’re using the imitation technique. First, you’ll need to listen to me and read the text at the same time. So when I talk on this video you’ll see the words come up at the bottom of the screen. In the text, the important stress has been marked so you’ll be able to hear the stresses in my expression and read them as well. Then, it will be your turn! So you’re going to hear me read each sentence again but there will be a pause after each one and this is where you’ll need to copy exactly what I’ve said. Listen for my pronunciation, the stress, the pause, the intonation and then you’ll need to copy it exactly.
You can do this step as many times as you need to before you move on to step number three. Then the bigger challenge is for you to shadow me, which is to copy everything that I’m saying again but this time you won’t have any text on the screen, you’re just listening to the words that I’m saying. Now it might be a little bit tricky, especially the first time, because you’ll be listening to me and speaking at the same time! So it might take you a few times to get comfortable doing it. And remember that you might not understand everything that’s being said as I’m saying it, but that’s not the point of this training. We’re not testing your understanding of English. We’re testing and practising your pronunciation and speaking skills. So if you don’t understand it, don’t worry! But do it again and again and again until the sounds that you are making sound very similar to the ones that I’m making in the video.
And that’s it! The imitation technique is simple yet so effective. If you practise this technique regularly, soon you’ll sound more natural, more confident and more relaxed when you’re speaking English. Let’s try it! I love to travel to different countries, I love meeting new people and tasting different foods (that’s my favorite part!) To date, I think I’ve visited about twenty-two different countries but there are so many more places on my list. Almost every person that I know, who has a decent income, does some sort of travel every year, usually overseas. to a different country. In my opinion, travelling overseas and to different countries makes us more accepting of each other’s differences and teaches us respect for different cultures, traditions and beliefs.
It also helps me to tell some pretty interesting stories about my adventures. I love talking to people about places they’ve visited and things that they’ve seen in the world,. I think it’s because I can easily relate to them and it’s easy for me to share my stories and experiences with them. Plus, I love getting recommendations about places to visit. It helps me to plan where my next holiday is going to be. Okay, now for step number two.
You’re going to imitate exactly what I say – the pronunciation, the stress, the pause. And there will be a pause after each sentence that will let you do that. Ready? I love to travel to different countries I love meeting new people and tasting different foods (that’s my favorite part!) To date, I think I have visited about twenty-two different countries but there are so many more places on my list. Almost every person that I know, who has a decent income, does some sort of travel every year, usually overseas, to a different country. In my opinion, travelling overseas and to different countries makes us more accepting of each other’s differences and teaches us respect for different cultures, traditions and beliefs. It also helps me to tell some pretty interesting stories about my adventures. I love talking to people about places they’ve visited and things that they have seen in the world.
I think it’s because I can easily relate to them and that’s easy for me to share my stories and experiences with them. Plus, I love getting recommendations about places to visit. It helps me to plan where my next holiday is going to be. This is step three, where you’re going to shadow exactly what I’ve said, as I’m saying it. So you’ll be listening to me and speaking at the same time. Remember, it might take you a couple of goes to get this right but that’s OK! Ready? I love to travel to different countries. I love meeting new people and tasting different foods (that’s my favorite part). To date, I think I’ve visited about twenty-two different countries but there are so many more places on my list.
Almost every person that I know, who has a decent income, does some sort of travel every year, usually overseas to a different country. In my opinion, travelling overseas and to different countries makes us more accepting of each other’s differences and teaches us respect for different cultures, traditions and beliefs. It also helps me to tell some pretty interesting stories about my adventures! I love talking to people about places they’ve visited and things that they’ve seen in the world. I think it’s because I can easily relate to them and it’s easy for me to share my stories and experiences with them. Plus, I love getting recommendations about places to visit. It helps me to plan where my next holiday is going to be. So that’s it! Tomorrow I’m going to send you a new lesson to practise with! If you’re watching this on YouTube and you haven’t signed up on my website yet, you will need to do that to get the next lesson for tomorrow. So you need to write your email address on my website www.mmmenglish.com/signup So, then come and join us! We’ve got four more lessons to get through.
Hello. Do you have to learn grammar? I have to learn grammar sometimes. I’m a grammar teacher. And I know grammar is really, really difficult sometimes. And it just makes you want to scream, pull your hair out, freak out, and cry sometimes. “I hate grammar.” The reason why grammar is so difficult is because it’s confusing; you have to remember so many rules; and then, there are exceptions to these so many rules; and it’s just really confusing; and it’s very different from your native language or languages, depending on how many you speak.
So really, really easy, really effective method to learn any grammar ever in the world. So today’s lesson is how to learn, remember, and use any grammar that is on a test, whether you’re taking TOEFL or TOEIC or IELTS or Cambridge — anything that you have to remember grammar for, this is going to be a godsend for you. It’s going to help you so much. Great. So let’s get into it. First one, you have two points to remember. That’s it. Two. Done. The first one is the structure. You have to remember and know how the grammar is made. Okay? The second point is how or why do we use this? Why do I need to learn this stupid grammar? Am I ever going to use it in real life? Why would I say this? Why do I need present perfect? Why can’t I just use simple past? Why do I need continuous? Why do I need passive? These are the questions you have to ask two people, one, your teacher, and two, yourself.
If you are teaching English and you don’t know structure, and more importantly, how and why, you’ve got some homework to do. People — students have asked me, “Teacher, why?” “I don’t know.” Just say to them, “I don’t know.” Go look it up. Do some research. Find the answer. The best thing is to find your own answer if you have to do this. So let’s dive into this. First of all, when I say “structure”, I mean how do you make the grammar? How do you make the sentence? So if I give you the example of present continuous, this is the name of the grammar. If you just remember the name of the grammar, it’s useless.
So it comes to the test and it says, “Write a present continuous sentence.” He’s like, “Uh, I know present continuous. How do you make it?” So the way that I always remember grammar is I always like to use a subject. Now, if you want to replace the word “subject” with any other word like [random sounds] or “dog”, that’s cool. But I like to use “subject” as my beginning. Then, for present continuous, it’s going to be “to be verb”. But instead of just writing “to be verb”, it really, really helps you if you write out the different forms of the “to be” verb. So for example, “I am”, “he is”, “we are”. Okay? The second thing — sorry. The last thing in the present continuous that makes the verb continuous is you’re going to have the -ing. So the structure or the form that I like to use for the present continuous is subject + “am”, “is”, “are” + verb + ing. The present continuous also has another name, which is “present progressive”. They’re exactly the same grammar point. The usages are the same. But it’s just a different word for it.
Don’t worry. It’s cool. Don’t worry about it. So next step — we’ve got the structure. Next step, very important, how or why do I use this? Why do I need to use this grammar? Why do I need to learn this grammar? You need to learn it because it’s on your test. But as soon as the test is finished, why would I use this? How would I say this in my life? Answer — actions you are doing now. What are you doing right now? Are you watching a video? I think you are. So maybe you’re watching a video. Maybe you’re eating something. Maybe you’re brushing your teeth. I can’t see you. You can see me. What are you doing? Ah. Okay. Good. So present continuous, as an example, structure, how and why. Another really, really good thing to do is to write down as many examples as you can. It’s always good to practice the grammar written. Also, talk. Speak. Get a video recorder and talk into it — or tape recorder, digital recorder. Listen to yourself saying the new grammar sentences. It will help you remember if you play it back.
Let’s use this theory. Let’s learn some new grammar. Maybe it’s old grammar. It’s okay. Past simple, so first of all, structure. How do I make past simple? Do you know? Do you know? Okay. Past simple is going to be subject + a past tense of the verb, and usually, we’re going to have a noun or a complement to the verb. So you have subject + past tense + noun. For example, “I ate dinner.” Yay. Okay. Uh-oh. So what — hold on. So I’ve remembered the structure, but I need to know why would I use this? Why is this useful in my life? How or why? How do we use this? We use this to talk about past — I’m going to say “boring”. Some people like to say “routine”. But it’s basically for past events. And usually, we have a time marker in this. We don’t have to have a time marker as a rule, but usually, we throw in a time marker just to help us distinguish it from present perfect. So rule No.
1, structure. How do you make the grammar? No. 2, how and why do I use this? Why do I use this? This is how you’re going to connect this for your brain. Step 3, I didn’t write it down, but that’s okay. Think of, write down, talk about as many examples as you can. But very importantly, make the examples relevant to you, to your life. Don’t think about examples about someone else that you don’t know or things that you don’t care about. Try and make them for you. This will help you remember why the grammar is important. What are you doing right now? What did you do yesterday? So simple past. “I ate dinner. I went for a walk. It was really cold. It was so cold. But I did it.” Right now, I’m teaching you. I’m breathing. Are you breathing? I hope you’re breathing. I’m watching you.
You’re watching me. It’s fantastic. So the next time you’re in grammar class or you’re trying learn grammar by yourself — it doesn’t matter what language it is — always think of these two very easy steps. One, structure; two, how and why. I guarantee you that this will help you so much. I guarantee it so much that you will get your money back from somewhere if it doesn’t work. Call this 1-800 number. Give it a chance. Bye..
Hello. My name is Emma, and in today’s video, I am going to teach you some very, very useful verbs we use when we talk about university. Okay? So if you’re going to university, if you’re taking the TOEFL test or the IELTS test, these words are very, very important, because they’re very common and we use them all the time. So, to teach you these verbs, I’ve decided to tell you a true story about a friend of mine.
Hi! High five! So welcome to Series English! My name is Antonia Romaker. And today we are going to talk about the way to study the English language. Well, actually I have already two classes, devoted to this topic. And you can check them out, if you want. The first one is connected with my experience only, and the second is about general tips.
So but today we are going to talk about some specifics. However first of all I want to underline the idea once again, that the most important the crucial point in doing anything is your motivation. The reason, why you want to study the language. Find your strong, powerful reason of doing so and the process will be much easier. And it will be quicker, because you will put your heart, your soul into the process. Thus the process will be more interesting, more challenging and fascinating! So you will, well, help yourself a lot, if you find that great strong reason for yourself to study the language. There are so many reasons possible: studies, studies abroad, meeting new people, communicating with other people all around the world, well, your work. Learning a foreign language might be very helpful for your work, especially if we talk about English, if you want to work at an international company.
You can marry a foreigner, why not? You can move to another country. That might be your dream, why not? Start working on it today, right now. So your motivation, find it. It’s not that hard. Secondly, self discipline is very important. because even if you have a tutor or you study at a linguistic school, or at a university, if you do not discipline yourself, the process won’t be as quick as possible. However if you make yourself study at least five minutes a day or twenty minutes a day, one hour a day, that would be just perfect! As for me personally when I studied at the seventh grade, we had been studying English for three or four hours a day. So I am sure that you can find like half an hour a day to study the language.
Just try to push yourself a little bit here. So I am not talking about working your fingers to the bone, like you feel exhausted and you like hate the language already. Don’t do that. You don’t have to do that. But study the language every day. So motivation and self-discipline are the ones, which are the crucial points here. So you can study the language yourself, it is possible nowadays. Because as long as you have the first two – motivation and self-discipline – you will be able to study the language yourself. The only problem is speaking practice, you can’t practice the language without another person, you can’t do it just yourself. But as for other aspects you can do everything on your own, no problem. For example, the books. There are textbooks, millions of textbooks available. So you can use any series, like ‘Headway’, ‘Upstream’, ‘Opportunities’, ‘Inside Out’, ‘Cutting Edge’ and many, many, many more.
There are millions of them, literally nowadays! So that won’t be a problem, you can find one. Usually such textbooks are complex, so they help you train your knowledge at different levels. I mean in different aspects. So you can train your vocabulary, you can train your grammar, your listening and writing too. So providing you have a teacher no problem, this person might check you. But even if there’s nobody to check you you can still write letters, messages, post in diaries and so on. For example, at school me and my classmates used to write little notes to each other in a foreign language and it was really helpful! Just little stupid notes, like some guys would write: ‘I want you…’ then ‘to speak with me’, ‘to help me’, and so on, so it was a little private joke.
Anyway. There are also adapted books with adapted stories. For example, I used to read O. Henry’s stories a lot. They were adapted, a little bit simplified, but still they helped me a lot and I enjoyed reading them. There are also authentic books, you can read them a little bit later. And it will be helpful as well. There are audio books, so you can mix reading and listening at the same time. There are magazines too, a lot of things here. In addition you can also use some extra grammar books, like ‘English Grammar in Use’ series or any other. The ‘English Grammar in Use’ series is my favourite.
Speaking about books, I should once again mention Ilya Franks’ method, who suggested reading books in two languages. One is your original language, and the other one is a foreign language. So his books are kind of divided into two parts, each page has two parts. The same, well, events are described in two languages. One is your native language and the second one is a foreign language. This method is quite useful. Moreover you can also find some audio series, audio podcasts, like VOA, the Voice of America, or A.J. Hoge stories and so one, there are so many courses, audio courses nowadays, you might just try to find some of these. You can listen to them while you are driving, or you are on a bus, on a train, on a plane. Anywhere, in any kind of transport, or wherever you have a couple of minutes for yourself. And of course the video materials. There are tons of them, video courses which are as old as the humanity.
Like the ‘Follow Me’ video course, or ‘Extra English’, a very useful educational TV series, or a TV show. There are more, you can also watch real TV series, like ‘How I met your mother’, ‘The big bang theory’, ‘Scrubs’, ‘House M.D.’, ‘Once upon a time’, ‘Californication’. So you can watch them. Do not worry if you feel that at first you do not seem understand anything. It takes time. With time if you keep doing it, it will get simpler, easier. There are many YouTubers nowadays, who help you study the language too, of course, me included.
There are so many of them. You can find a lot of useful classes, a lot of useful series here. It’s like having your personal tutor, who helps you study each and every topic in grammar, vocabulary and so on. So nowadays it’s getting easier and easier! And if you haven’t decided to study the language yet, or to improve it yet, then now that’s the time to do it, because it is really a piece of cake! There are so many things, which might help you do it. So just stand up, stop being lazy, stop being a couch potato, and just do it, study the language, study the English language or the Japanese language, or the French language, any language you like. The world is your oyster, just have guts to stand up and do whatever you want! And the last item on my list for today is correspondence, or communication.
Of course, it depends. If you have an opportunity to write to a foreigner, who might check your mistakes, who might help you a little bit, or simply who might communicate with you and that’s it, this is great! Then just do it! For example, you might use some Internet services, like Interpals or Facebook to find a foreigner to communicate with. Or might also use Skype to communicate. A very good idea here would be to travel to another country to find some friends. And then when you go back home, you could keep communicating with them using Skype or any other video chat. So communicating is part and parcel of successfully studying a foreign language, mastering a foreign language. Because speaking is like one of the most important spheres of any language.
However usually speaking come a little bit later, first you just learn how to read, how to listen, absorb and understand what other people are saying. And then you lean to speak yourself. Even if speaking and communicating with other people is not your strongest suit, still you need to make yourself communicate, meet new people and use your knowledge. OK, that’s it, I guess enough for today. Once again today we have talked about some things which are more or less general.
Even though we touched upon some layers of the language, vocabulary, using books; listening, using audio and video, grammar, using some extra grammar textbooks, and so on, However, in our next video, devoted to the way you can study a foreign language, I’m going to get even into more details. And tell you about some specific methods, and specific resources you might use. But that’s it for today. I hope that you enjoyed this video class, and you found it quite useful. If you did, please, press the button, like it and share it. And I hope to see you soon! Keep studying foreign languages! Bye-bye! The problem is that many people start studying a foreign language, but then they just quit.
It’s the easiest way in any kind of a problem, challenge or trouble to just quit. But you should remember, that quitting is for losers. So right now just pick up from where you have left, and continue studying the language. Because this challenge should be accepted! I don’t know about you, guys, but studying foreign languages is like the dream for me!.
Hi there. My name is Emma, and in today’s video I am going to help you become a better speaker, especially if you are shy. Okay? So, a lot of people when they learn new languages, they’re very embarrassed and they’re too shy to speak. This video will help you with good tips and strategies on how to become more confident in your speaking. So let’s get started. Okay, so the first thing I like to tell shy people, so people who are afraid to speak, is: You need to find your strengths. You need to ask yourself: “What am I good at?” Because a lot of the times, shy people, they think: “Oh my goodness, I’m not good at speaking, I’m terrible at English, I’ll never learn this language”, and they feel really sad. But that’s not usually true.
Usually shy people are good at many different things, they just don’t realize it. So remember: English is not only speaking. Speaking is part of it, but there are other skills, too. Maybe you’re a great listener. Okay? Maybe you’re good at grammar. Maybe you’re not good at all grammar, but you’re amazing at the present perfect or the simple past. You know, maybe you’re good at reading or writing. So it’s good to recognize what you’re good at so you don’t feel so sad when you’re learning English, because you might be good at a lot of different things. So, you can always write down on a piece of paper: “I am able to”, you know, listen very well, or: “I am able to do well on my grammar test.” Okay? So think about: What are your strengths? My next tip is probably one of the most important tips.
When you’re trying to learn a language, especially when you’re shy, it’s good to make goals and to write them down. Okay? So what do I mean by goals? Well, for example, I have three goals here and I’m going to talk about each of them. Somebody’s goal might be: “I will be a better speaker.” Or they might say: “I will say two things in class today.” Or: “I will ask two people: ‘How is your day going?'” So these are all goals, but these goals are not all great goals. What do I mean by that? Well, this first goal: “I will be a better speaker”, you will not know if you’ve become a better speaker or not. This goal, it’s too big so I would not use this goal. Okay? When you make a goal it’s good to make something where you have a number in it, and you can tell very easily: Did you do it or didn’t you do it? So, for example: “I will say two things in class today”, this is a great goal because you know: “Okay, I said two things in class, I met my goal for the day.” This will really help you with speaking, especially if you’re shy.
Maybe you’re too shy even to say two things in class, so maybe you can say one thing in class or maybe for the first class you can just listen and try for the next class to say one thing. Okay? Another example of a great goal is: “I will ask two”, and again, this can be any number. “I will ask two people: ‘How is your day going today?'” So just by making goals, it can really encourage you to speak and practice your English, and you will improve this way because it is important to speak as much as you can.
This way, you know, it’s not too difficult, it’s something you can do. The other key point here is: Write down your goals. I think it’s great to have a journal or a diary where you write down your daily goal, and then at the end of the week you can check it off and see: Did I meet this goal? Hopefully you did, and that way you can actually monitor your English progress.
So now let’s look at some more tips. Okay, so my next tip is very important, too: Don’t compare yourself to extroverts. So, what is an extrovert? It’s the opposite of a shy person. So, an extrovert is somebody who everybody pays attention to because they love to talk, they’re great in social situations, they’re usually with friends or out with people. So, an extrovert is somebody who’s not really shy. So, what a lot of shy people do is they compare themselves. They see the extrovert, and they think: “Wow, I wish I was just like that person.
That person’s speaking is so good. Why can’t I speak like that?” It’s very common to compare yourself, but it’s not a good idea, because number one, it’s possible that person is making a lot of mistakes. You just don’t realize it. And it’s great that they have confidence, but you know, it’s not good to compare yourself because there are things you’re doing that are probably very good that you’re not really thinking about. Okay? So if you compare yourself, you’ll just feel sad and you won’t learn as much. It’s better to try to feel better and not compare yourself.
Another thing is: Learn key phrases. The more you practice certain sentences, the easier they are to say. So this way, you don’t have to spend all your time thinking: “Oh my god, what am I going to say? I don’t know what to say. I’m really nervous.” Instead, if you practice key sentences enough, then it becomes very easy to say them. You won’t have to think about them so hard. So an example of this is when you meet somebody and you’re trying to, you know, talk to them about their day: “What is keeping you busy these days?” or “How is your day going so far?” So you can… You can ask these types of questions, and when you say them enough you don’t have to worry about the grammar, you don’t…
You won’t have to worry about your pronunciation. You can just practice. Or, you know, for when you’re at a restaurant: “I’d like a tea please.”, “I’d like a coffee please.”, “I’d like milk please.” So just memorizing key sentences can really help you, especially if you’re shy and a shy speaker. Okay, my next tip: Visualize. So what does this mean? When you visualize you close your eyes and in your head you imagine something.
So it’s not real, it’s in your head, but visualizing is very, very… It’s a good way to practice your English. So what I recommend is actually imagine you’re in a conversation with somebody, and you can imagine: What are you going to say and what will the person say? This is a great way to practice, and there’s a lot of science behind how… How amazing visualizing something can be and how it can really help you learn. Okay? So if you have a presentation, before the presentation imagine what you’re going to say. If you’re meeting somebody for the first time, imagine what you’re going to say and what they’re going to say. This will help you be less nervous and it can really help you in terms of your language using better language in those situations.
Okay, my next tip, it’s similar to this one, a little bit different, is: Talk to yourself in front of a mirror. A lot of the times you might be too shy to talk to somebody. You might feel your heart beat very quickly and you might feel a lot of stress, so you can practice first by talking to yourself in front of a mirror. This way you can feel comfortable and you’re still learning. You know, practicing those phrases in front of a mirror means you’re actually, you know, still learning them and still using them, and they will then become easier to use. So I highly recommend this tip. All right, now let’s look at some more tips on how to learn when we are shy. Okay, so my next tip has to do with the environment you’re in. Okay? So if you are in a bar, or maybe you’re in a classroom, or maybe a meeting, and my tip is: Become comfortable in the environment you’re going to speak in. A lot of people feel very nervous before they speak, and that’s okay.
One way to help you make your, like, you know, to become less nervous is to get used to the environment where you’re going to speak in. So what do I mean by this? Well, for example, imagine you’re going to be giving a meeting… Or, sorry, not a meeting. A presentation. Try to look at the room before you give the presentation. Try to see how it all looks like. Get used to that environment. The more used to an environment you are, the less you will feel stressed when you’re speaking in it. Same with a bar, you know, maybe you could go to the same bar and get used to that environment so then you’re less nervous when you speak. Okay? So try to become comfortable with your environment. If you can’t go to the environment, you can at least maybe look at pictures online, you know, Google images for example and maybe you can do some visualization. So even though you’re not there, you can imagine yourself there.
That can also help. Okay, the next tip: Find other shy people. A lot of the times students are looking for conversation buddies. If you’re shy it’s sometimes good to have a shy conversation buddy because that way, you know, you can both understand each other better and you don’t have one person talking the whole time where you’re just listening. So if you find another shy conversation buddy you’re probably going to speak a bit more. It’s also good to have extroverted friends, you know, sometimes that takes off pressure because you don’t have to speak then. But I would recommend finding other shy people, maybe shy people in your class or shy people in a conversation circle, that way you can really benefit from the understanding you both have of each other.
This is also sort of similar: Find people with the same hobbies as yourself. A lot of the times when we speak about things we like, it’s easier for us to talk than when we speak about things we don’t know about. So if you go to a conversation circle, you know, try to find somebody who has the same hobbies as you. If you like reading, maybe you could join a book club. Or if you like movies, maybe you could join a film club. If you like skiing, you can join a ski club. Or you can find people who have similar interests. There’s a lot of great meetup groups that, you know, you can find people who are interested in the same things as you.
Okay, my next tip has to do with what your body is doing while you’re speaking. There’s a lot of science behind how a smile can really make you feel better. So when you’re speaking, it’s good to do something called the smile breathing technique. This is where you smile and you breathe. Okay? It takes a little time, maybe, to get used to that, but when you’re breathing it makes you less nervous and when you’re smiling it makes you less nervous. So be aware of your body language. If you’re like this, you’re going to feel a lot more nervous than if you’re bigger, and you’re taking deep breaths, and you’re smiling. Okay? You can also do power poses before any speaking. I have a video on this. You can find it in the links in the description, and there you will see some great poses you can do before you speak to somebody. These body movements will make you feel more confident before you go out and speak, so I recommend that video. Another thing you can do is you can choose conversation topics you’re comfortable with. So if you’re going to a bar, think about some things you would like to talk about.
Maybe you love talking about cooking or maybe, you know, again, you’re really into movies. So finding conversations you can have with people on subjects you’re comfortable with will help you feel less nervous than if you’re talking about something you have no idea about. Okay, my next tip: Make mistakes. A lot of people who are shy are also afraid to make mistakes. They worry that if they make a mistake it will be embarrassing for them. Now, it’s really hard to do this, but you have to get used to making mistakes. Making mistakes is very, very important for learning a language. So one thing you can do is you can tell yourself every day, you know, when you wake up: “Today I want to make some mistakes. It’s okay to make mistakes. There’s nothing wrong with making mistakes.” This can also help with your confidence. If you tell yourself you can make mistakes then it will probably give you more chance to speak because you won’t be so afraid of making mistakes. Another tip is the FORD technique. I have a video that you can get through the links in the description about what’s called the FORD technique.
This is a great way to make small talk or to talk to people you don’t know well. I have a whole video on how you can improve your conversation using the FORD technique, so I hope you check out that video and it will actually really help you in terms of knowing what to talk about when it’s quiet or knowing what to talk about when you don’t really know somebody that well. Okay, so again… Actually, one more tip I don’t have on the board, but my last tip I would say is: Make sure when you’re shy and you actually speak, reward yourself.
Okay? You know, if you have a goal: “Today I’m going to speak two times in class”, and you do it, do something nice for yourself. It’s very easy when you’re shy to be very hard on yourself and to constantly tell yourself, oh, you know: “I wish I was more confident, there’s something wrong with me. You know, I don’t like this about myself.” Be a little bit easier on yourself and reward yourself because it’s not easy learning a language when you’re shy. It’s good to recognize that and to also, you know… To also reward yourself so you know you’re doing good. Okay? Because you are. Following these tips and making goals are a great way in order to help you with your shyness. You know, a lot of the times it will never go away completely and that’s okay. What you really want to do is just improve so you’re able to talk more in conversations.
Okay? You’re able to meet more people. You don’t have to be perfect at conversation. What you’re trying to do is you’re trying to get better at conversation, and these tips will really help you with that. So for more tips and more resources, I invite you to subscribe to my channel. I have a lot on speaking, a lot on pronunciation, on listening, on grammar, and vocabulary, and many more topics. So I recommend you check that out. I also recommend you come visit our website at www.engvid.com. There, we actually have a quiz where you can practice all the tips you learned today and you can also check out more resources on a variety of topics by many different teachers. Thank you so much for watching. I hope you’ve enjoyed this video, and until next time, take care.
If you want to learn to speak a language authentically, Italki is a great way to meet native speakers for language exchange or one-on-one lessons. Buy one lesson and get one free, click the link in the description. Hello everyone. Welcome to the Langfocus channel and my name is Paul Today, I’m going to answer the question: “is English really a Germanic language?” If you’ve seen any of my videos on Germanic languages like my Afrikaans video, like my Dutch video, like my German video or like my North Germanic languages video, then you probably saw that English is also a Germanic language. But a lot of people write comments expressing some confusion over this. They write things like: “Paul, are you sure it’s a Germanic language?” “Are you sure it’s not a Romance language?” Well, that’s a good question. If a native English-speaker, who had never learned another language before, had a look at a page of French and then had a look at a page of German or Dutch, they would probably be able to understand more of the page of French.
Or if they had a look at a page of Spanish or a page of Italian, they would probably be able to pick out a lot of words that they recognize. But on the other hand, if they looked at a page of Dutch or of German, they probably would’nt be able to pick out as many without decyphering the words a little bit first. So, in that case, why is English a Germanic language and not a Romance language? In the field of linguistics, languages are categorized according to their genetic relationship.
“Genetic relationship” means that they have a common ancestor. And therefore, they have some common features that distinguish them from other groups of languages. This type of genetic relationship between languages can commonly be seen in the grammar and synthax of the language. But the current vocabulary of the language is not really taken into account in its categorization. Even when a language has a huge number of loan words and its vocabulary changes a lot, that does NOT change the categorization of that language. So because English developped from Proto-Germanic, it is a Germanic language, despite massive changes that have taken place in its vocabulary. The vocabulary of English has been highly influenced by Romance languages. Romance meaning latin and any language that has developped from latin, like French, Spanish, Italian, etc… So how much has it been influenced? Well, English vocabulary is 26% Germanic, and it’s 29% French. Wait, you’re telling me that there’s more French vocabulary than Germanic vocabulary, even though it’s a Germanic language? That’s odd! Oh but wait, there is also 29% latin vocabulary.
So that means together 58% of English vocabulary comes from Romance languages? Well, that’s more than I thought! Another 6% comes from Greek, another 6% (not 4%) comes other languages, and 4% comes from proper names. I can’t really think of any vocabulary that comes from proper names, aside from Randy. So what if we ignore the origins of English and its grammar and synthax, and just focus on the vocabulary for a minute, then English is largely a Romance language. How did so much Romance vocabulary enter English? Much of the French vocabulary entered English after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Normans spoke a Regional French dialect called “Old Norman” or “Norman French”. The upper classes in England spoke French for around 300 years. English was influenced by the Norman French dialect, but also by Parisian French. due to its prestige and cultural influence in, the following centuries. Huge amounts of French vocabulary entered English and it lost much of its Old English vocabulary.
But in many cases, there are pairs of equivalent Germanic and French vocabulary. But, within those pairs, there is often a slightly different meaning or usage for the Germanic word and for the French word. An interesting example are the pairs of words representing animal versus foods that come from those animals. The animals are represented by Germanic words and the foods are represented by French loan words. For example, “cow” comes from Old English “cu” but “beef” comes French “boeuf”. “Pig” comes from Old English “picga” but “pork” comes French “porc” But I don’t know what the prononciation would have been like in Norman French. “Sheap” comes from Old English “sceap” when “mutton” comes Old French “mouton” “Snail” comes from Old English “snaegl” and “escargot” comes Norman French “escargot” French also influenced English because of its huge cultural influence on Europe from the Renaissance period to the end of the 19th century.
And even now to some extent. But it’s not just French, there’s also a lot of latin vocabulary. Some Latin entered Germanic dialects in their early days, through contact with the Roman Empire. On the top of that, some christian missionaries were present in Britain in the 6th & 7th centuries and they introduced some latin religious vocab’ into English. Many latin words were also borrowed during the Renaissance period and also during the scientific revolution of the 17th & 18th centuries, when many new words were “coined”. “Coined” meaning “newly created” New words were coined from latin roots, prefixes & suffixes to represent new concepts in science, in technilogy and in industry. So English is a Germanic language which absorbed a huge number of French and Latin words? Yes, basically. But some people have a different theory. Some people think that English is actually a creole language. That’s something called “The Middle English Creole Hypothesis” There are big differences between Old English and Middle English Of course, there was the importing of lots of French vocabulary. But that alone does not make it a creole language. But there were other changes to the grammar of English, which became highly simplified.
There was a lot of simplification. Like the loss of most noun cases and gender. So that, aside from the possessive form with ” ‘s ” and the plural forms, most nouns in English don’t have any inflection. Also, adjectives used to have inflection but that disappeared too. The word “inflection” means “changes to a word to represent different grammatical categories.” For example, the word “the cat” and “the cat’s paw”. Here the ” ‘s ” is a kind of inflection to show possession. And we have “one mouse” but “two mice” So here the word is inflected to show plural.
So let’s take a simple phrase like “the good king” and look at it in Old English. In Old English, notice that all 3 words in this phrase can change. In the nominative case: “Se goda cyning”. In the accusative case: “…”. In the genitive case: “…”. In the dative case: “…”. So the definite article changes, the adjective changes and the noun changes depending on the case. But the article and the adjective also change, depending on the gender and the case endings are different, depending on the gender. Let’s look at the similar phrase “the good queen”. Notice the different feminine forms of the definite article and the adjective. This is just an example of the grammatical complexity of Old English, so you can imagine how much it became simplified. By the Middle English Period, most of these forms had disappeared or merged together. So now, we just have a genitive case and the others formed a common case. This is the type of simplification that happens when creoles arise. So it’s very possible that Old English underwent a process of creolisation, inserting lots of French vocabulary into an Old English substrate or underlined structure.
But there might have a different reason for that simplification of English. Some people don’t believe in the creole hypothesis. And they point to things like some of the irregular forms that still exist in English, like the irregular verbs or the irregular plural forms. In a typical creole language, those forms would have been regularized. But, of course, creolization is not an “all or nothing” process, it’s possible that English was PARTIALLY creolized. Well, let’s look at a couple of sentences in English and let’s look at the influences we can find. And let’s see if there is more Germanic or more Romance influence. This one is a newspaper headline. [ The sentence is read ] “push” : this word comes from Old French “poulser” or Modern French “pousser” “immigration” : this word comes Latin “immigratum” “plan” : this word comes from the French word “plan” which means “map” or “ground plan” “meet” : this word comes from Old English “metan” “with” : this comes from Old English “…” “family” : this comes from the Latin “familia”, according to the source I used. But there is also the French “famille”, which, I suppose, could be the source.
“of” : this word comes from the Old English “aef” or “of”. “woman” : this comes from Old English “wimman” or “wiman”. “kill” : this might come from the Old English “cwellan” = “to quell”. “in” : this word comes from Latin So, out of those 10 words, 5 are Germanic and 5 are Romance words. But let’s look at a more casual sentence. Because I have a feeling that newspaper vocabulary tends towards Romance vocabulary more than common speech. [The sentence is read] “I” : this is Germanic, comes from Old English “ic” “had” : this is also Germanic, it comes from Old English “habban” “Lunch”. The origin of this one is vague, but it seems to be from a Modern English dialect word.
“with” : this is from Old English “…” “my” : this is Germanic, it comes from Middle English “mi” or “min” “friend” : this comes from Old English “freond” “and” : this comes from Old English “and” or “ond” “we” : this comes from Old English “we” “read” : this comes from Old English “raedan” or “redan” “some” : this comes from Old English “sum” “book” : this comes from Old English “boc” So this time, all of the words or almost all of the words are Germanic. So it’s interesting that the majority of English vocabulary comes from French or from Latin but, in the most commonly used words in casual speech, they tends to be more Germanic vocabulary. This is a good argument in favo(u)r of English being classified as a Germanic language So do I think that English should be classified as a Germanic language? Well, by a linguist’s criteria, yes. But most people don’t really care about a linguist’s criteria. They just care about the practical application, the practical use of the language.
And, in practice, I think that the vocabulary is a very important element of the language. So I think it’s fair to say that, in practice, English is a hybrid language, it’s partly Germanic, partly Romance. But that’s my personal conclusion. I’d like to know what you think. Do you think that English should be considered a Germanic language? Or do you think it seems more like a Romance language? Leave your answer in the comments down below. Be sure to follow Langfocus on Twitter, on Facebook or on Instagram.
Those are kind of places to keep in touch with me between videos. And I also post some little bits of bonus content on those social media channels. And I’d like to say thank you to all of my Patreon supporters, especially these people whose names are on the screen, for their especially generous monthly pledges. Thank you for watching and have a nice day..
So you’re thinking that you recognise grammar? Well, which sort of descriptive linguistics does one know?
Linguists are all too quick to point out that there are totally different forms of grammar-that is, other ways of describing and analysing the structures and functions of language.
One basic distinction is that between descriptive linguistics and prescriptive linguistics (also known as usage). Each are involved with rules–but in alternative ways.
Specialists in descriptive linguistics examine the principles or patterns that underline our use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In distinction, prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers), attempt to enforce rules regarding what they believe to be the right uses of language.
But that is simply the start. Take into account these forms of descriptive linguistics and make your own choice.
COMPARATIVE synchronic linguistics:
The analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of connected languages.
To date, comparative synchronic linguistics argues that: “A school of language has informative basis for a way somebody will acquire a primary language.”
“The idea of synchronic linguistics may be a theory of human language and therefore establishes the link among all languages” (R. Freidin, Principles and Parameters in Comparative languages.
MIT Press, 1991).
GENERATIVE synchronic linguistics:
The rules decisive to the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers settle for as happiness according to the language. “Simply placed, a generative synchronic linguistics could be a theory of competence: A model of the psychological system of unconscious information that underlies a speaker’s ability to provide and interpret utterances in a language” (F. Parker and K. Riley, Linguistics for Non-Linguists. Allyn and Bacon, 1994).
UNIVERSAL descriptive linguistics:
The system of classes, operations, and principles shared by all human languages and thought of to be innate. “Linguistic principles of Universal Grammar represent a theory of the organisation of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner–that is, a theory of the human faculty for language.”
(S. Crain and R.Thornton, Investigations in Universal descriptive linguistics. MIT Press, 2000).
If three kinds of descriptive linguistics are not enough for you, rest assured that new grammar is rising all the time. As an example, there is word descriptive linguistics as well as relative descriptive linguistics. Not mentioning case descriptive linguistics, psychological feature descriptive linguistics, construction descriptive linguistics, lexical practical descriptive linguistics, lexical grammar, head-driven syntax descriptive linguistics. The list is endless.
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PAD patientscan present with a range of symptoms including atypi-cal leg pain, intermittent claudication, or critical limbischemia. (2010) Transient global amnesia: func-tional anatomy and clinical implications. Palpate for edema, heat, tenderness, pain, nodules, or crepitus. An experimental study of steel versus titanium DCP in rabbits
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Further evidence for critical interactionsamong these various phenotypes of aging is suggested inthe landmark study by Sahin et al. International classi?cation of functioning, disability, and health.
By the mid-1940s, it was apparent that the death rate amongthe infected individuals was twice as high as among controls. Enzymatic responses of the ascorbate-glutathionecycle to drought in sorghum and sunflower plants. Terminal hair (particularly scalp and eye-brows) is longer, generally darker, and coarser than vellus hair.Puberty initiates the growth of additional terminal hair inboth sexes on the axillae, perineum, and legs
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